Archive logs by year
V.M. BahirDisinfection of drinking water: problems and solutions
The analysis of known primary and alternative methods and technologies of water disinfection. The method of water disinfection solution of oxidants produced in AQUACHLOR devices, combines the best qualities of disinfectants and ensures that no by-products of chlorination and ozonation. Method are patented. AQUACHLOR are certified in the Russian Federation, and the solution of oxidants - Sanitary-Epidemiological Conclusion Gossanepidnadzor Russia. Disinfection method presented in accordance with the requirements of SanPiN 22.214.171.1244-01.
A.N. Bratcev, V.A. Kolikov, V.E. Popov, S.V. SHtengelWater treatment by electric discharge
The results of research on the effectiveness of water disinfection by pulsed electrical discharges in model biological solution using the experimental setup electric-water treatment of the Institute of Electrophysics, RAS.
B.F. LjamaevOn the water, and bottled water doochischennoy
The advantages and disadvantages of existing systems for purification of tap water to produce physiologically full of drinking water. A brief description of the types and properties of natural mineral waters used for industrial bottling, and their impact on human health.
D.A. Danilovich, M.N. Kozlov, A.R. Agevnin, V.G. BabenchukRemoval of sand from the sediment in the primary clarifiers pilot aerated grit chambers
The results of experimental studies aerated grit chamber (EAP) with a special configuration of the cross-section of the body. The basic parameters that determine the efficiency of separation of sand from the sediment in the primary clarifiers EAP. Recommended optimum conditions for specific industrial applications. The results of the research made constructive proposals for revision of sand removal from the sediment of the primary clarifiers. A basic flow diagram of the primary sludge treatment ponds, the implementation of which the CSA will only remove sediment from the primary clarifiers ~ 10 tons of sand per day, or about 2,500 m3 per year, and to simplify operation of the primary clarifiers and lower humidity sludge fed into the digester.
V.G. Ponomarev, V.F Boev, I.S. CHuchalin, V.N. Porhachev, R.G. HananovNew facilities for physical-chemical treatment of oily wastewater
The analysis of existing structures and thin tanks impeller dispersants used to clean oily wastewater in refineries (refinery). The design of thin-layer sump skimmer and impeller designed in SRI VODGEO together with "STROYENGINEERING SM." Based on analysis of the effectiveness of oily waste water impeller flotation flowsheet is recommended for high degree of separation of oil products.
V.M. Ignatev, V.V. Gutenev, M.B. HasanovMinimizing costs for water cascade
We consider the problems of water supply schemes cascade control theory methods of inventory control. Optimization problems are solved by the independent and dependent basin management. Constructed criteria for cases of water supply from the top of the cascade in the absence of water storage in the lower basin of the regulation.
Okke BradbaartA comparison of public and private water services: does ownership of the company's efficiency?
Property rights theory argues that the work of private companies cost-effective public enterprises. A similar effect of ownership - the main argument in favor of privatization, due to the fact that private firms, as opposed to state-owned enterprises and came face to competitive capital markets and property. In this paper we analyze a large number of real-world examples of the effects of ownership in the water companies and found that he neither independent nor comprehensive. Privatized water utilities are economically more efficient than the public. Sometimes privatization of utilities brings economic benefits, but this is not always possible. Methodological limitations of published studies makes it difficult to establish the reasons for this fact. About the behavior of producers preliminary conclusion drawn from the published data, that a change of ownership from the public to private benefits only if it is accompanied by significant reforms of the external conditions of the utility companies.
References: 1.Alcazar, Lorena, Abdala, Manuel A. & Shirley, Mary M. 2000 The Buenos Aires Water Concession. World Bank, Washington.
2.Bhattacharyya, Arunava, Parker, Elliott & Raffiee, Kambiz 1994 An examination of the effect of ownership on the relative efficiency of public and private water utilities. Land Economics 70(2), 197-209.
3.Blokland, Maarten, Braadbaart, Okke & Schwartz, Klaas 1999 Private Business, Public Owners. Government Shareholdings in Water Enterprises. VROM, The Hague.
4.Borcherding, T. E., Pommerehne, W. W. & Schneider, F. 1982 Comparing the efficiency of private and public production: the evidence from five countries. Zeit. f. Nationalokonomie Supplement 2.
5.Braadbaart, 0., Blokland, M. & Schwartz, K. 1999 Introduction. In Private Business, Public Owners. Government Shareholdings in Water Enterprises (ed. M. Blokland, 0. Braadbaart & K. Schwartz). VROM, The Hague.
6.Braadbaart, Okke 2000 Piped water services in developing countries. Why we know so little about utility performance determinants and where to go from here. Paper presented at UNЈSCO-WOTRO International Working Conference 'Water for Society', November 8-10, Delft, The Netherlands.
7.Braadbaart, Okke 2001 Privatizing water. The Jakarta concession and the limits of contract. Paper presented at KITLV Jubilee Workshop 'Water as a Life-Giving and Deadly Force', 14-16 June, Leiden, The Netherlands.
8.Brook-Cowen 1997 The private sector in water and sanitation-how to get started. The Private Sector in Infrastructure. World Bank, Washington.
9.Bruggink, Thomas H. 1982 Public versus regulated private enterprise in the municipal water industry: a comparison of operating costs. Quart. Rev. Econ. Bus. 22(1), 111-125.
10.Byrnes, Patricia, Grosskopf, Shawna & Haye, Kathy 1986 Efficiency and ownership: further evidence. Rev. Econ. Stat. 68, 337-341.
11.Grain, W. Mark & Zardkoohi, Asghar 1978 A test of the property-rights theory of the firm: water utilities in the United States. /. Law Econ. 21, 395-408.
12.Dominy, Matthew 1999 Defining privatization. Public Wks Mangmt Policy 3(4), 344-347.
13.Dumol, Mark 2000 The Manila Water Concession. A Key Government Official's Diary of the World's Largest Water Privatization. World Bank, Washington.
14.Estache, Antonio & Rossi, Martin A. 1999 Comparing the Performance of Public and Private Water Companies in the Asia and. Pacific Region: What a Stochastic Costs Frontier Shows. World Bank, Washington.
15.Feigenbaum, Susan & Teeples, Ronald 1983 Public versus private water delivery: a hedonic cost approach. Rev. Econ. Stat. 65, 672-678.
16.Galal, Ahmed, Jones, Leroy, Tandon, Pankaj & Vogelsang, Ingo 1994 Welfare onsequences of Selling Public Enterprises. Oxford University Press, Washington.
17.Global Water Report 2000 Political turmoil hits water company finances. Financial Times Energy, London.
18.Gomez-Ibanez, Jose A. & Meyer, John R. 1993 Going Private. The International Experience With Transport Privatization. The Brookings Institution, Washington.
19.Heald, David 1984 Privatisation: analysing its appeal and limitations. Fiscal Studies 5(1), 36-46.
20.Helm, Dieter 1995 British Utility Regulation: Principles, Experience and Reform. The OXERA Press, London.
21.Hermirasari, Evi 2000 A Comparison of the Price-Quality Performance of Public and Private Water Utilities in Indonesia. MSc Thesis, IHE, Delft.
22.Hudson Institute 1999 The NAW С Privatization Study. A Survey of the Use of Public-Private Partnerships in the Drinking Water Utility Sector. National Association of Water Companies, Washington.
23.Kahn, Alfred E. 1988 (1971) The Economics of Regulation: Principles and Institutions. The MIT Press, Cambridge.
24.Kennedy School of Government 1999 Aguas de Cartagena: The Privatization of Water in Cartagena, Colombia. Case Program, John F. Kennedy School of Government, Cambridge.
25.Kerf, Michel, R., Gray, David, Irwin, Timothy, Levesque, Celine & Taylor, Robert R. 1995 Concessions. A Guide to the Design and Implementation of Concession Arrangements for Infrastructure Services. World Bank, Washington.
26.Kitchen, Harry M. 1973 A Statistical Estimation of an Operating Cost Function for Municipal Water Provision. Ministry of State for Urban Affairs, Ottawa.
27.Lambert, D. K., Dichev, D. & Raffiee, K. 1993 Ownership and sources of inefficiency in the provision of water services. Wat. Resour. Res. 29(6), 1573-1578.
28.Lindsay, Bruce E. 1984 New Hampshire water systems: environmental and ownership considerations. Wat. Resour. Bull. 20(6), 901-904.
29.Lynk, E. L. 1993 Privatisation, joint production and the comparative efficiencies of private and public ownership: the UK water industry case. Fiscal Studies 14(2), 98-116.
30.Mann, P. & Mikesell, J. 1976 Ownership and water system operations. Wat. Resour. Bull. 12, 995-1004.
31.Megginson, William L., Nash, Robert C. & van Randenborgh, Matthias 1994 The financial and operating performance of newly privatized firms: an international empirical analysis. J. Finance 49(2), 403-452.
32.Menard, Claude & Clarke, George 20ooa A Transitory Regime: Water Supply in Conakry, Guinea. World Bank, Washington.
33.Menard, Claude & Clarke, George 2ooob The Welfare Effects of Private Sector Participation in Urban Water Supply in Guinea. World Bank, Washington.
34.Morgan, W. 1977 Investor owned vs. publicly owned water agencies: an evaluation of the property rights theory of the firm. Wat. Resour. Bull. 13, 775-782.
35.Natakura, Yoko & Chang, Luis 1996 Argentina: Update on Provincial Water Privatization. World Bank, Washington.
36.Neal, Kathy, Maloney, Patrick J., Marson, Jonas A. & Francis, Tamer E. 1996 Restructuring America's Water Industry: Comparing Investor-Owned and Government-Owned Water Systems. Reason Foundation, Los Angeles.
37.Ramamurti, Ravi 1996 Privatizing Monopolies. Lessons From the Telecommunications and Transport Sectors in Latin America. Johns Hopkins, Baltimore.
38.Rees, Judith 1998 Regulation and Private Participation in the Water and Sanitation Sector. Global Water Partnership, Stockhom.
39.Rivera, Daniel 1996 Private Sector Participation in the Water Supply and Wastewater Sector. Lessons From Six Developing Countries. World Bank, Washington.
40.Shirley, Mary M. & Walsh, Patrick 2000 Public Versus Private Owner¬ship: The Current State of the Debate. World Bank, Washington.
41.Teeples, Ronald & Glyer, David 1987 Cost of water delivery systems: specification and ownership effects. Rev. Econ. Stat. 69(3), 399-408.
42.Twort, Alan C., Ratnayaka, Don D. & Brandt, Malcolm J. 2000 Water Supply. Arnold, London.
43.UNIDO 1996 Guidelines for Infrastructure Development Through Build-Operate-Transfer (ВОТ) Projects. UNIDO, Vienna.
44.Vickers, John & Yarrow, George 1988 Privatization. An Economic Analysis. The MIT Press, Cambridge.
45.Vining, Aidan R. & Boardman, Anthony E. 1992 Ownership versus competition: efficiency in public enterprise. Public Choice 73, 205-239.
46.Webb, Michael & Ehrhardt, David 1998 Improving Water Services Through Competition. World Bank, Washington.
47.World Bank 1995 Bureaucrats in Business. The Economics and Politics of Government Ownership. World Bank, Washington.
48.World Bank 1998 World Bank to Finance Water and Sewage Service Improvement in Cartagena. World Bank, Washington.
YUrgen Lyoshke, Torsten HarcCost-effective organization of municipal wastewater by the example of Kenigsbryuk
On Kenigsbryuka example shows that the model with private enterprises can be successfully implemented in small and medium-sized municipalities and partnerships. The main advantage - the total optimization of the results of the tender on a competitive basis. Thereby enhancing the innovative potential of special services companies can save significant costs of municipal budget, subject to the competent privatization. Model operation of treatment facilities Kenigsbryuka was the first to officially put up for tender, the model in the Republic of Saxony and one of the first in the former GDR. Tender procedure model Kenigsbryuka operation of treatment facilities as a pilot project supported by the Federal Ministry of Environment. Successful implementation of the project must not least a close and established cooperation of all stakeholders - the municipality, government and economy.
V.V. Boldyrev Strength calculation of reinforced flat bottoms
A new method of calculating the strength of a flat bottom reinforced pressure filters, developed by OOO "SEC" Stroynauka-VITU. "Using these dependences have calculated more than 20 filters. Filters are manufactured in the factory and tested to a pressure of 1.5 times the working. Proposed design pressure filters should be used in technologies natural and waste waters, with limited room height filter halls and with the high cost of convex bottoms (covers).
YU.I. Vdovin, M.Ja. Kordon, I.A. Lushkin, A.V. AnisimovFish protection for industrial and municipal water intakes based on filtering devices
We consider solutions to the problem of fish protection of industrial and municipal water intakes using filter and filter intakes fish protection devices. The technological scheme of the water inlet filter treatment plants that provide enhanced fish protection to justify the major advantages of filter vodopriema as RZU. Based on years of scientific experimental and field-production research and filter intakes RZU results of work on the establishment of the laws of behavior of young fish in the waters of withdrawals, according vovlekaemosti suspensions and juvenile fish in the receiving waters, depending on the flow rate, water intake and swimming raznovidovoy Different dimensions and juveniles. Chart shows the swimming speed of fish of different species and sizes in relation to safe water withdrawal rates for them. It is shown that the recommended operating speed water-snip in 2 ... 6 or more times above safe for juveniles. The necessity to revise existing SNP in terms of design of water intakes and fish protection to them.
V.P. KargapolcevAbout fraud in metering of heat and water
L.D. Voitasik, E.M. Droganevskii, N.S. Karishnev, S.Ja. SHarovSearch leak fluid and gas pipelines in the urban
One of the urgent tasks of the urban economy is the monitoring of underground pipelines and eliminating leaks. Thus it is necessary to carry out a large amount of excavation due to the difficulty in determining the exact location of the leak. The paper describes a method and apparatus is described, and the system based on it to solve this problem. Provides advantages over other known methods.
T. Saltnes, B. Eikebrokk, H. OdegardEffect of the filter in the filter with two-layer expanded clay loading (filtralite) compared to sand-anthracite filter
A comparison was made of three different filter designs for contact filtration malomutnyh water containing humic substances. Conventional filter with sand and anthracite loading was compared with the two-layer filter with expanded clay loading (Filtralite) and a filter with a large layer of coarse load Filtralite. In contact filtering water containing humic substances flakes formed coagulants based on metals, obtained usually weak and large size, which is a big cause of irrationality filtration rate and leads to removal of particles and reduce the filtration cycle. Overcoming these challenges produced by the use of large layer of coarse filter media and application polyaluminium or use as a coagulant biopolymer chitosan. Probably, the high values of the initial raw water turbidity increased detention flocs to load the filter. The advantage is the high storage capacity of filter media, especially at high speeds filtration.
References: 1.Eikebrokk, B. (1999) Coagulation-direct filtration of soft, low alkalinity humic waters,Wat. Sci. and Tech., Vol 40 (9), pp 55-62.
2.Eikebrokk, B. and Saltnes, T. (2001) Removal of natural organic matter (NOM) using different coagulants and light-weight expanded clay aggregate filters, Wat. Sci. and Tech.: Water Supply, Vol 1(2), pp 131-140.
3.Eikebrokk, B. (2001) Experimental testing of FILTRALITE for the removal of NOM from drinking water by contact filtration, SINTEF-report STF66 F01106, Trondheim, Norway, Aug. 2001 (Restricted).
4.Kawamura, S. (1991) Integrated design of water treatment facilities, John Wiley and Sons, New York, USA, 211.
5.Odegaard, H., Eikebrokk, B. and Storhaug, R. (1999) Processes for the removal of humic substances from water water- An overview based on the Norwegian experiences, Wat. Sci. and Tech., Vol 40(9), 37-46.
6.Rebhun, M., Fuhrer, Z. and Adin, A. (1984) Contact flocculation-filtration of humic substances, Wat. Res., Vol 18(8), 963-970.
7.Saltnes, T. (2002) Contact filtration of humic waters in expanded clay aggregate filters, Dr. of Engineering Thesis, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Norway.
L.V. Garmashova, V.Ja. Lazarenko, V.V. BelogorodskiiSurface treatment plants oily waste. Features coalescing on porous hydrophobic adsorbents
Developed by "Ozone" treatment plant surface oily waste free of defects observed when examining structures of this type of firms. Design features thin and coalescing modules provide self-cleaning plates while in service and achieve the required performance purification. Used for the final purification stage porous hydrophobic oil sorbent HEC can bring purification oily waste to surface drainage norms for fishery water bodies. The ability to capture the oil sorbent HEC as dissolved and emulsified oil is due to run concurrently with the process of sorption contact coalescence.
N.V. OttasAnalysis of the effectiveness of environmental improvement
The analysis currently in force in the territory of Russia of environmental improvement. None of the systems (state control, regulation and economic mechanism of nature) does not provide effective protection of the environment. The main reasons for the low efficiency of existing systems.Shows the benefits of the introduction of the economic mechanism of nature, in particular, to introduce the use of GOST'ov R ISO 14000, developed on the basis of international standards ISO 14000, based on the principles of the strategy of sustainable development.It is shown that the Baltic region is better prepared to join others on the path of sustainable development.
B.P. UsanovSome aspects of the environmental strategy of the Baltic Sea
Summary of the report of the Assistant Vice-Governor of St. Petersburg Professor BP Usanova at the International Environmental Forum "Baltic Sea Day" on March 19-22, 2003, St. Petersburg
V.N. BorovkoWastewater objects of power - a source of environmental contamination, organochlorine
It is shown that the introduction of the practice of water in the heat of the method of ion exchange results in St. Petersburg to the large-scale concentration of life-toxicants (hlorbifenilov, dioxins) in water and soil in the future, when the concentration of organochlorine compounds in surface water, groundwater and surface layers water reaches the critical values can lead to an environmental disaster due to the main sources of contamination of water consumption.To prevent accidents and reduce ekohimicheskoy carbon dioxide aggressiveness of the water used in the power system, elaboration and implementation in practice of the new water treatment methods, such as electrochemical methods of treatment of thermal power flows of water, which will reduce the environmental hazard of heat and power facilities and increase profitability of the equipment. Examples of the practical use of electrochemical methods of water treatment in accordance with the effects of electro-and magneto.
V.B. Vasilev, V.S. TimoshukImproving the safety of existing electroplating industry of St. Petersburg
The main danger of galvanic production determined by the formation of large amount of waste water containing impurities of heavy metals, inorganic acids and alkalis, surfactants and other highly toxic compounds, as well as a large number of waste containing heavy metal ions in the form of sparingly soluble. In recent years, due to the growth of industrial production in the depreciation of fixed assets is especially serious problem of security of workers and the environment. The paper proposes a system of organizational development - guidance documents for analysis, assessment and management of safety electroplating and training "program of measures to ensure safer electroplating." Consider the organization of processes of increasing safety of operating electroplating and proposed type schemes for their implementation.
O.I. Montvila, V.V. Naidenko, V.V. GutenevDevelopment of bases Saving Technologies photochemical water disinfection, catalyzed by copper ions and zinc
Investigated the combined effects of UV radiation in combination with ions of copper and zinc on the bactericidal activity of water. This combination allows you to eliminate one of the major drawbacks of UV water disinfection - the absence of prolonged action. This results in achieving a deeper level of disinfection at lower energy consumption.Presented the results of studies of bactericidal and bacteriostatic properties of ultraviolet light - hydrogen peroxide - the copper ions. It is shown that this combination appears synergistic. Propose a mechanism for the observed effect, increase the integral bactericidal activity impurity (H2O2 + UV rays). The results of studies carried out in order to find the conditions of UV radiation, individually and in combination with copper ions (II) and zinc that can help reduce energy consumption during heat treatment fluids.
R.R. AyukaevSlow filters in drinking water supply of small water users Karelia
The results of the study of technological capabilities of slow filters. The prospects of their use in the construction of water supply with low productivity. The concrete examples of the reconstruction of water supply systems using slow filtration at the Residence of the Russian President "Chupa Shu", the Hotel complex "Russian North", Po lespromhoz (Karelia).
B.F. Ljamaev, G.G. Krickii, G.L. NikitinThe use of modern information technologies in the calculation of water hammer in water
The analysis of the available calculation methods of water hammer. Shows the advantages of software and computational systems based on the use of geographic information technologies in the development of programs for the calculation of modes of utilities, in particular, and to the unsteady hydrodynamic processes in pipeline systems. Possibilities of the program and a mathematical model developed by "Politerm" for the calculation of transient processes (including in the event of water hammer) in piping systems of any complexity with specific examples.
O.D. LukashevichSome problems of chemical analysis to ensure water
On the example of the underground waters of the West-Siberian region the influence of quality analysis of some chemical parameters of water (various forms of iron, Eh, CO2, alkalinity, organic matter content) to choose the method of water purification. Comparing the applicability of methods of preserving and sample preparation in the analysis of different forms of iron in the ground water. Recommendations are given for information and regulatory and methodological support of enterprises of domestic water supply, which should occupy an important place the problem of water quality monitoring.
V.P. KargapolcevThe cost of checking for heat meters and water meters
We consider four options of forming the cost of checking counters with respect to the level of the regional center of the city: at the Regional Centre for Standardization and Metrology, based on the manufacturers, based on the production of heat or water supply company and the industrial base innovative firms. Analyzed their advantages and disadvantages, and presents an analysis of the cost of verification, depending on the options under consideration.
I.A. Dunaicev, G.I. AzbarovTechnology biodegradation of pesticides and toxic substances in water and air
The analysis of the problems of biodegradation of hazardous, toxic contaminants (including chemical agents) in a toxic inhibition. The technologies of biological degradation of toxic substances, developed by Duncan Service, with examples of their use.
A.P. Zosin, T.I. Priimak, Ye.Ye. SHall, N.G. Aleev, L.P. SulimenkoFiltering systems based on complex mineral downloads to clean mine waters
The possibility of intensifying lighten mine and quarry water from the extraction of apatite-nepheline ore Khibiny alkaline massif by combining coagulation process based on the use of iron coagulant (FeSO4) and filtration process of mineral waste (dump rocks). The interrelation of the volume of coagulation parameters of iron sulfate and contact coagulation. Shown that the introduction of carbonatites in filter loading dump rocks on the basis of apatite-nepheline ore and iron coagulant application allows adjustment of pH and charge suspensions presented leachate nepheline, and provides clarification pit water to the established norms.
R.R. AyukaevFormation of environmental business in Russia in the period of transition from a planned economy to a market
Stages of formation of the market of environmental business in Russia after the collapse of the Soviet Union and its development prospects. The features of the present stage of domestic production are:- The use of effective foreign scientific and engineering solutions for the restructuring of its own production, often in association with foreign companies;- The use of foreign companies by Russian scientists for advertising and promotion in the Russian market manufactured by these companies equipment;- The emergence of a new class of environmental orientation orders associated with the development of new "melkotonnazhnyh 'industries (processing of wood, fur, meat, milk, galvanoobrabotka, stone quarrying);- Individual housing and office construction (water supply and sewerage detached houses, washing cars, recreational pools)The analysis of the factors determining the growth of orders for the construction and reconstruction of environmental structures, in particular, the legislated increase in the opportunities of environmental agencies, the Environmental Protection Committee, CGSEN, environmental police.As an example of a successful entry into the environmental market is a list of some scientific developments leading industry experts.
O.D. LukashevichEnvironmental safety of using ozone in water treatment
On the basis of theoretical generalization literature analyzed characteristics of the impact of ozone on organic matter and micro-organisms which water pollutants.
E.G. Petrov, E.V.SemyonovThe effectiveness of pre-processing of natural colored water with ozone for cleaning their filtration through activated aluminosilicate adsorbent
The technology of purification of natural water, can eliminate the high color, lignin and organic complexes of metals (iron) with simultaneous decontamination of water without the use of hazardous chlorine. This sorption purification using activated aluminosilicate adsorbent "GLINT" in conjunction with a strong oxidizing agent capable of destroying the lignin, organic-mineral complexes and neutralize any bacteria and viruses, which are abundant in natural water. Studies have shown the most promise and technological use of ozone as an oxidant. Lets you use water sources not previously considered suitable for water supply. Technology can be recommended for newly constructed or renovated buildings. Quality parameters of the filtrate obtained by the developed technology is superior not only SanPiN but WHO guidelines.
E.M. GalperinDetermination of reducing the minimum allowable values of the parameters of the system of water supply
We consider the procedure for determining the minimum allowable values of reliability while reducing customer water supply and pressure compared with their calculated values. All water users are divided into two groups: the first group consists of those for which damages can be calculated from the degradation of the system, in the second group are those for which the damage can not be calculated. We propose a procedure for determining both the first and the second groups.
Anne Pifer, Terrence Hogan, Benjamin Snedeker, Robert Simpson, Minren Lin, Chendyu Shen, Ayusman SenMultifunctional catalytic system of deep oxidation of oxygen toxic organic substances in the aquatic environment
For deep oxidation with oxygen (at 80-90oC in the presence of carbon monoxide or hydrogen peroxide) are a wide range of organic substances in water with a variety of functional groups as a catalyst selected palladium metal. Studied various classes of organic compounds: benzene, phenol, nitro-and halogen-organic, phosphorous and organic sulfur compounds. In each case, for 24 hours to perform up to a few hundred cycles, leading to deep oxidation of organic compounds in high yield oxide and carbon dioxide and water. For substances that are sensitive to hydrogenation conversion with hydrogen peroxide was usually higher than with carbon monoxide. As for the organophosphorus compounds, in this system the first time the catalytic cleavage of phosphorus-alkyl bonds.
References: 1. Preliminary reports: (a) Hogan, T., Simpson, R., Lin M., Sen, A. Catal.Lett. 1996, 40, 95. (b) Hogan, T., Simpson, R., Lin M., Sen, A. Catal.Lett 1997, 49, 59.
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9. National Research Council, Review and Evaluation of Alternative Chemical Disposal Technologies; National Academy Press: Washington, DC, 1996.
10. National Research Council, Alternative Technologies for the Destruction of Chemical Agents and Munitions; National Academy Press: Washington, DC, 1993.
11. Flamm K.J., Kwan Q., McNulty W.B. Chemical Agent and Munitions Disposal: Summary of the U.S. Army’s Experience; Report SAEPEO-CDE-IS-87005. 1987.
12. Chemical Warfare Agents; Somani S.M., Ed.; Academic: San Diego, 1992.
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19. Recent reviews on monooxygenases and their syntetic analogues: (a) Metalloporphyrins in Catalytic Oxodations; Sheldon R.A. Ed. Marcel Dekker:New York, 1994. (b) Metalloporphyrins Catalyzed Oxodations; Montanari F., Casella L. Eds.; Kluwer: Dordrecht, 1997.
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22. Hutson A.C., Sen A. J.Am.Chem.Soc. 1994, 116, 4527.
23. (a)Характерный пример: Hosokava T., Nakahira T., Takano M., Murahashi S. J Mol.Catal. 1992, 74, 489. (b) Review: Catalytic Oxidations with Hydrogen Peroxide as Oxidant, Strucul G.,Ed.; Kluwer Academic: Dordrecht, 1992.
24. Skougstad M.W., Fishman M.J., Friedman L.C., Erdmann D.E., Duncan S.S. Techniques of Water-Resources Investigations of the United States Geological Survey; US Department of Interior: Washington, DC; Book 5, Chapter A1, p.429.
E.G. RizoEspecially addressing liquid waste galvanoochistnyh complexes
The features of the approaches to the disposal of sewage and other liquid waste on the powerful galvanoochistnyh complexes. It is shown that the self galvanokompleksah half of the complex can not only be self-supporting, but also profitable, which is unattainable for electroplating in the industrial enterprises, especially in the city. This fact is especially important in dealing with investment development galvanoochistnyh complexes.
O.D. Lukashevich, A.A. Andreichenko, I.V. Algunova, O.YU. Goncharov, E.M. Marshev, E.I. Patrushev, M.N. SelehovaEcological and technological aspects of the treatment of iron-containing waste water
The results of the study on the effect of water treatment in the electrochemical reactor for the removal efficiency of iron from the wash wastewater. The indicators of changes in water chemistry, namely, iron, hardness, permanganate oxidation, organic matter content. The principal possibility to intensify the use of electrostimulation of sediment flushing and cleaning of waste water before discharge into water bodies. Electrochemical processes create conditions for the destruction of dissolved organic substances that act as colloidal protection violate aggregate stability of iron-containing particles, providing an increase in speed up the transition of iron in the sediment.
E.G. RizoAssess the feasibility of using magnetic and electromagnetic fields for the treatment of water and sewage, Part 2. Desalination of water and aqueous electrolyte solutions.
A critical analysis of existing patents that protect circuits and devices for desalination of water and aqueous solutions of electrolytes. Shows their scientific and practical failure.
L.N. Gubanov, D.N. Fedorovskii, D.V. BojarkinNeutralization precipitation municipal wastewater using legumes
To solve the problem of disposing of sewage sludge and reduce their environmental danger to the solution of problems in their detoxification and de-worming. In Nizhny Novgorod State University of Architecture and Construction has developed a technology disposal OGSv using amino acid compositions. This paper presents the further development of this technology in order to reduce the cost while maintaining its fundamental methodological principles. A method of detoxification and deworming OGSv based on using belkovosoderzhaschey vegetation, particularly legumes. The proposed technology is implemented in the following ways: 1. Growing legumes directly dewatered sludge maps. 2. Growing beans directly on soils with untreated OGSv made to the various ratios. Further processing is related to their refinement, handling caustic and plowing into the ground. Generated during these operations by the known amino acids interact with the technology contained in the sediment heavy metals to form complexes gidroaminokislotnye, linking metals, thus providing detoxification sediment.
V. S. Timoshuk, E.G. RizoReducing exposure to hazardous industrial facilities on the environment and the working life of the population of St. Petersburg
In recent years, due to the growth of industrial production in the depreciation of fixed assets is especially serious problem of security workers, the public and the environment. In this paper, taking into account the strategic interests of the economic, social and urban development of St. Petersburg were no suggestions to reduce exposure to hazardous facilities industry on the environment and the working life of the population. Given the need for primary conversion, output, or liquidation of enterprises located in the historical center of the city as the main tool offered interconnected two-level solutions and implementation issues. The first level contains a strategic program for the relocation of industrial enterprises from the city center. The second level prepares and implements program activities for hazardous industrial facilities and plants in accordance with the Federal Law "On technical regulation".