Archive logs by year


V.V. Dzyubo, E.YU. KurochkinCleaning the wash water to ground water iron removal plants

Based on the analysis of operating experience iron removal plants and research processes flushing filtering facilities, the effectiveness of the vacuum filtration of contaminated wash water, which provides required for re-use of treated water quality, and the resulting precipitate with low humidity. Effective cleaning of contaminated wash water for iron removal plants can completely eliminate their discharge and improve the ecological situation in the locations of the stations.

E.N. Guteneva, I.A. Denisova, V.V. Gutenev, A.I.AzhgirevichEffect of temperature and pH of the medium on the bactericidal activity of sodium hypochlorite, individually and in combination with silver ions (copper)

The possibility of increasing the efficiency of disinfection of water through a combination of sodium hypochlorite and silver ions and copper, as well as their impact on the bactericidal activity of the integrated temperature and pH of the medium.

E.G. Rizo Water. Problems. Part 1

The article raised questions about the qualitative and quantitative composition of the water and their impact on human health. The ambiguity approach to achieve the required water quality, as well as to the choice of the local (individual or collective) systems for purification (and maybe more further processing) of drinking water.

E. Chibowski, L. Holysz, A. Szczes, M. ChibowskiEffect of magnetic field on the precipitation of calcium carbonate

The influence of the magnetic field (B = 0.4Tl) the precipitation of calcium carbonate from solution Na2CO3 and CaCl2, which prior to the deposition at 30 ° C were subjected to a magnetic field applied perpendicular to the direction of flow of fluids. By CaCl2 or Na2CO3 also added impurity cations Mg2 +, Zn2 +, Fe2 + or anions SO42-, HPO42-, respectively. Ion concentration (10-5M) was lower than the solubility of carbonate and sulfate or calcium phosphate. Changes in zeta potential, pH and absorbance at 543.2 nm = suspension after deposition of CaCO3 of the above solutions was determined as a function of the time elapsed from the time of deposition. The rate of deposition and sedimentation was controlled by measuring the absorption of light. In addition, in some systems, calcium carbonate was deposited on a glass plate and determined the change in the amount of deposits in the magnetic field. Found that the magnetic field affects us all measured parameters and the effect is independent of the presence of the impurity ion.
References: 1.Al-Qahtani H. (1996) Effect of magnetic treatment of Gulf seawater. Desalination 107, 75-81.
2.Coey J.M.D. and Cass S. (2000) Magnetic water treatment. J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 209, 71-74.
3.Chibowski E., Holysz L. and Szczes A. (2003) Time dependent changes in zeta potential of freshly precipi¬tated calcium carbonate. Coll. Surf. A in press.
4.Gamayunov N. I. (1983) Coagulation of suspensions after magnetic treatment. Zh. Prikl. Khim. 56(5), 1038- 1047.
5.Gehr R., Zhai Z. A., Finch J. A. and Ram Rao S. (1995) Reduction of soluble mineral concentrations in CaSO4 saturated water using a magnetic field. Wat. Res. 29, 933-940.
6.Higashitani K., Iseri H., Okuhara K., Kage A. and Hatade S. (1995) Magnetic effects on zeta potential and diffusivity of nonmagnetic colloidal particles. J. Coll. Int. Sci. 172, 383-388.
7.Hihashitani K., Kage A., Katamura S., Imai K. and Hatade S. (1993) Effect of magnetic field on formation of CaCO3 particles. J. Coll. Int. Sci. 156, 90-95.
8.Holysz L., Chibowski M. and Chibowski E. (2002) Time-dependent changes of zeta potential and other parame¬ters of in situ calcium carbonate due to magnetic field treatment. Colloids Surf. A 208,231-240.
9.Lundager Madsen H. E. (1995) Influence of magnetic field on the precipitation of some inorganic salts. J. Crystal Growth 152, 94-100.
10.Marcus Y. (1994) A simple empirical model describing th thermodynamic of hydration of ions of widely varying charges, sizes, and shapes. Biophys. Chem. 51, 11-127.
11.Parsons S. A., Wang B-L. Judd S. J. and Stephenson T. (1997) Magnetic treatment of calcium carbonate scale-effect of pH control. Wat. Res. 31, 339-342.
12.Somasundaran P. and Agar G. E. (1967) The zero point of charge of calcite. J. Coll. Int. Sci. 24,433-440.
13.Szkatula A., Balanda M. and Kopec M. (2002) Magnetic treatment of industrial water. Silica activation, Eur. Phys. J. AP. 18, 41-49.
14.Prescot J. H., Rowell R. L. and Bassett D. R. (1997) dependence of particle size on pH, electrolyte, and time for expandable copolymer latexes by hydrodynamic fingerprinting. Langmuir 13,1978-1986.
15.Prescot J. H., Shiau S and Rowell R. L. (1993) Characterization of polystyrene latexes by hydrodynamic and electrophoretic fingerprinting. Langmuir 9, 2071-2076.
16.Ydovic N. and Biscan J. (1998) Electrokinetics of natural synthetic calcite suspension, Colloids Aurf. A 137, 7-14.
17.Yezek L., Rowell R. L. Holysz L. and Chibowski E. (2000) Adsorption of dodecyl sulfate to colloidal titanium dioxide: an electrophoretic fingerprinting investigation. J. Coll. Int. Sci. 225, 227-232.

R. SheikholeslamiFormation of scale in production equipment under the influence of saline streams - upcoming solution

Fouling is a major problem and the bottleneck in the operation of all types of equipment used in the transfer and / or processing of salt flows. The solution lies in the possibility of establishing criteria to determine the beginning and the rate of scale formation. Although industrial effluents contain a mixture of salt, because of the complexity of the process of scaling studies mainly focused on the precipitation of a single salt. As a criterion for the possibility of scaling in real practical situations without much success using solubility concentration obtained in the crystallization of a single salt. This paper evaluated the standard methods and, based on previous work of the authors of the research shows that the thermodynamics and kinetics of crystallization of individual salt applicable to practical conditions when the source water contains a mixture of salts. The presence of other molecules, salinity and even the presence of trace impurities can have an adverse effect on the possibility of the formation of scale and should not be ignored. The use of the Debye-Huckel or its modified version, although necessary, but not sufficient. Can not be dismissed, and hydrodynamic effects.
References: 1.Chan, S. H., K. F. Neusen, et al. (1987). The Solubility of Polymerisation of Amorphous Silica in Geothermal Energy Applications. Proceedings of 1987 ASME-JSME Thermal Engineering Joint Conference.
2.Chen, С. Т. A. and W. L. Marshall (1982). "Amorphous silica solubilities IV. Behaviour in pure water and aqueous sodium chloride, sodium sulfate, magnesium chloride, and magnesium sulfate solutions up to 350°C." Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 46: 279-287.
3.Hasson, D. (1981). Precipitation Fouling - a Review. Fouling of Heat Transfer Equipment. E. F. C. Somerscales and J. G. Knudsen. New York, Hemisphere Publishing Corporation: 527 - 568.
4.Hasson, D. (1999). Progress in Precipitation Fouling Research, A Review. Proceedings of Eng. Found. Conference, Understanding Heat Exchanger Fouling and its Mitigation. R. Bott. New York, Begell House: 67-89.
5.Her, R. K. (1979). The Chemistry of Silica.
6.Krauskopf, К. В. (1956). "Dissolution and Precipitation of Silica at Low Temperature." Geochim et Cosmochim Acta 10: 1-26.
7.Marshall, W. L. and J. M. Warakomski (1980). "Amorphous silica solubilities-II. Effect of aqueous salt solutions at 25°." Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 44: 915-924.
8.Mullin, J. W. (1972). Crystallization. London, Butterworths.
9.Mullin, J. W. (1993). Crystallization. Oxford, Butterworths-Heinemann.
10.Sahachaiyunta, P., T. Koo, et al. (2002). "Effect of Several Inorganic Species on Silica Fouling in RO Membranes." Desalination 144: 373-378.
11.Sheikholeslami, R. (2001). Strategies and Future Directions for Systematic Characterization of Feed Water and Determination of Scaling Limits and Rates for Process Assessment and Optimization. International Desalination Association, Bahrain.
12.Sheikholeslami, R. (2002). "Nucleation and Kinetics of Mixed Salts." AIChE 48(8).
13.Sheikholeslami, R. (2003). "Mixed Salts - Scaling Limits and Propensity." Desalination 154(2): 117-127.
14.Sheikholeslami, R., I. S. Al-Mutaz, et al. (2002). "Silica Polymerization and Fouling in Presence of Ca, Mg and Its Removal by Lime and Sodium Aluminate." Desalination 150(1): 85-92.
15.Sheikholeslami, R. and M. Ng (2001). "Calcium Sulfate Precipitation in Presence of Non-domimant Calcium Carbonate: Thermodynamics and Kinetics." Ind. Eng. Chem. Research 40(16): 3570-3578.
16.Sheikholeslami, R. and S. Tan (1999). "Effects of Water Quality on Silica Fouling of Desalination Plants." Desalination 126: 267-280.
17.Sheikholeslami, R. and S. Zhou (2000). "Performance of RO Membranes in Silica Bearing Waters." Desalination 132: 337.
18.Sudmalis, M. and R. Sheikholeslami (2000). "Precipitation and Co-precipitation of СаСОЗ and CaSO4." Canadian J. Chem. Eng. 78: 21-31.
19.Walker, P. and R. Sheikholeslami (2002). Preliminary Numerical Study of CaSO4 Precipitation in Laminar Flows in Pipes and Slits under Isothermal Conditions. 9th APCChE Congress and CHEMECA 2002, Christchurch, New Zealand.
20.Walker, P. and R. Sheikholeslami (2003). "Assessment of the Effect of Velocity and Residence Time in CaSO4 SSESPrecipitation Flow Reaction." Chem Eng Science.
21.Walker, P. and R. Sheikholeslami (2003). A Novel Approach, Development and Validation of a Comprehensive Model for Prediction of Fouling from Saline Waters. IDА, World Congress on Desalination and water Reuse. Paradise Islands, Bahamas.
22.Yu, H., R. Sheikholeslami, et al. (2001). Preliminary Study of the Mechanisms of Composite Fouling of Amorphous Silica and Calcium Oxalate in Cane Sugar Mill Evaporators. 6th International World Congress in Chemical Engineering, Melbourne, Australia.
23.Yu, H., R. Sheikholeslami, et al. (2002). "Composite Fouling Characteristics of Calcium Oxalate Monohydrate and Amorphous Silica by a Novel Approach Simulating Successive Effects of Sugar Mill Evaporator." Ind. Eng. Chem. 41(14): 3379-3388.
24.Yu, H., R. Sheikholeslami, et al. (2002). "Mechanisms, Thermodynamics and Kinetics of Composite Fouling of Calcium Oxalate and Amorphous Silica in Sugar Mill Evaporators -A Preliminary Study." Chem Eng Science 57(11): 1969-1978.
25.Yu, H., R. Sheikholeslami, et al. (2002). A Novel Approach to Assess Silica and Calcium Oxalate Composite Scale Formation in Sugar Mill Evaporators. 24th Annual Conf. Aust. Soc. Sugar Cane Technol. Cairns, Queensland, Australia.
26.Yu, H., R. Sheikholeslami, et al. (2003). "Composite Fouling of Calcium Oxalate and Amorphous Silica in Sugar Solutions." Ind. & Eng. Chem. Res. 42(4): 904-910.

N.I. Tatarinceva, I.A. Denisova, V.V. Gutenev, V.N. CHumakova Chemical control with "flowering" of water

Due to increasing the number of water bodies used for drinking and industrial water supply, the article discussed options for addressing the urgent problem of choice of methods and measures to combat the "flowering" of water. Special attention is paid to the chemical method, namely, the possibility of the use of herbicides and algaecides. Conducted an extensive analysis of the works of foreign and domestic scientists dedicated to the development and the search for methods to control overgrowth of water in terms of reduction of the toxic chemicals in the plankton community of treated water.

A.V. Skolunov The calculation of the temperature coefficient of the diamagnetic susceptibility of the water temperature in the range of 0-100 ° C through a graphical correlation elements gyroscopic rotation of the molecule

The possibility of calculating the temperature coefficient of the diamagnetic susceptibility of the water in the temperature range of 0 to 100 ° C, which coincides with the experimental one, taking into account the center of gravity from the geometric center of the dipole with gyroscopic precession-rotation of water molecules in the clusters.

Ioahim HesselMinimum service life of polyethylene pipes laid in the ground without a sandy base

In the past 20 years has been development of plastic raw materials in order to improve long-term strength. In this case, the question arose whether the ground for laying plastic pipes do without sand cushion.Studies have been conducted to determine the minimum quality polyethylene pipes for the task. Test conditions provided loads that are to be expected under operational conditions. Describes typical cases of destruction of pipes, test circuits and test conditions in terms of material selection. The paper presents the results of tests of pipes under internal pressure and additional external concentrated load at various test parameters.The test results confirmed the strong correlation between long-term characteristics of the pipes with a concentrated load and resistance to slow crack growth material, as defined in the creep test with a cut around the perimeter (IPNP). The test results are used in the forecast IPNP minimum life of polyethylene pipes laid in the ground without sand cushion. The calculations are based on conservative results of each test series.In these studies, attended by four plastic raw material supplier and three pipe manufacturer.


Physics of water

V.Ja. AntonchenkoSome aspects of the physics of water

V.V. Sokolov, K. Pshibysh, E.V. SinelnikovWater - what is it? Once again, the structure and the degree of association of liquid water

Potable water treatment

N.G. Ivanova, M.G. NovikovEffectiveness of granite chips as a filter material for water treatment plants

Waste water treatment

V.N. Jaromskii, M.V. JakovchicThe influence of design parameters of pulsatile bioreactor volumetric mass transfer coefficient

The results of experimental studiesto determine the volumetric mass transfer coefficient of the pulsationbioreactor at different vibration amplitude and specificarea of ​​the disk heads. Statistical analysis of experimentalmodel derived on the basis of experimental data,allowed us to determine the optimal values ​​of design parameterspulsatile bioreactor, in which there is the greatestintensity of mass transfer.

I.N. Panin, V.P. Zaicev, M.A. BojarkinaEvaluating the effectiveness of the use of aerators "Pantex" in biological wastewater treatment

The paper analyzes the experience of use in biological treatment systemstubular textile effluent filters, aerators "Pantex" dispersing layerwhich formed a layered frame polypropylene yarn wound onperforated framework with longitudinal air channels and providesfinely aerated wastewater.

P. Maletzky, R. BauerDestruction of nitrogen-containing organic compounds photolytic way Fenton

References: 1.J. Falbe, M. Regitz, Römpp Chemie Lexikon, Bd. 6, 9. Aufl., 4993-4998, Thieme Verlag, Stuttgart New York (1992).
2.O. Legrini, E. Oliveros, A.M. Braun, Photochemical processes for water treatment, Chem. Rev. 93, 671-689(1993).
3.G. Ruppert, R. Bauer, G. Heisler, UV-O3, UV-H2O2, UV-TiO2, and the Photo-Fenton reaction - comparison of AOP's for wastewater treatment, Chemosphere 28, 1447-1454 (1994).
4.J.H. Carey, An introduction to AOP's for destruction of organics in wastewater, Proc.-Symp. Adv., Paper №1, 13 pp. Oxid. Processes Treat. Contam. Water Air, Wastewater Techno]. Cent. Burlington, Ontario (1990).
5.D.С.С. Yao, Т. Mill, Reaction Pathways in AOP's. In Aquatic and Surface Photochemistry (Edited by G. R. Helz, R. G. Zepp and D. G. Crosby), Chap. 35, Lewis Publishers, Boca Raton (1994).
6.G. Rupert, R. Bauer, G. Heisler, The Photo-Fenton reaction - an effective photochemical wastewater treatment process, J. Photochem. Photobiol. A: Chem. 73, 75-78 (1993).
7.J. Kiwi, C. Pulgarin, P. Peringer, Effect of Fenton and photo-Fenton reactions on the degradation and biodegradability of 2- and 4-nitrophenols in water treatment, Appl. Catal. В 3, 335-350 (1994).
8.R. Bauer, H. Fallmann, The Photo-Fenton oxidation - a cheap and efficient wastewater treatment method, Res. Chem. Intermed. 23, 341-354 (1997).
9.H.J.H. Fenton, Oxidation of Tartaric Acid in Presence of Iron, J. Chem. Soc. 65, 899-910 (1894).
10.С Maillard, С Guillard, P. Pichat, Comparative effects of the TiO2-UV, H2O2-UV, H2O2-Fe2+ systems on the disappearance rate of benzamide and 4-hydroxybenzamide in water, Chemosphere 24, 1085-1094(1992).
11.В.С Faust, A review of the photochemical redox reactions of iron(III) species in atmospheric,oceanic and surface waters: influence on geochemical cycles and oxidant formation. In Aquatic and Surface Photochemistry (Edited by G. R. Helz, R. G. Zepp and D. G. Crosby), Chap. 1, Lewis Publishers, Boca Raton (1994).
12.С Walling, K. Amranth, Oxidation of mandelic acid by Fenton's reagent. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 104, 1185-1189(1982).
13.E. Lipczkynska-Kochany, Degradation of aromatic pollutants by means of the AOPs in a homogenous phase: photolysis in the presence of hydrogen peroxide versus the Fenton reaction, Chem. Oxid. 3, 12- 27(1993).
14.W. Feuerstein, D. Gilbert, S.H. Eberle, Modellversuche zur Oxidation aromatischer Verbindungen mittels Wasserstoffperoxid in der Abwasserbehandlung, Vom Wasser 56, 37 (1981).
15.N.R. Mohanty, I.W. Wie, Oxidation of 2,4-Dinitrotoluene using Fenton's reagent: reaction mechanisms and their practical applications, Hazardous Waste & Hazardous Materials 10, 172 (1993).
16.G.-O. Müller, Wasserstoffperoxidbestimmung, Lehrbuch der angewandten Chemie, Bd. Ill, 6. Aufl., 456, Hirzel Verlag, Leipzig (1985).
17.E. Lipczkynska-Kochany, G. Sprah, S. Harms, Influence of some groundwater and surface waters constituents on the degradation of 4-Chlorphenol by the Fenton reaction, Chemosphere 30, 9-20 (1995).

Water conditioning

M.D. KrasilnikovCounterflow of water treatment technology

Water bodies ecology

E.A. Kriksunov, F.S. Lobyrev, V.A. Burmenskii, V.Ja. Pushkar (MGU im. M.V.Lomonosova) A.E. Bobyrev (IPYeYe im. A.N. Severcova, Moskva) N.M. SHegolkova, D.A. Danilovich, M.N. Kozlov (MGUP "Mosvodokanal")Assessment of the fish fauna of the Moscow River in the zone of aeration stations

We studied the state of the fish population of the Moscow River and the influence itKuryanovskoy biologically treated wastewater aeration station in 2002-2004.The standard methods of water analysis of hydrochemical, hydrobiologicalanalysis of forage fish, biological and parasitological analysis, andanalysis of the accumulation of toxins in the body of the fish. Abundance estimation was carried outusing the original methodology. It was found that on indicators such asspecies composition, abundance of fish, parasitological data, contentheavy metals in fish, the presence of morphological abnormalities issuesMoscow aeration plants do not have a direct negative impact on the fishriver-waters. These data show a marked negativeof the effects on fish contaminants released into the river fromsurface water and industrial effluents before release of CSA in the city.

M.L. Vladov, V.V. Kalinin, N.M. SHegolkova, M.N. Kozlov, A.V. Starovoitov, M.S. SudakovaExperience mapping gassy sediments urban area p. Moscow

Ecology and economics

L.N. Gubanov, S.D. Cymbalov, O.M. NovikovaOn board for the negative impact on the environment

News in water-supply and sewage equipment

Mikel Ramlau-HansenWhy continue to install valves in costly concrete wells?


L. I. Alferova,V. V. DzyuboIntensification STAGE TECHNOLOGY aeration treatment of groundwater

Is a schematic structural diagram of the combined equipment for decontamination of groundwater-aeration during their treatment, allowing to change the intensity and duration of exposure to water, depending on its composition and quality to respond flexibly to changing it, which increases the efficiency of the treatment system of groundwater in general.

V.V. Gutenev, I.A. Denisova, A.I. AzhgirevichIons of silver and copper as catalysts germicidal UV rays in the aquatic environment

The results of studies to increase the bactericidal activity of UV exposure by combining it with disinfectant ionic nature: Ag + and Cu2 +. The findings suggest that increasing the final depth of disinfection while exposure to UV rays and ions of silver and copper. In this case, there is the interaction of the physical (UV radiation) and chemical (Ag +, Cu2 +) factors. The observed effect of synergy, as well as guarantee the bactericidal aftereffects allow authors to conclude that promise.

L.I. Kantor, A.V. HarabrinDifferentiation of the annual cycle of the water supply for turbidity, oxidation and temperature

The possibility of using a mathematical method of time series analysis to highlight the regular changes of water quality in the river. Ufa in terms of permanganate oxidation, turbidity and temperature. Using the estimates of seasonal changes yearly cycle water source is divided into five periods, when the formation of the quality of water has special characteristics. In flood period allotted four phases.

O.D. LukashevichThe concept of sustainable development and consumption

Characteristics of water consumption in the context of sustainable development, people's right to determine the socio-economic development and their responsibility to protect the environment. Suggested approaches reflect some features of sustainable development indicators in relation to water use. Analyzed some of the ways that promote "sustainable water use" in Russia and in the West Siberian region.

O.D. LukashevichIndicators of water consumption as a socio-ecological-economic system

Through social, economic and environmental aspects revealed the concept of "sustainable water use." The features of the approaches to the development of indicators of sustainable development in relation to water management. Indicators can be used at the regional and national level as a tool to measure the state of water facilities to assess the functioning of water systems as an indicator of trends in the field of sustainable water use. The importance of the early establishment of the legal basis for water use and water consumption, inter-sectoral collaboration to effectively address water and environmental issues.

Mishukov B.G., Protasovskii E.M., Malysheva V.V., Soloveva E A.The current situation and prospects of the dewatering process and sludge incineration at Northern Wastewater

The detailed descriptions of the individual processing nodes of sewage sludge, and their introduction to the treatment plants in St. Petersburg. The prospects for the development of a modern drainage and sludge incineration followed the use of ash in building materials.

Novikov M.G. Ivanova N.G.Experience of using granite chips as a filter material for water treatment plants

R.O. HallbergMethod of extraction of iron and manganese from groundwater and biogeochemical processes underlying

References: 1.BEGER, H. Leitfaden der Trink- und Brauchwasser-biologie, Gustav Fischer Verlag, Stuttgart, 360 p.
2.BERGSTROM, J. Seasonal variations and distribution of dissolved iron in an aquifer. (Nordic Hydrology 5, 1974, 1-31)
3.BRIX, HEYD, GERLACH Die Wasserversorgung, München - Wien 1963,6. Aufl.
4.HASSELBARTH, LÜDEMANN Die biologische Enteisenung und Entmanganung. (Institut fur Wasser-, Boden- und Lufthygiene des Bundesgesundheitsamtes Berlin-Dahlem)
6.HATVA,NIEMISTÖ, SEPPÄNEN Synpunkter på bindningen av grundvattnets jam i jordmanen. (Särtryck ur VESITALOUS 5/71)
7.HEM,J. D. Restrains on dissolved ferrous iron imposed by bicarbonate, redox-potential and pH. U. S. Geol. Survey Water Supply Paper 1459 B:33-55.
8.HEM, CROPPER U. S. Geol. Survey Water Supply Paper 1459 A.
9.HOLLUT A, J. Enteisenungsgeschwindigkeit und Wasserstoffionen konzentration. Vom Wasser, 19. Band, 1952
10.HOLLUTA, KÖLLE Űber die Oxidation von 2-wertigem Eisen durch Luftsauerstoff. GWF 105, H. 18, s. 471-474
11.HOPKINS, BEAN Iron and manganese - Water purification control Williams & Wilkins Co, Baltimore 332 p.
12.JANDER,WENDT Lerbuch fUr das anorganisch-chemische Praktikum 6. Aufl. S. Hirzel-Verlag Leipzig 1948 Ufa lFt)AB Water and Sewage Department S-295 00 Bromblla Sweden
13.KUCERA, WOLFE A selective enrichment method for Gallionella ferruguinea J. Bacteriol. 74:344-349
14.LIEBMANN, H. Handbuch der Frischwasser- und Abwasserbiologie Ed. II. 2:161-320
15.MARTINELL, R. VYREDOX - method for removing iron from ground water
16.MORRIS, J. C, STUMM, W. Redox equilibria and measurements of potientials in the aqutic environment. Equilibria concepts in natural water systems (ed. by R. F. Gould) Am. Chemic. Soc. Publ. Washington D. C. 270 - 285
17.MÖHLE, RÜFFER, ROTT Die Aufbereitung von stark eisen- und huminsaurehaltigen Grundwasser durch autokatalytische Enteisenung. (bbr Heft 4/Aprill974. 25 Jahrgang)
18.REIJONEN Y, REIJONEN V. Uutta VYR-mentelmasta. VESITALOUS 6:28
19.REIJONEN Y, REIJONEN V. Enteisenung von Grundwasser untertage mit der VYREDOX - Methode. (bbr Heft 3/Marz: 93-94)
20.ROTT, U. Die VYREDOX - Methode: Auswertung von Literatur und Unterlagen der VYREDOX-Metoder A. B. Institut fur Siedlungswasserwirtschaft Technische Universitat Hannover.
21.SCHWEISFURTH,R. Manganoxydierende Mikroorganismen in Trinkwasserverso rg u ngsan lagen. (gwf-wasser/abwasser 113 - 1972 -H 12)
22.STUMM, LEE Oxygenation of Ferrous Iron. lnd. Eng. Cham. 53 (1961) S. 143-146

P.S. Sudilovskii, V.A. KichikNew antiscalant - effective protection of osadkoobazovaniya on membranes in reverse osmosis

The problem of the use of inhibitors of sediment to protect membranes in water treatment plants. A comparative study of the domestic antiscalant EnergoSoft ™ and is widely used by foreign analogue, which showed the identity of the two reactants. Use of domestic antiscalant would save businesses to consumer material means and free from dependence on supplies from overseas.

M.G. TarnopolskajaFilter media for water purification from oil products and the criteria for their selection

The theoretical background of water purification from oil by filtration. A classification of the main filter materials and reviewed the effectiveness of their actions. Proposed indicators that should be considered when choosing a comprehensive analysis and filter material.


Natural waters treatment

O.D. LukashevichClassification of natural waters for drinking water supply (according to their ability to cleaning)

The estimation of the ratio between the major components of the composition and properties of water that determine the integrated water quality in order to minimize the list of monitored parameters to select those necessary and sufficient of them, which are informative, cheap, easy to identify and express, but at the same time allow us to estimate the potential effectiveness of water treatment to potable quality one way or another.

M.G. Novikov, D.S. KirichevskiiImproving the efficiency of wastewater treatment plants

A scheme for the reconstruction of buildings of the first stage treatment of surface water sources, including camera equipment or flocculation chambers clarifiers with suspended sediment special devices for recycling sludge internal contour. The scheme allows you to: Improve the performance of I-stage cleaning; -To reduce the content of suspended solids at the outlet; -Implement recycling wash water filtering facilities by pumping them into the "head end" without pre-treatment. A further increase in efficiency is achieved by using powdered sorbents, such as silica-alumina powder sorbent.

O.D. Lukashevich, E.I. PatrushevImprovement of the water treatment process by automatically filtering process control

An installation for water, an important unit which is the system that allows for automatic washing of the filter load of accumulated particulate pollutants. The installation allows 10-100 times lower iron content in groundwater after pretreatment with oxygen (at high levels - in combination with ozone). Filter unit with automatic recovery boot is also applicable for separation of liquids of any solid fine particles.

Nazarov V.D., SHajahmetova S.G., Muhnurov F.H., SHajahmetov R.Z.Biological method of manganese oxidation by the example g.Neftekamska

The results of the analysis of changes in the concentration of Mn in the water system Neftekamsk time depends on wells, temperature and other parameters, as well as research in the process of bio-oxidation Mn conduits passively. In the experimental apparatus to investigate the process demanganatsii biologically different filtering media. Based on this study addressed the problem of finding optimal parameters of the process - the rate of passage of water resource of the filter capacity of manganese and the possibility of regeneration of the filtering layer.

Arhipova E.E., Domnin K.V., Steblevskii V.I. Talalaev S.A., SHibaeva O.A., Gusev E.E., Gerasimov M.M., Smirnov A.D. Testing ultrafiltration membranes in water purification technology p. Cupid

Provides an assessment of the possibility of raising the barrier function of Khabarovsk water using ultrafiltration membranes in water purification scheme p. Cupid on the general physical, chemical and microbiological parameters. Found that the method of ultrafiltration as an alternative process of clarification and filtration.

V.V. Sokolov, A.N. IvanovWater is one of the main raw materials in the manufacture of pulp and paper products

Water-supply networks

A.S. Selivanov, R.I. Ayukaev,Mathematical modeling of water supply systems as circuits with adjustable parameters

A model of the hydraulic circuit with adjustable parameters to calculate the volumes of emergency expires. Developed and experimentally investigated model emergency element indirectly controlled parameters. The results can be used to analyze the flow distribution in an emergency.

The treatment of waste water and process liquids

O.A. Bolshakov, D.S. KirichevskiiExperience of using adsorption technology for cleaning industrial waste at CJSC "PLANT ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT", the Great Luke.

Used in the enterprise technology industrial wastewater has been developed in the 1980-1988. O'Neill Water Supply and Sanitation "LIIZhT" (now St. Petersburg State University of Railways) under the direction of Professor EG Petrov Feature of this technology is the use of activated aluminosilicate adsorbent. Adsorbent allows one filter housing to create the conditions for the precipitation of heavy metals Katina (nickel, lead, manganese, copper, chromium 3 +, iron, zinc, cadmium, etc.), humic substances and petroleum products. This delivers multiple reduction of concentrations from baseline water. Regenerate the desiccant and activated directly in the filter without the use of acids or other corrosive materials as many times, greatly simplifying the hardware design and cheaper technology.

Lopatyuk YU.YU., Mynin V.N., Smirnov A.D., Talalaev S.A., Terpugov G.V.Waste water and process fluids using ceramic membranes

The results of some of the cleaning and regeneration of spent cutting fluids (coolant) with the use of ceramic ultrafiltration membranes and direct osmosis membranes.

E. Park, S.M. BarnettThe separation of an oil / water by nanofiltration membrane technology

Usually to separate relatively pure water from an oil / water used ultrafiltration. Once such water can be down the drain, but, generally speaking, it is not suitable for water recycling. Recent changes in the restrictions on the discharge of the drain necessitated getting cleaner water. A special kind of membrane filtration, nanofiltration can provide an effective way to recycle water from oily solutions or get water clean enough to discharge into the sewer.Results of periodic ultra-and nano-filtration concentration tests show that nanofiltration can effectively handle refrigerants (coolant) enterprises in machining. Well with the model of heat transfer behavior of the flow. At low pressure nanofiltration consumption was slightly decreased, mainly due to the high resistance of the membrane nanofilter. However, at high operating pressures Nanofiltration mass transfer coefficient increased, while the mass transfer coefficient decreased ultrafiltration. In addition to a very high degree of recovery in the permeate compared to nanofiltration permeate UF observed lower values ​​of COD and conductivity; nanofiltration permeate quality was similar to the quality of the ultrafiltration permeate concentration near the end of the cycle.
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