Archive logs by year


S.V. Polovcev, V.I. Gribel, S.A. Kernozhickaja, YU.G. Osipov, L.N. Ilina Lithium hypochlorite - a new effective disinfectant, deodorant, bleach

A new certified disinfectant and bleach with a strong deodorizing effect gipohlrita lithium based on the media (sodium chloride). Trademark - "Lidos-20" and "Lidos-25" (20 and 25 - respectively active chlorine content).The use of new technologies, in particular, non-diaphragm electrolysis of sodium chloride concentration and extraction hypochlorite (Development Bureau "Rubin", JSC "Ingerlab" SUE "Water of St. Petersburg") will reduce the cost of "Lidos" 8-10 $ / kg and make it cheapest equivalent of the known disinfectants, bleaching and deodorizing agents.Combination in one product form consistently disinfectant-deodorant-converter and allows the use of flocculant agent based lithium hypochlorite for emergency disinfection of drinking water in emergency situations and to include him in the detergents

F. B. SHkundina, L. N. MartynenkovaPhytoplankton as an indicator of the quality of drinking water in various stages of water treatment

In the study of the quality of drinking water supply systems Ufa found that in the water treatment process is a reduction in species diversity and intensity of phytoplankton. In ponds and after filters main factors forming phytoplankton are mechanical cleaning methods. In a tank of clean water greatest abundance and biomass reach Cyanophyta (Cyanobacteria). Indicator species increased content of nitrogen compounds in the water supply were Microcystis aeruginosa, Merismopedia punctata, Nostoc punctiforme, a source of additional nitrogen - polyacrylamide flocculant

S.V. Baranov Electrolysis of the new generation, used to disinfect water for plants of various capacities

Considered design features electrolysis plants, currently in use in water purification technology for electrochemical decontamination water and sewage in the Russian Federation and abroad. The variety of designs allows optimal choice depending on the objectives, scope of disinfection, the treated water quality, etc. The data presented annual costs for water treatment plants with different methods and techniques of disinfection and the use of equipment from different manufacturers. The calculations of the corresponding payback periods, carried out by SHA SUE "Vodokanal".

Ye. SabevaEffect of non-uniform electric field on the anodic dissolution of aluminum

Investigated the anodic dissolution of aluminum in non-uniform electric field by the design of experiments in D-optimal plan. The dependence of the objective function - the mass of dissolved aluminum anode current density, the distance between the electrodes, the duration and concentration of the electrolysis of sodium chloride. For the objective function to build an experimental-statistical model that adequately consistent with Fisher at the value a = 0.05. The influence of the geometric structure of the electric field on the anodic dissolution of aluminum. The optimum parameters of electrolysis, which corresponds to the lowest energy consumption per unit mass of the dissolved metal.
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10. Yeh H.-H., Chuang T.-M., The Analysis of Residual Aluminum and its Application in Drinking-Water Treatment, Aqua, 43,2, 76-83, 1994
11. Dineff P., Sabeva E., Dobrewsky I., An Approach to the Investigation and Assessment of the Effect of the Geometric Structure of the Electrical Field upon Dissolving Aluminium Electrodes, Corr.Sci., 36, 4, 717-732, 1994
12. Dobrevski I., Sabeva E., Anodic dissolution of aluminum in non-uniform electric fields, Ciencia&Tecnologia dos Materiais, vol 13, 1, 9-13, 2001
13. Dobrewsky I., Sabeva E., Petkova N., Corrosion Behavior of Aluminum in Non-Uniform Electric Fields, J.of Chin.Chem.Soc., 48, 861-864, 2001
14. Sabeva E., Dobrewsky I., Dineff P., The effect of the type of electric current on the cathodic corrosion of aluminium, J. of Appl. Electrochem., 20, 986-988, 1990
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18. Dobrewsky I., Sabeva E., Petkova N.,Experimental and simulation study of the effect of chloride ion on the electrochemical behavior and corrosion of aluminum, Ciencia&Tecnologia dos Materiais, vol 12, 1, 35-40, 2000

Karl F. MassholderUV-oxidation treatment of groundwater containing light hydrocarbon fractions in the port area of ​​Karlsruhe (Germany). (Experimental data)

Through the process of purification of groundwater contaminated by light hydrocarbon fractions, by UV-oxidation. For the example of the port area Karlsruhe install UV-oxidation of the company "UV Systems AG" shows the technical, environmental and economic advantages of the method compared with traditional methods of cleaning.

M.N. Klimentov, I.N. Fedorenko, A.S. Yekdyshman, A.S. Vopilova, V.V. Teslenko, M.I. GanelesSome technological and geo-ecological features radial construction of drainage systems in the engineering protection of architectural and historical ensemble and neighborhoods of the city of Saratov

The results of pilot projects, geo-environmental impact assessment process and provides recommendations for the construction of high-performance radial drainage from wells, pumping stations, automated devices and gravity as an example of engineering protection of valuable national economic facilities in the city of Saratov.

E.M. Galperin Reliability of the water supply and sanitation

Based on the proposed unified model of the functioning of water supply and sewerage system offers a unified approach to determining the reliability of water and sanitation sector, different to the occurrence of these different processes. Work model is demonstrated by the example of the reliability of the water supply network ring. The example shows that the lack of a systematic approach in shaping existing in the current SNIP nadezhnostnyh requirements to design the ring of water networks results in a very unsafe objects.

E.V. Kuzenkov Problems of reliability and fail-safety of water supply and sewerage of Russian cities

The connection between emergency water, sewer, and the material of pipe currently used in their construction. It is shown that the lowest accident rate system provides a pipeline of high-strength ductile iron. The characteristics of ductile iron production Lipetsk Metallurgical Plant "Free Falcon", whose use in piping systems for durability, reliability and environmental safety of the water supply and sanitation.

S.V. Polovcev, T.O. Nikitina, S.A. Kernozhickaja, L.N. Ilina, O.E. YUrkova, L.A. Alekseev, V. S. Anisimov Waste water treatment for Foam superabsorbent

Developed and tested in real-world use new superabsorbent Foam (PSAD), based on local ingredients, with no close analogs on the efficiency of collecting oil, flammable and toxic liquids. In laboratory and field conditions found unusually high capacity and selectivity of the polymer foam to the oil products and low-polar liquids. Petroleum absorbed quantitatively undergoes bacterial degradation with Foam. When using the cost of collecting the Strait PSAD 1 ton of diesel fuel will be 400 rubles., Oil - 500 rubles., Fuel oil - 700 rubles. Porosity and unique affinity for low-polar liquids, indicating absorption of the latter, were used to collect the spilled oil on land and on water. This research made it possible to recommend PSAD for cleaning storm water filtration and waste water industries of petroleum products and heavy metals to the general experimental verification.

N.P. Esenkova, S.G. Bachernikova, A.I. Mihalkova, N.V. Puzanova Nonwoven sorbents for the collection and removal of oil from the water surface

The structure of the nonwoven sorbent with complex special properties for the collection of oil spills from any surface, including - from the water. Sorbent has a high performance: selective sorption, unlimited buoyancy, resistance to mechanical stress, the optimal ratio of the sorption capacity and storage capacity. Are bonded sorbent performance assessment methodology and its sorption and storage capacity. Offer flexible mobile technology spill petroleum products using a patented nonwoven sorbent: mats, pads, booms.

D.V. Serebrjakov, V.G. Ponomarev, B.G. MishukovAnalysis of technological solutions used for local treatment of runoff

Provides estimates of the parameters of the facilities for treatment of surface runoff by "Sevzapnaladka" established in the territory of one of the bus parks in St. Petersburg. Overestimation of capacities installed nameplate setting to the actual and the inability to achieve the cleaning effect of the passport. Marked structural defects structures.

N.G. Gladyshev, S.V. Makarov, M.A. Epifancev, L.M. Safronov, I.S. Ageev, S.V. RtishevEnvironmental management and sustainable use of water resources

This article discusses the practical results that can be achieved through the mechanism of environmental management in relation to one of the stages of the production process in the food industry, where the commonly used technology for many years produced a prewash BOTTLE machines (BMM) in Russia.


S.V. Getmancev, I.N. Mjasnikov, V.A. Potanina, A.V. SychyovThe use of aluminum-containing coagulants in the North-West Federal District. Post 2. Application technology polyoxychloride aluminum water treatment

The results of the study on various types of coagulants. Shows the benefits of medium and highly basic aluminum polyoxychloride to other coagulants. Polyaluminium application provides stable quality effluent that meets the requirements applicable SanPiN at any time of year. When using this reagent is reduced, and in some cases eliminate the need for chlorine in the operation of the primary operating stations.

S.YU. Eroshev, D.YU. Pichuev, V.V. Gutenev, M.I. Faleev, V.Ja. Mikirtychev, V.V. Vahmjanin Complex purification and desalination of water in the field and emergency

Submitted station complex purification and desalination SKO-1, 5/08-1K satisfying all the requirements of the job in the areas of emergency, especially in the aftermath of accidents, terrorist activities, in the areas of epidemics, earthquakes, floods. Plant purifies water from mechanical particles, suspensions, colloids, organic matter, iron, heavy metals, detoxifies by pathogenic bacteria and viruses, including the spore forms of pathogenic bacteria (including anthrax and foot and mouth disease); dizaktiviruet of radioactive substances and desalted. The station was commissioned by Ministry of Emergency Situations of Russia, head singer - "Directorate CBM" TsNIIMASH "(Korolev, Moscow region), designed and manufactured JSC" Polymerfilter "(Krasnodar). Has the certificate of conformity and hygiene certificate Sanitary Inspection Ministry of Health of Russia. Entire treated Water - drinking corresponds SanPiN 2.14.559-96 and GOST 2874-82. fundamentally new technical solutions used in the plant are patented. foreign analogue station does not have, at 29 International Salon of inventions and new "Geneva 2001" granted a diploma and a silver medal.

S.P. SedluhaCalculation and analysis of operating conditions downhole water intake

The article deals with analysis and design of well intakes. It is noted that using many design institutes methods often do not provide a reliable and efficient operation of water intakes. Provides features for interactive program that allows to analyze modes of abstraction and to assess the decisions made. It is concluded that the issuance of submersible pumps with cool features (higher speed coefficient), ensuring their stable performance. The example of the calculation.

A. I. SHetinin Features reconstruction of urban sewage treatment facilities in the current period

The analysis of requirements for urban waste water of the EU countries, Russia, and Ukraine. For the prediction of the quality of waste water treatment and the choice of technology in the firm "Ecopolymer" develop appropriate computer programs and has experience using them to process payments. A sequence of actions when developing plans for reconstruction and repair of sewage treatment facilities.

A.N. Nikolaev, N.YU. Bolshakov, N.A. Fetyulina Study the effect of age on the effectiveness of the activated sludge biological defosfotatsii system aerotank-secondary clarifier

The results of experimental and theoretical studies of the effect of age on the activated sludge process of biological defosfotatsii system aeration tank, secondary clarifier. Justified the extreme dependence of the rate of biological defosfotatsii age sludge. It is shown that the optimal age range for the activated sludge biological technology defosfotatsii of 6e11 days. What is in the best conditions for nitrogen removal technology nitridenitrifikatsii. The dependencies that allow you to perform calculations aeration tanks, which use technology BDF.

A.P. Zinovev, V.N. Filippov, V.N. Aranceva Depurator industrial communities, recreation centers and facilities for agricultural purposes 39

Report Jubilee Conference St. Petersburg GASU Developed a contact system for the local treatment of domestic sewage and a possibility of its application in small settlements and agricultural land. We consider the mode of anaerobic digestion. Carrier selection is made for the immobilization of aerobic microorganisms, oxidation kinetics of fecal contamination by aerobic microorganisms immobilized on this material.

A.P. Zinovev, V.N. FilippovComprehensive treatment of wastewater containing oil, surfactants and phenols

Developed and presented a comprehensive treatment process flow diagram of local waste water containing oil, surfactant, and phenolic compounds, developed application software, makes predictions and timely regulation of the proposed installation.

A.P. Aleksandrin, A.A. Egorshev, O.V. Kacereva, E.A. Komjagin, V.N. Mynin, G.V. TerpugovThe use of inorganic membranes for treatment of technological solutions and wastewater engineering companies

The developed in RCTU. DI Mendeleev together with a number of processes and the typical processing scheme of cutting fluids (coolant) and process of cleaning solutions (MP) for the local treatment systems and coolant and MP regeneration, which combine conventional and membrane treatment technology liquids. It is shown that the inorganic membrane with carbon and ceramic-based coolant can be reused and MR in process or in combination with traditional methods to provide MR and coolant expansion and their subsequent discharge into the sewer. High permeability, the ability to conduct cleaning and regeneration of MP at their service 60-80 ° C, and a high resistance to abrasive particles suspended and can greatly simplify the treatment, recovery or expansion treated coolant and MR, in particular, to refuse to reduce the heat-exchange fluid temperature 80 ° with a 60-to 35-40oC. Recommendations on the regeneration of ceramic membranes.

D.V. PchelincevCleaning the ship oily water

The design of a gravity-coalescing units "Ecomarine" to clear the ship's oily water, developed by Institute of Applied Environmental problems MANEB (St. Petersburg), Sevastopol National Technical University (Ukraine). Technological scheme of purification provides gradual removal of the stabilizing factors and separation of all components of the ship's oily-water emulsions. Neftesoderzhanie treated water can range from a few g / l to 100% mineral oil. The "Ecomarine" certified by the Russian Maritime Register of Shipping, Russian River Register, Gosstandart for use at sites of sea and river fleet and shore facilities. Operating practices to the real operating facilities showed high reliability and efficiency provided by plants. This is currently the only national marine conservation equipment recommended by Lloyd's Register (Lloyd's Register), the United Kingdom, the use of the EU to facilities.

YU.M. MeshengisserCalculation of the interface gas - liquid with water aeration

Withdrawn according to the calculations of the specific gas-liquid interfacial surface of the real system in the aeration zone to the gas-liquid jet.

V.N. SHtoporov, A.N. Pahomov, D.A. Danilovich, M.N. Kozlov, A.R. AgevninResearch and industrial implementation of the method of melting snow to be removed from city streets, using heat from waste water

The results of the research capabilities of large-scale use of the city sewer Moscow to melting snow and collection and treatment of meltwater conducted CBM "Waterworks". Defined through the experiment design principles were the basis of initial data for designing snegosplavnogo points feature is the use of cameras snegoplavilnyh providing complete melting snow using heat treatment of waste water and melt water from the settling of pollution. For projects SUE "MOSVODOKANALNIIPROJECT" accomplished the construction of 10 new design snegosplavnyh points and based on the experience of their operation the General Scheme snegoudaleniya in Moscow, where the reception of snow into the sewage system has been recognized as the most cost-effective solution. Monitoring conducted during the season of 2001/2002. Showed no pronounced negative effect on the job receive snow sewage treatment facilities.


A.I. Azhgirevich, V.V. Gutenev, A.V. Pavlov, E.N. Guteneva Combined bactericidal effect of silver ions and copper with UV rays, including high temperature

The results of the study of the combined effects of UV germicidal irradiation and ions of silver (or copper) to the water disinfection process, including and at high temperatures and the pasteurization process. Simultaneous exposure to UV rays and ions of silver (or copper) to the E. coli bacteria in the water can significantly increase the depth of the final disinfection, reducing the dose of UV radiation results in energy savings and is promising for service water supply systems. It was also found that the combined effect of UV-irradiation and silver ions (or copper) achieves at a temperature of 60 ° at the same level of disinfection, as the high temperature pasteurization. An additional advantage of joint use of UV radiation and ionization is to increase the resistance of the secondary bactericidal water pollution.

Vruce E.Rittmann, Douglas Stilwell Modeling of biological processes in drinking water treatment: the integrated model biofiltration

Biofiltration refers to biofilm processes, giving biological stability of drinking water, resulting in the distribution of water in it is supported by an overgrowth of bacteria. Biofiltration eliminates many water quality problems associated with the biological instability: high doses of chlorine disinfection by-products, accelerated corrosion, taste and odor, turbidity, coliform and heterotrophic growth. Most designs of biofilters are empirical. However, using a mechanical model as a tool in the design, it is possible to increase the reliability and effectiveness of the pilot and laboratory biofilters. Unfortunately, the models that include all the necessary conditions are complex, and they are good for research purposes, but are not suitable for routine design and analysis. Integrated model of biofilm (MPI) is a computer program biofiltration drinking water. It takes into account all of the key phenomena, but easy to use. In particular, the model takes into account the consumption and the formation of chemical substances (incoming substrates, end products, soluble microbial products), heterotrophic and nitrifying bacteria, inert biomass, physical processes, such as transport and separation, as well as the relationships between different organisms and chemicals. The example shows entering information into the model and identify its character changes in the source substrate, soluble microbial products and Biofilm biomass IMB produces direct iterative calculation and analysis of biofiltration.

M. G. Novikov, V.D. SHatohin On application as granular aluminum sulfate coagulant

The results of tests of coagulant aluminum sulfate, produced by JSC "South-Ural kriolinovy ​​plant" in granular form (GSA), water treatment p. Neva. Tests have shown that granular aluminum sulfate is highly competitive technological performance liquid (VSA). Moreover, it was found that the most effective use of GAW in the water treatment process p. Neva achieved by fractional coagulation, through which over VSA water color can be further reduced by 25%, and oxidation, respectively, by 10% (equal doses administered agents).

V.G. Ivanov, N.A. CHernikovProvisions to improve the regulatory and methodological framework for wastewater

The analysis of the shortcomings of the existing system design drainage facilities, leading to waste of financial resources and lack of reliability of water facilities construction. Issues of improving the regulatory basis of wastewater

I.G. Bondarenko, E.A. BurmistrovaLand reclamation after oil spill

A brief analysis of the way oil spill from the affected areas. As part of the regional program "Emergency supply 2001-2003 ', coordinated by the North-Western Regional Centre Emergencies Ministry, proposed a new cost-effective technology for treatment wetlands and forested areas with no need of collecting netonuschego sorbent based on the polymer, which includes urea and its variants containing bioculture. In the absorption of petroleum sorbent oil film breaks down, the bacterial culture on the sorbent starts the process of biological degradation of oil, to the extent that the spent sorbent is a substrate on which grow a variety of plants, including and water. Petroleum sorbent is held securely so that during the seasonal decline in temperature is observed its losses.

S.Ja. Kamencev, V.I. Zinchenko, A.K. SHishov Possibilities of the method of capillary electrophoresis for monitoring water quality

Summarize the relatively new instrumental methods of analysis - capillary electrophoresis. A scheme of the apparatus for implementing the method, examples of application of the method to control the ionic composition of the water.


A.N. Kulikov, S.V. Orlov, S.I. Pimankov, P.V. HolkinExperience of implementing technology of drinking water disinfection with chlorine dioxide in the system of centralized drinking water supply of Nizhny Tagil

The first results of pilot operation of drinking water disinfection with chlorine dioxide at the water treatment plant Upper Vyyskogo hydroelectric complex in Nizhny Tagil. In the disinfection of raw water developed an optimal scheme of joint water treatment with chlorine and chlorine dioxide. The use of chlorine dioxide is allowed to provide reliable disinfection of water supplied to the population, to improve the health of the distribution network, reduce the content of THMs in water up to the standard level, to improve the organoleptic properties of water. Improving the quality of tap water in the test period mentioned by consumers. At the station, significantly reduced consumption of liquid chlorine, determined possible total elimination of its use and the transition to the use of chlorine dioxide and sodium hypochlorite. It is shown that hlordioksidnaya technology is fully compatible with conventional chlorination of water, allowing it to implement most of the existing water pumping stations.

I.A. Denisova, V.V. Gutenev, L.F. Kirjanova, E.N. GutenevaModernization of container for water treatment plants, based on the combined use of ozone and ions - catalysts, as well as their impact on the environment

The proposed scheme of improvements typical preparation units of natural water for drinking purposes through the use of ozone using homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysts. The analysis of adverse events entering the environment of these substances on the basis of the mobility of certain trace elements in common chernozem.

G.G. Krickii, A.A. Ashirov Effective solutions for water

Possibilities system "Zulu" and program-settlement complex "ARMTEST - Zulu" for the analysis and management of water networks.

Mooyoung Y. HanSimulation of the pressure flotation: influence of the properties of particles and bubbles

The properties of bubbles and particles in the process of pressure flotation (NP) affect the efficiency of collisions between them and, thus, the efficiency of removal of suspended matter. Factor in the effectiveness of collisions of bubbles and particles abp calculated using trajectory analysis by analogy with the calculation of this factor in the differential sedimentation (abp). The effect of important parameters in the system of bubble-particle-solution. Found that the system NF most important parameters are the surface characteristics (zeta potential) as the bubbles and particles. Next in importance is the size of the bubbles and particles. The particle density has a positive or negative impact on abp depending on the size of the particles and bubbles. The ionic strength of the solution has little effect. The theoretical data allow us to explain some of the existing methods of design and development processes, modes NF.

A.I. FirsovFormation and surface runoff industry

Performed in accordance with the established methodology, the study of surface waste water industries showed the priority of the technical condition of the formation of the occupied territory, the type of feedstock, landscape and climatic characteristics and dispersion of gas and dust emissions. The scheme cleaning melt and storm water containing significant amounts of organic matter and solids.

M.G. Tarnopolskaja, I.B. Kovaleva Universal loading water purification filters MIU-C from specific natural coal

At present, the number of filter media made of natural materials carbon sorbent MIU-C is one of the most effective. Structural features of the inner pores and chemical structure filtration through this download to solve a wide range of problems of water purification. Sorbent MIU-C is used for cleaning: - Iron-and oil-contaminated water in the drinking water supply; - Oily stormwater, snowmelt and industrial water before re-use or controlled dumping. Operation filters MIM-C in drinking water systems revealed the stability of their work in the absence of continuity of operation, saving the properties of the sorbent after a stay in a zero or negative temperatures, lack of education biomass loading. Through the use of MIM-C lower capital and operating costs and energy use water treatment processes. Disposal of MIM-C is burning without damaging the environment.

E.I. Mishura, A.V. Utin Analysis of existing schemes aeration example PAS SUE "Vodokanal"

The results of the comparison and evaluation of aeration systems of different companies that are comparable in grade and working as part of some treatment plants at the same time and under the same terms: "Kala", "KREAL", "Etyek", the Finnish system of aeration plate type. Found that the combined evaluation criteria (quality of wastewater treatment, durability and reliability, cost, manufacturability) optimum aeration system is a comb system with aerators by "Kala".

E.G. RizoAssess the feasibility of using magnetic and electromagnetic fields for the treatment of water and sewage

Due to the large number of publications on the effect of magnetic and electromagnetic fields on the physico-chemical properties of water and water systems and linking them to the technology of natural and waste waters, in the first part of the article analyzes some of the performed theoretical and experimental work on the use of these effects in water treatment of emulsified mineral oil and petroleum products. Quantified in each case acting on finely divided droplets of pollution strength and conclusions about possible practical applications of the considered effects. In support of theoretical calculations of the results of experimental studies conducted by the author

L. I. Kantor, E. V. SHemagonova, E. A. Kantor Some sources of benzo (a) pyrene, influencing its contents in a water body (for example, p. Ufa)

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a high priority environmental pollutants and are found everywhere in the air, soil, water supply sources as a result of global emissions. Indicator of the presence of PAHs in the environment is their most carcinogenic and mutagenic representative - benzo (a) pyrene. Intake of benzo (a) pyrene in the environment is mainly due to incomplete combustion of fuels from stationary and mobile sources. The results identify sources that define the content of benzo (a) pyrene, in alignments of three intakes p. Ufa, two of which are located to the industrial area of ​​the city on the river, and one - downstream of the industrial enterprises node. The analysis shows that all cross-sections p. Ufa have mediated ("atmospheric") and direct contamination, as an important source of influence on the content of benzo (a) pyrene in water, are CHP plants using fuel oil, and river transport.

L.N Gubanov, V.A. Filin, A.V. Kotov Technological scheme of neutralization sludge cards amino acid compositions

Considered sludge processing circuit cards, depending on the nature of sludge dewatering and the conditions of its storage. Currently, most urban aeration plants most preferred sludge treatment by chemical feeding directly into the sediment volume, located on the mud map. Under this scheme can consistently carry out the process of decontamination and detoxification with subsequent release from the sediment sludge cards to be sent directly to the place of use (reclamation of disturbed land, fertilizer / agricultural land, etc.). In this regard, for the widespread introduction of sludge disposal technologies necessary to develop projects neutralization plants, construction documentation for non-standard equipment, installation of pilot samples and clarification on all of them received the experimental parameters.

L.N. Gubanov, V.A. Filin, A.V. KotovParametric series systems for disinfection of municipal wastewater precipitation

From the large amount of experimental and development work for the disposal of urban waste water sediments NNGASU a methodology unification of systems and structures, based on a series of parametric performance of treatment facilities. Production, the introduction of the systems in accordance with optimally selected parametric series will greatly reduce the production, implementation, and make them cost-effectively.