Archive logs by year


G.V. JagovAnalysis of residual active chlorine with automatic control devices

The control of active chloride residual quantities in different types of water still remains to be a pressing problem since humanity has not found any other methods which are more efficient that water disinfection by gaseous chloride or chloride-containing reagents treatment. The article observes the main analytic methods used for residual chloride detection in water: optical methods (photometry and colorimetry), iodometry, chemical luminescence and different variations of electrochemical method. Methods laid down in a basis of work of the majority of modern automatic residual chlorine analyzers do not have means of metrological support and thus require periodic execution of control measurements at the chemical-analytical laboratory for calibration and configuration. Iodometry is the only analytic method which has metrological support in a form of the state standard sample (SSS of potassium iodate, active chloride imitator). The serial production of automatic analyzers using iodometry for residual chloride detection is developed.
References: 1. Jagud B.Ju. Hlor kak dezinfektant bezopasnost' pri primenenii 1. i problemy zameny na al'ternativnye produkty [Chlorine as security desifectant when used and problems of substitution for alterative product], the 5th International congress JeKVATJeK 2002 "Water: elocogy and technology", Moscow, 4-7 of June 2009.
2. Jagov G.V. Metody analiza ostatochnogo aktivnogo hlora, ispol'zuemye v avtomaticheskih priborah kontrolja [Methods of residual active chlorine analysis], abstracts of the reports of the 8th annual research and practice seminar "Issues of analytical control of water quality", Moscow, 22-26 of September, 2008.
3. Analizator ostatochnogo aktivnogo hlora VAKH2000S [Analyser of the residual active chlorine VAKH 2000S], manual on use of LShJuG 413411.020 RJe, 2007.

E. P. Vetrov, A.I. Sergeev The method of selecting the optimal diameter gravity drainage networks, stacked instead of current pipelines

The analytic and experimental investigations concerning the method of selecting the optimal diameter gravity drainage networks, stacked instead of current pipelines were conducted. As a result the algorithm of actions which leads to selection of the most optimal diameter of reconstructed section was obtained. The base of such investigations was current water disposal systems in cities of Eastern Siberia (Irkutsk, Angarsk and others). The given method is used in designing the water supply and water disposal systems scheme of the city of Irkutsk for 2010, 2015, 2020.
References: 1. Dikarevskij V.S. K raschetu setej vodootvedenija [Water disposal network calculation], Water and ecology, magazine, №1, 2000.
2. Kozlova I.A., Kozlov A.A. Propusknaja sposobnost' beznapornyh truboprovodov kruglogo sechenija [Carring capacity of free-flow pipes of circular section].
3. Konstantinov Ju.M., Vasilenko A.A., Sapuhin A.A., Batchenko B.F. Gidravlicheskij raschet setej vodootvedenija: Raschetnye tablicy [Hydraulic calculation of water disposal network:calculation tables], K., Budivel'nik,publ., 1987,p. 120.
4. Lukinyh A.A., Lukinyh N.A. Tablicy dlja gidravlicheskogo rascheta kanalizacionnyh setej i djukerov po formule akad. N.N. Pavlovskogo [Tables for hydraulic calculation of sewerage systems and inverted siphons according to the formula by academician Pavlovskij N.N.], enlarged edition 4, M., Strojzdat,publ., 1974, p. 156.
5. Otstavnov A.A., Ustjugov V.A., Hrenov K.E., Har'kin V.A.Primenenie formuly (14) SNiP 2.04.0385 [Use of the formula (14) Building code 2.04.0385].
6. SNiP 2.04.0385. Kanalizacija. Naruzhnye seti i sooruzhenija. [Building code 2.04.0385. Sewerage system. Public utilities].
7. SN 47880. Instrukcija po proektirovaniju i montazhu setej vodosnabzhenija i kanalizacii iz plastmassovyh trub. GOSSTROJ SSSR [ Construction standards 47880. Guidelines on design and assembling of water supply systems and sewerage systems with plastic pipes], State Committee for Construction of USSR.
8. Fedorov N.F., Volkov L.E. Gidravlicheskij raschet kanalizacionnyh setej: Raschetnye tabl [Hydraulic calculations of sewerage networks: calculation tables], edition 4, L., Strojizdat, publ., 1968, p. 251.
9. Har'kin V.A. Gidravlicheskie osobennosti kanalizacionnyh setej s uchastkami iz polimernyh trub, ulozhennyh bestranshejno vzamen vethih truboprovodov iz tradicionnyh trub [Hydraulic features of sewerage system with sections with polymer pipes settled trenchlessly instead of dilapidated pipelines with usual pipes].

E. Vaiopoulou, P. Melidis, A. Aivasidis Growth of filamentous bacteria in the aerotanks with phosphorus biological removal

Activated sludge foaming under influence of filamentous bacteria Eikelboom (type 021N) and Thiothrix spp. was firstly indicated using pilot plant of multi-step wastewater treatment intended for enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR). Microorganisms of both types swelled, gradually reaching the maximum cumulative length during 2 months. For identification of strains the trials on Gram straining, Neisser straining and sulphur accumulation were conducted. Results proved that biological systems of nutrients removal suffer from sludge foaming. The investigations on pilot plant configuration, wastewaters composition, efficiency of filamentous bacteria removal and their growth stages with the view to identify the influence of these factors on content of some strains in EBPR systems were carried out.
References: 1. G. Bitton, Wastewater Microbiology, Wiley Publications, New York, USA, 1994.
2. D.H. Eikelboom, Process Control of Activated Sludge Plants by Microscopic Investigation,IWA Publishing, London, England, 2000.
3. D. Jenkins, M.G. Richard and G.T. Daigger, Manual on the Causes and Control of Activated Sludge Bulking and Foaming, Lewis Publishers, Washington, USA, 1993.
4. J. Pernelle, E. Cotteux and P. Duchene, Effectiveness of oligonucleotide probes targeted against Thiothrix nivea and type 021N 16S rRNA for in situ identification and population monitoring in activated sludges, Water Sci. Technol., 37 (4–5) (1998) 431–440.
5. R . H o w a r t h , R . F . U n z , E . M . S e v i o u r , R . J . Seviour, L.L. Blackall,R.W. Pickup, J.G. Jones, J. Yaguchi and I.M. Head, Phylogenetic relationships of filamentous sulphur bacteria (Thiothrix spp. and Eikelboom type 021N bacteria) isolated from wastewater treatment plants and description of Thiothrix eikelboomisp. nov., Thiothrix unzii sp. nov., Thiothrix fructosivorans sp. nov. and Thiothrix defluvii sp. nov., Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 49 (1999) 1817–1827.
6. T.M. Williams and R.F. Unz, Filamentous sulphur bacteria of activated sludge: characterization of Thiothrix, Beggiatoa and Eikelboom Type 021N strains, Appl.Environ. Microbiol., 49 (1985) 887–898.
7. S. Aruga, Y. Kamagata, T. Kohno, S. Hanada, K. Nakamura and T. Kanagawa,Characterization of filamentous Eikelboom type 021N bacteria and description of Thiothrix disciformis sp. nov. and Thiothrix flexilis sp. nov., Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol.,52 (2002) 1309–1316.
8. G. Tchobanoglous and F. Burton, Wastewater Engineering: Treatment and Reuse, Metcalf and Eddy, 4th edn., McGrawHill, Inc., New York, 2003.
9. N.M. Lee, H. Carlsson, H. Aspegren, T. Welander and B. Andersson, Stability and variation in sludge properties in two parallel systems for biological phosphorus removal operated with and without nitrogen removal, Water Sci. Technol., 34 (1–2) (1996) 101–109.
10. E. Vaiopoulou, P. Melidis and A. Aivasidis, An activated sludge treatment plant for integrated removal of carbon, nitrogen & phosphorus, Desalination (in press).
11. APHA, AWWA, WEF, Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater,20th edn., 1998.
12. R. YamamotoIkemoto, S. Matsui, T. Komori and E.K. BosqueHamilton,Interactions between filamentous, sulfur bacteria, sulfate reducing bacteria and polyPaccumulating bacteria in anaerobicoxic activated sludge from a municipal plant, Water Sci. Technol., 37 (4–5) (1998) 599–603.
13. R. YamamotoIkemoto, S. Matsui, T. Komori and E.J. BosqueHamilton, Symbiosis and competition among sulfate reduction, filamentous sulfur, denitrification, and polyPccumulation bacteria in the anaerobicoxic activated sludge of a municipal plant, Water Sci. Technol., 34 (5–6) (1996) 119–128.
14. R. YamamotoIkemoto, S. Matsui and T. Komori, Ecological interactions among denitrification, polyPaccumulation, sulfate reduction, and filamentous sulfur bacteria in activated sludge, Water Sci. Technol., 30 (1994) 201–210.
15. E. Vaiopoulou, P. Melidis and A. Aivasidis, Control of bulking sludge caused by Eikelboom type 021N and Thiothrix spp. in an enhanced biological nutrient removal system, presented at the International Conference “Protection and Restoration of the Environment VIII” at 3–7 July 2006 in Chania, Greece.

G.F. Gabidullina, F.B. SHkundina, M.G. Jadykina The use of cyanoprocaryote algal cenoses for monitoring of the biological treatment plants activated sludge state (on the example of the city of Ufa)

The composition of the cyanoprocaryote algal cenoses of the II stage sewage biological treatment plants (BTP) of the city of Ufa was investigated. The main characteristics of alga and cyanoprocaryote composition according to accounting data from 2005 to 2008 were analyzed; dominant and subdominant species of cyanoprocaryote algal cenoses are defined; the level of active sludge saprobity and level of cyanoprocaryote resistance in different periods of investigation for comparison with other cities’ BTP cenoses of the Republic of Bashkortostan were defined.
References: 1. Vodorosli. Spravochnik [Algae. Reference book] / Vasser S. P., Kondrat'eva N. V., Masjuk N. P. and others, Kiev, Nauk. dumka,publ., 1989, p. 608.
2. Solovyh G. N., Levin E. V., Pastuhova G. V. Biotehnologicheskoe napravlenie v reshenie jekologicheskih problem [Biotechnological solution in soving ecological problems], Ekatherinburg, 2003, p. 296.
3. Lakin G.F. Biometrija: Ucheb.posobie dlja biol.spec.vuzov [Biometry: study guide for higher education institution], M., Vyssh. Shk.,publ., 1990, p. 352.
4. Zhmur N. S. Metodicheskoe rukovodstvo po gidrobiologicheskomu i bakteriologicheskomu kontrolju processa biologicheskoj ochistki na sooruzhenijah s ajerotenkami[ Methodological guidelines on hydrobiological and bactrial control of biological treatment process at plants with aerotanks] PND F SB (nature protection norms, federal, sanitary-biological) 14.1.77 96.
5. Liperovskaja E.S. Gidrobiologicheskie indikatory sostojanija aktivnogo ila i ih rol' v biologicheskoj ochistke stochnyh vod [Hidrobiological indicators of active sludge state and thier role in biological waste water treatment], results of science and technology of VINITI, General biology, biocenology, hydrobiology, vol. 4, 1977, pp. 169 – 217.
6. Barinova S. S., Medvedeva L. A., Anisimova O. V. Bioraznoobrazie vodoroslej–indikatorov okruzhajushhej sredy [Biological diversity pf algae - environment indicators], 2006, p. 498.

E. S. SHirinkina, I. S. Glushankova, N.G. Osipenko Justification of the technological parameters of the titano-magnesium industry wastewaters neutralization

The article presents the result of theoretical and experimental investigations of the wastewater neutralization process containing ions of alkaline, alkaline-earth, amphiprotic heavy metals; the dependence of heavy metals hydroxides sedimentation on pH value is defined. The ph value of metals hydroxides sedimentation beginning which contain in titano-magnesium wastewater, solubility of compounds in relation to solubility performance value and wastewater ph value are defined. The results of potentiometric titration of wastewaters 0, 1 N with NaOH solution with the view to experimentally confirm theoretical investigations are presented. The optimal parameters of neutralization process conduction are proved.
References: 1. Timonin A.S. Inzhenernojekologicheskij spravochnik [Engineering-ecological reference book], A.S. Timonin. vol.2., Kaluga, Izdatel'stvo N. Bochkarevoj,publ., 2003, p. 884.
2. Tarasov A.V. Metallurgija titana [Titanium metallurgy], A.V. Tarasov, M., counselling centre «Akademkniga», 2003, p. 328.
3. Vol'hin V.V. Obshhaja himija [General chemistry], Perm, 2004, p. 464.
4. Nazarenko V.A., Antonovich V.P., Nevskaja E.M. Gidroliz ionov metallov v razbavlennyh rastvorah [ Hydrolysis of metal ions in dilution], M., Atomizdat,publ., 1979, p. 192.
5. Spravochnik himikaanalitika [Reference book for analytical chemist], A.I. Lazarev, I.P. Harlamov and others, M., «Metallurgija»,publ., 1976, p. 184.

I.G. Shaihiev, G.A. MinligulovaIndustrial waste water treatment by wastewaters of other industries. Part 3. Treatment of wastewater containing organic impurities

With a view of reagent economy the treatment of wastewaters containing inorganic pollutants can be fulfilled by using wastewaters of different industries. The article presents issues on wastewater treatment of oil-refining industry, organic synthesis enterprises, leather and fur industry, viscose fiber enterprises as well as wastewaters containing colorants.
References: 67. Author certificate 1701643 USSR, IPC C 02 F 1/58. Sposob ochistki stochnyh vod ot nefteproduktov [Method of oil products removal from waste waters] T.Ju. Popova, Ja.I. Vajsman, O.A. Epishina, P,N. Antyshev,V.A. Juhnev; applicant and patent holder Perm Polytechnic Insitute, № 4717905/26; declared 11.07.89; published 30.12.91.
68. Author certificate 1701644 USSR, IPC C 02 F 1/58. Sposob ochistki stochnyh vod ot nefteproduktov [Method of oil products removal from waste waters] T.Ju. Popova, Ja.I. Vajsman, O.A. Epishina, P,N. Antyshev, V.A. Juhnev, A.E. Krasik; applicant and patent holder Perm Polytechnic Insitute, № 4723246/26, declared 24.07.89; published 30.12.91.
69. Author cerificate 971816 USSR, IPC C 02 F 1/58. Sposob ochistki stochnyh vod ot nefteproduktov [Method of oil products removal from waste waters] B.I. No, A.P. Hardin, V.F. Tarasov, V.P. Ushhenko, V.Sh. Mirzajanov,T.A. Zheltova; applicant and patent holder Volgograd polytechnic institute, № 3279679/2326; declared 28.04.81; published 07.11.82
70. Nikitin G.A. Sovmestnaja biohimicheskaja ochistka neftesoderzhashhih stochnyh vod i stochnyh vod proizvodstva sinteticheskih zhirnyh kislot [ Joint biochemical treatment of oily waste waters and waste waters of synthetical fatty aids production industry] G.A. Nikitin,D.N. Pavljuk // Water chemistry and technology, journ., 1982, vol., 4, № 4, p.372374.
71. Author certificate 887476 USSR, IPC C 02 F 1/74. Sposob ochistki shhelochnyh stochnyh vod [Method of caustic wastewaters treatment] G.N. Lucenko, A.I. Cvetkova, N.Ju. Tugusheva, A.D. Vinnichenko, L.I.Gjunter,Ju.A. Lerner; applicant and patent holder Municipal Water Supply & Treatment Research Institute, № 2889329/2926; declared 29.02.80; published 07.12.81.
72. Author certificate 865838 USSR, IPC C 02 F 1/58. Sposob obezvrezhivanija othodov,soderzhashhih perekisnye soedinenija [Method of waste neutralization containing peroxide compounds] A.G. Ovcharov, A.P. Surkov, Je.I. Reshetnikov,G.M. Sitnikov, V.A. Shubenina, L,B. Jakushkin; applicant and patent holder Saratov production association "Nitron", № 2834376/2926; declared 30.10.79; published 23.09.81.
73. Patent 1290658 Great Britain,IPC C 02 S 5/10. Phenol plant effluent treatment / T. Bewley, M. D. Cooke, M. M. Wirth; applicant and patent holder BP Chemical Ltd., declared 4. 06. 1971; published 27. 09.1972.
74. Author certificate 861336 USSR, IPC C 02 F 1/58. Sposob koncentrirovanija sul'fatnogo stoka proizvodstva sinteticheskih zhirnyh kislot [Method of concentration of sulphate waters of synthetical fatty aids production industry] F.F. Uchvatov, G.P. Gaponenko; applicant and patent holder Volgodonsk department of RESEARCH AND INDUSTRIAL ENTERPRISE NIIPAV, № 2860809/2926; declared 29.12.79; published 17.09.81.
75. Pashajan A.A. Kompleksnaja utilizacija proizvodstvennyh vod, soderzhashhih maleinovuju kislotu [ Complex utilization of industrial waters containing maleic acid] A.A. Pashajan, O.S. Shhebinskaja // Applied chemistry, journ., 1998, v. 71, № 7.
76. Patent 5428666 Japan, IPC C 02 C 5/02. Sposob ochistki stochnyh vod proizvodstva viskoznogo shelka [Method of waste water treatment of viscose silk production idustry], Harakuni Masahisa, Isomje Jasuo, Harada Josiaki, Nisi Josio, № 4831804; declared 22.03.1973; published 17.09.1979.
77. Laskov Ju.M. Ochistka stochnyh vod predprijatij kozhevennoj i mehovoj promyshlennosti [ Waste water treatment of leather and fur production idustry] Ju.M. Laskov, T.G. Fedorovskij, G.N. Zhmanov, M., Legkaja i pishhevaja promyshlennost'[Light and food industry],journ., 1984, p. 242.
78. Macnev A.I. Ochistka stochnyh vod flotaciej [Waste waters treatment by flotation] A.I. Macnev., Kiev: Budivel'nik, 1976, p. 132.
79. Macnev A.I. Ochistka flokuljaciej tannidsoderzhashhih stochnyh vod kozhevennyh zavodov [ Tannery waste waters treatment by flocculation] A.I. Macnev, E.N. Belozorova, L.A. Sablij, Water chemistry and technology, journ., 1987, № 3, pp. 260-262.
80. Patent 94039993 Russian Federation , IPC C 02 F 1/45. Sposob ochistki stochnyh vod kozhevennogo proizvodstva ot tannidov [ Method of removal of tannins from waste waters of leather production industry], Ju.V. Kedrov, L.B. Baranova, N.P. Maracheva, A.A. Obzhorin, N.B. Motovilova, № 94039993/25; declared 26.10.94; published 20.08.96.
81. Author certificate 1265151 USSR, IPC C 02 F 1/54. Sposob ochistki tannidsoderzhashhih stochnyh vod ot organicheskih primesej [Method of organic impurities removal from waste waters containing tannins] / A.I. Macnev, E.N. Belozerova,L.A. Sablij; applicant and patent holder Water Management and Nature Resources Use, № 3810916/3126; declared 11.11.84; published 23.10.86.
82. Patent 87/94030397 Russian Federation , IPC C 02 F 1/62. Sposob ochistki stochnyh vod ot hroma [Method of chrome removal from waste waters] / N.V. Zhulin, N,P. Murzin, A.I. Ermolaev; applicant and patent holder Kansk tannery, № 94030397/25; declared 05.08.94; published 10.08.96.
83. conf/50ntk/section 3/section3_6.html Sposoby ochistki stochnyh vod ot tjazhelyh metallov [Methods of heavy metals from waste waters], electronic data, M., 2002.
84. Garibov F. I. Sovmestnaja ochistka dvuh toksichnyh proizvodstvennyh stochnyh vod Bakinskogo kozhevennogo zavoda [ Joint treatment of two tonxic industrial waste water flows of Baku tannery], Garibov F. I., Garibov I. M.,Babaev N. M., Azerbaijan Architecture and Construction University, Baku, 1983, p. 7, Azerbaijan NIINTI 04.11.83, № 126Az, D83.
85. Timofeeva S.S. Sostojanie i perspektivy razvitija metodov obezvrezhivanija stochnyh vod kozhevennogo proizvodstva [ Current state and trends of development of tannery waste waters treatment methods] S.S. Timofeeva, Water chemistry and technology, 1992, № 9, pp. 696-697.
86. Author certificate 143733 USSR. Sposob ochistki stochnyh vod zavodov viskoznogo volokna [ Method of viscose fibre factory waste waters treatment] L.I.Mongajt, M.G. Volkov, A.A.Litvak, G.I. Fishman, E.I. Popov, published 24.01.62.
87. Mongajt I. L. Biologicheskaja ochistka stochnyh vod predprijatij iskusstvennogo volokna [Biological treatment of synthetic fiber industry waste waters] I.L. Mongajt, E.A. Kulakov, E.B. Ishhanova, N.V. Vandjuk; Waste water treatment: collection of scientific papers № 3 / Research institute VODGEO, M., Gosstrojizdat, publ., 1962, pp. 154-166.
88. Author certificate 1820903 USSR, IPC C 02 F 1/58, C 02 F 1/39. Sposob ochistki stochnyh vod tekstil'nyh predprijatij [Method of textile factory waste waters treatment], M.D. Belostockij, Je.I. Avdeeva, N.A. Markova, I.V. Ksenofontova, M.V. Tokareva, A.B. Boldin; applicant and patent holder Tashkent department of research institute VODGEO, № 4778528/26; declared 27.11.89; published 23.09.92.
89. Author certificate 835967 USSR, IPC C 02 F 1/58. Sposob ochistki stochnyh vod ot krasitelej [Waste waters treatment from dyes] / Je.G. Bogdanova, N.N. Ermakova, E.F. Manevich, L.M. Shapovalova; applicant and patent holder Tashkent department of research institute VODGEO, № 2793415/2926; declared 06.07.79; published 10.06.81.
90. Patent 3677940 USA, IPC C 02 C 5/02. Method of treating scaring and alyeing waste water / Fujimoto Hirosni, Fubuki Mitsuku, declared. 16.02.1971; published 18.07.72.
91. Patent 3868320 USA, IPC 01 B 21/01 Treatment of paper box plant effluent / S. A. Hider, J. K. Rogers, C. W. Wilkins ; applicant and patent holder Owens – Illinois Inc., declared 30.07.73; published 25.02.75.

P.C. Shridang, C. Wisniewski, S. Ognier, A. Grasmick The influence of suspended solids on membrane fouling during filtration of various suspensions in a process of natural and waste waters treatment

The aim of this research was to estimate and quantify different solutions and suspensions filterability in dependence with their nature and composition. The laboratory filtration cell with flat organic membranes was used. The potential ability to pollute membranes of different compounds such as bentonite, iron hydroxide, powered activated carbon (PAC), latex, humic acid, proteins, and bacterial compounds was investigated. The filterability of solutions/ suspensions at their conditioning with iron hydroxide (or without) as well as with adding powered activated carbon was estimated. The experiment results obviously indicate that in the similar concentration conditions coefficients of mineral suspensions resistance have lower values than the same indicators of organic suspensions. Suspension conditioning, adding of iron chloride or PAC enabled to decrease the membrane pollution due to retention of soluble and colloidal fractions on suspended particles. The phenomenon of bacterial suspensions adsorption and sedimentation on suspended particles can explain the observed pollution.
References: 1. J.M. Laine, D. Viala and P. Moulart, Status after 10 years of operation - overview of UF technology todays. Desalmation, 131(2000) 17-25.
2. R. Rautenbach and K. VoBenkaul. Pressure driven membrance process - the answer to the need of a growing world population for quality water supply and waste water disposal, Separ. Purif. Technol., 22-23(2001) 193-208.
3. L. Defrance and M.Y. Jaffrin, Reversibility of fouling in activated sludge filtration, J. Membr. Sci., 157 (1999) 73-84.
4. G. Belfort, R.H. Davis and A.L. Zydney, The behavior of suspensions and macromoluecular solutions in crossflow microfiltration, J. Membr. Sci., 96 (1994) 1-58.
5. S. Orgnier, C. Wisniewski and A. Grasmick, Influence of macromolecule adsorption during filtration of a membrance bioreactor mixed liqour suspension, J. Membr. Sci., 209 (2002) 27-37.
6. A. Maartens, P.Swart and E.P. Jacobs, Removal of natural organic matter by ultrafiltration: characterization, fouling and cleaning, Water Sci. Technol., 40(9) (1999) 113-120.
7. E. Tradiue, A. Gramsick and V. Geugey, Hydrodynamic control of bioparticle desposition in a MBR applied to wastewater treatment, J. Member. Sci., 147 (1998) 1-12.
8. P. Chokschart, M. Heran and A. Gramsick, Surface water clarification my ultrafiltration with an immersed membrance system, Water Sci. Technol. Water Suppy. 3 (5-6) (2003) 393-399.
9. P. Choksuchart Sridang, M. Heranand, A. Grasmick, Influence of module configuration and hydrodynamics in water clarification by immersed membrance systems. Water Sci. Technol., 51 (6-7) (2005) 135-142.
10. J. Kim, C. Lee and I.-S. Chang. Effect om pump shear on the performance of a crossflow membrance bioreactor, Water Res., 35(9) (2001) 2137-2144.

N. YU. Zakarjan, G. P. PirumjanThe chemical composition of precipitation in the city of Yerevan

The chemical composition of precipitations of the city of Yerevan in such quarters as Kanaker Hydroelectric Power Station, Zeitun, Arapgir and Shengavit during the period from January to May 2008 was researched. The precipitation classification on dominating anions and cations is presented.
References: 1. Duka G. G., Gorjacheva N. V., Ketrush P. M., Mihjeilje G., «Gidrohimija» [Hydrochemistry], study guide, Kishinev, State University of Moldova, 1995.
3. EMEP/CCCReport 1/95, Revision 1/96: March 1996.
4. Fomin G. S., “Voda”, Gosstandart Rossii, Kontrol' himicheskoj, bakterial'noj i radiacionnoj bezopasnosti po mezhdunarodnym standartam, Jenciklopedicheskij slovar'[Water. State standards of Russia. COntrol of chemical, bacterial and radiation security according to international standards, Moscow, 2000.
5. Manual for the GAW Precipitation chemistry programme, Guidelines, Data Quality Objectives and Standard Operating Procedures, Edited by Mary A. Allan, 2004.


A.A. Petropavlovskii, V.N. NikitinaIntensification of crude oil destruction by natural microbial communities using bacterial bioSAS

The property of bacterial bioSAS (surface active substance) increases the water treatment efficiency from oil products by natural communities of microorganisms. The crude oil destruction intensification in approximate concentration of 1g/l and 2 g/l in comparison with natural destruction adding the bio SAS sterile solution made more than 50 % and more than 20% during 5 days. The bioSAS solution decreased water surface tension to 35 mn/m.
References: 1. Abramson, A.A. Poverhnostnoaktivnye veshhestva. Sintez, analiz, svojstva [Surface-active agents. Synthesis, analysis, properties], A.A. Abramson, L.P. Zajchenko, S.I. Fajngol'd, L., Himija,journ., 1988 p. 200.
2. Karpenko E.V. Poverhnostnoaktivnye soedinenija kul'tury Pseudomonas sp. S27 [Surface-active compounds of culture Pseudomonas sp. S27], E.V Karpenko, A. N. Shul'ga, N.S. Shheglova, S.A. Eliseev, R.I. Vil'danovaMarcishin, A.A. Turovskij, Mikrobiologicheskij zhurna, journ., 1996, vol. 58, № 5, pp. 18-24.
3. Holmberg K. Poverhnostnoaktivnye veshhestva i polimery v vodnyh rastvorah [Surface-active agents and polymers in water solutions], K. Holmberg, B. Jensson, B. Kronberg, B. Lindman, M., 2007, pp. 260-262.
4. Shul'ga A.N. Vnekletochnye lipidy i poverhnostnoaktivnye svojstva bakterii Rhodococcus erythopolis v zavisimosti ot istochnika uglerodnogo pitanija [Extracellular lipids and surface-atcive properties of the bacterium Rhodococcus erythopolis in dependance of the carbon nutrition source], A.N. Shul'ga, E.V. Karpenko, S.A. Eliseev S.A., A.A. Turovskij A.A., T.V. Koronelli, Mikrobiologija,journ., 1990, vol. 59, № 3, pp. 443-447
5. Measurement of the oil products mass concentration by fluorimetric method in samples of drinking water and water of surface and ground water sources, MG 4.1.126203 from 01.04.2003.
6. Alexander, M. Biodegradation and bioremediation / M. Alexander. San Diego, Calif. : Academic Press, 1999, 2nd edition, p. 454.
7. Beal R. Role of rhamnolipid biosurfactants in the uptake and mineralization of hexadecane in Pseudomonas aeruginosa / R. Beal, W.B. Betts, Appl. Microbiol.,journ., 2000. Vol. 89, pp. 158-168.
8. Boonchan S. Surfactantenhanced biodegradation of high molecular weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by Stenotrophomonas maltophilia / S. Boonchan, M.L. Britz, G.A. Stanley // Biotechnol Bioeng.,journ., 1998, Vol. 59, pp. 482–494.
9. Foght J.M. Effect of emulsan on biodegradation of crude oil by pure and mixed bacterial cultures / J.M Foght, D.L. Gutnick, D.W.S. Westlake // Appl. Environ Microbiol.,journ., 1989, Vol. 55, pp. 36–42.
10. Noordman W.H. Rhamnolipid stimulates uptake of hydrophobic compounds by Pseudomonas aeruginosa / W.H Noordman, D.B Janssen // Appl. Env. Microbiol.,journ., 2002, Vol. 68, № 9, pp. 4502–4508.
11. VasilevaTonkovaa E. Characterization of bacterial isolates from industrial wastewater according to probable modes of hexadecane uptake / E. VasilevaTonkovaa,D. Galabovaa, E. Stoimenovab, Z. Lalchevb // Microbiol. Res.,journ., 2008, Vol 163, pp. 481-486.
12. Zhang Y. Effect of rhamnolipid (biosurfactant) structure on solubilization and biodegradation of nalkanes / Y. Zhang, R.M. Miller // Appl. Environ. Microbiol., journ., 1995. Vol. 61, № 6, pp. 2247–2251.

B.G. Mishukov, E.A. Soloveva Aeration of the mixed liquor in aerotanks-nitrifiers

Currently the pneumatic fine-bubble aeration became the main aeration system in the practice of wastewaters treatment. Mechanical aerators went into past and often replaced by immersed propeller mixer in combination with membrane aerators with either soft or hard diffusers. The article represents the calculation technique for air consumption on mixed liquor aeration depending on aerators operation period and required degree of nitrification of ammonium nitrogen.
References: 1. 1. Lur'e Ju.Ju., Rybnikova A. I. Himicheskij analiz proizvodstvennyh stochnyh vod [Chemical analysis of industrial waste waters],Himija,publ., M., 1974, p. 335.
2. M.P. Ries, D. T. Redmon, F. Corsoro, T.E. Wilson. Alpha factor testing at a step feed BNP plant. Water Enviroment Federation, 2005.
3. Solov'eva E. A. Ochistka stochnyh vod ot azota i fosfora. Monografija [Treatment of waste waters from azote and phosphorus. Monograhpy], SPb, Vodoproekt Giprokommunvodokanal Sankt -Peterburg, publ., 2008, p. 100.
4. Mishukov B.G., Solov'eva E. A., Kerov V. A., Zvereva L. N. Tehnologija udalenija azota i fosfora v processah ochistki stochnyh vod [Technology of azote and phosphorus removal in a process of waste waters treatment], Voda: tehnologija i jekologija [Water: technology and ecology], journ., 2008, p. 144.
5. SNiP 2.04.0385 Kanalizacija. Naruzhnye seti i sooruzhenija [Building code 2.04.0385. Sewerage system. Public utilities], M., Strojizdat,publ., 1985, p. 72.
6. Rosso D., Stenstrom M.E.. Economic implications of fine pore diffuser aging. HDR Engineering, Folsom, CA,95630, USA. 2005, p. 2442.
7. Tehnicheskij spravochnik po obrabotke vody Degremont [Technical guidebook "Degremont" on water treatment], Novyj zhurnal, journ., SPb, 2007, vol.1, vol.2, p. 1696.
8. McGrath M. Gupta K. Daigger T. Operation of a step feed process for both biological phosphorus and nitrogen removal; USA, 1998, р. 1675.

V. Lazarova, P. DauthuilleOperational reliability and environmental impact of wastewater treatment technology in membrane bioreactors

The main technical problem in using membrane bioreactors (MBR) is membrane pollution control. However, the main reasons of the full MBR-systems used for industrial and city wastewater treatment do not have reliable documentation and explanation. The work monitoring of MBR-system on four city wastewater treatment stations equipped with immersed hollow fiber membrane and on four MBR-systems of industrial wastewater treatment equipped with ceramic filters. Based on data of breaks nature and their influence on water quality and MBR technical characteristics the deliberate ranking of their effect on environment was offered.
References: 1. Joss, A., Siegrist, H., Ternes, T.A. (2008). Are we about to upgrade 1. wastewater treatment for removing organic micropollutants ? Wat. Sci. Tech. 57(2), 251255.
2. Lazarova V., Bonroy J.L. and Richard J.L. (2008) Reliability of operation and failure management of membrane wastewater treatment. Wat. Practice. Tech. 3(2), 8p.
3. Snyder S., Adham S., Redding A.M., Cannon F.S., DeCarolis J., Oppenheimer J., Wert E. and Yoon Y. (2006) Role of membranes and activated carbon in the removal of endocrine descriptors and pharmaceuticals. Desalination, 202, 156181.
4. U.S. Geological Survey (2002). National Field Manual for the Collection of WaterQuality Data. TWRI BOOK 9. 180 p.
5. Zuehlke S., Duennbier U., Lesjean B., Gnirss R. and Buisson H. (2006) Longterm comparison of trace organics removal performances between conventional and membrane activated sludge, Water Env. Research, 78(13), 24802486.

I.G. Shaihiev, G.A. MinligulovaIndustrial waste water treatment by wastewaters of other industries.Part 4. Purification of wastewaters containing inorganic admixtures

With a view to reagent economy the treatment of wastewaters containing inorganic pollutants can be fulfilled by using wastewaters of different industries. The article presents issues on printing enterprise wastewaters treatment, removal of inorganic anions, sulfide ions and heavy metals ions from wastewaters.
References: 92. Majakin V. Povyshenie jeffektivnosti ochistki stochnyh vod [ Increase of effectiveness of waste waters treatment], V. Majakin, N. Ostapchuk, V.Shvedov, M. Zacerkljannyj, Poligrafija,publ., 1980, № 8, pp. 10 – 11.
93. Zacerkljannyj M.M. Issledovanie ochistki stochnyh vod poljarograficheskih predprijatij v opytnopromyshlennom jeksperimente [Investigation of polarographic enterprises waste waters treatment in experimental-industrial experiment], M.M. Zacerkljanyj, N.V. Ostapchuk, T.B. Stolevich , Odessa Technological Institute of Food Technologies, Odessa, 1981, p. 6, (manuscript stored in NIITEKHIM, Cherkassy, Ukraine), 11th of November 1981, № 972 hpD81).
94. Request 2842436 France, IPC B В 01 F 3/22, B 01 F 3/12. Procede de preparation de suspensions aqueuses de charges minerals. Suspensions aqueuses de charges minerals obtenues et leurs utilizations / Husson Maurice, Jacquement Christiann, Vorobiev Eugene; declared 17.07.2002; published 23.01.2004.
95. Author certificate 988777 USSR, IPC С 02 F 1/58. Sposob ochistki stochnyh vod jodobromnogo proizvodstva [ Method of iodine-bromine production waste waters treatment], T.–M. Kurbanov, Ju.P. Danchenko, A.A. Akmamedov; applicant and patent holder Turkmenskij gosudarstvennyj nauchnoissledovatel'skij i proektnyj institut neftjanoj romyshlennosti [ Turkmenia State research and design institute of oil industry], № 3274304/2326; declared 07.04.81; published 15.01.83.
96. Author certificate 1641779 USSR, IPC С 02 F 1/58. Sposob nejtralizacii kislyh stochnyh vod jodobromnogo proizvodstva [Method of iodine-bromine production acid wastewater neutralisation], T.K. Hoshanov; applicant and patent holder Turkmenskij gosudarstvennyj nauchnoissledovatel'skij i proektnyj institut neftjanoj romyshlennosti [ Turkmenia State research and design institute of oil industry], № 988777; declared 07.07.87; published 15.04.91.
97. Author certificate 1810308 Russian Federation , IPC С 02 F 1/58. Sposob ochistki stochnyh vod ot iodidov [Method of waste water treatment from iodides], S.N. Linevich, D.S. Stashevich, L.N. Fesenko, M.V. Kuchumova; applicant and patent holder Novocherkassk Poytechnica institute, № 4930843/26; declared 23.04.91; published 23.04.93
98. Vakurova I.K. Udalenie galoidov iz stochnyh vod [Removal of haloid from waste waters] I.K. Vakurova, M.D. Diarov, Water chemistry and technology,journ., 1988, № 5, pp. 463-464.
99. Author certificate 1456375 USSR, IPC С 02 F 1/58. Sposob ochistki stochnyh vod ot fosfatov [Method of waste waters treatment from phosphates] Je.L. Glekel', Je.G. Amosova, R.I. Gutnikova, V.I. Bondarenko, Ju.Z. Kozinec, Ju.A. Chmeljov, B.S. Zlotnikov, G.I. Evtushenko, V.E. Judin, V.F. Chernyshev; applicant and patent holder Tashkent department of the research institure VODGE and Kharkov Vodokanalproekt, № 4190251/2926; declared 02.02.87; published 07.02.89.
100. Elanskij V.L. K tehnologii sovmestnoj ochistki zhelezosoderzhashhih i serovodorodnyh vod neftedobyvajushhih predprijatij [On technology of joint treatment of iron-containing and hydrogen-sulphide waters of oil-production enterprises], V.L. Elanskij, A.G. Sokolov, Neftjanoe hozjajstvo,journ., 1974, № 1, pp.44-48.
101. Patent 2121980 Russian Federation, IPC C O2 F 1/58, S O2 F 1/64, S O2 F 9/00. Sposob utilizacii nesovmestimyh vod [Method of utilization of incompatible waters], P. T. Dytjuk, R.H. Samakaev, R.S. Kalimullin, N.A. Rjabin; applicant and patent holder production office JSC «Orenburgneft», № 96109752/25; declared 21.05.96; published 20.11.98.
102. Patent 1820903 Russian Federation, IPC C 02 F 1/58. Sposob ochistki stochnyh vod ot sul'fidov [Method of waste waters treatment from sulphides], V.F Hromyh, Ju.M. Kujundzhi, M.B. Gershkovich, V.I. Celikov, Ju.V. Ostrovskij, V.A. Makarova, G.D. Eliseev, Je.M. Beljaeva;applicant and patent holder Moscow scientific and production cooperative «Jekologija–2000». – № 4882215/26; declared 16.11.90; published 07.06.93.
103. Javorskij V.T. Ochistka sul'fidnyh plastovyh vod [ Suiphide formation water treatment], V.T. Javorskij, L.I.Cheljadyn, V.F. Mel'nik and others, Water chemistry and technology, 1997, vol. 9, № 5, pp. 462-464.
104. Abdrahimov Ju.R. Obezvrezhivanie i nejtralizacija sul'fidnoshhelochnyh stokov smesheniem s gal'vanicheskimi stokami [Disinfection and neutralization of sulphide-alkaline waste waters by mixing with galvanic waste waters] Ju.R. Abdrahimov, R.A. Rizvanova //Materials of research and practice conference of CIS specialists, Ufa, Bashkir research institure on petroleum, 1992, pp. 15-17.
105. Patent 4684472 USA, IPC C 02 F 1/52. Precipitation of waste chromium compounds utilizing an aqueous sulfide solution / B.W. Abde, J.M. Cole; applicant and patent holder Phillips Petroleum Co. № 819082; declared 26.12.85; published 04.08.87.
106. Author certificate 1271831 USSR, IPC C 02 F 1/62. Sposob ochistki stochnyh vod ot shestivalentnogo hroma [Method of waste waters treatment from hexavalent chromium], V.N. Trofimov, E.M. Smirnov, I.N. Drannikova, T.S. Gikirina; applicant and patent holder Chelyabinsk department of the research institute VODGEO, № 3646727/2326; declared 29.09.83; published in IB № 43, 1986.
107. Liu Jianshe Ochistka promyshlennyh stochnyh vod [Industrial waste waters treatment], Liu Jianshe, Xia Haibo, Wang Zhaohui, J. Cent. S. Univ. Sci. and Technol., 2004, vol. 35, № 6, pp. 941-944.
108. Polishhuk L.L. Ochistka agressivnyh stochnyh vod na predprijatijah chjornoj metallurgii [ Corrosive waste waters treatment at iron industry enterprises], L.L. Polishhuk, T.V. Matveeva, L.D. Klenysheva, Vodosnabzhenie i sanitarnaja tehnika [Water Supply and Sanitary Technique],journ., 1988, №12, pp. 23-24.
109. Meierling L. Innovative abwasserlosungen am beispiel der metallindustrie / L. Meierling Wasserwirt.wassertechn., 2003, № 5, pp. 36-39.
110. Beilstein D.H. At the herculanium smelter of the St. Joe Lead company / D.H. Beilstein // Papers of World Symp. «LeadZinkTin, 80», Las Vegas, 1980, pp. 720-730.
111. Kucygina M.I. Vlijanie promstokov Bereznikovskogo titanomagnievogo kombinata na srok sluzhby shlamonakopitelej Bereznikovskogo sodovogo zavoda [Effect of Berezniki titanium-magnesium plant waste waters on sludge collectors operating life at Berezniki soda factory], M. I. Kucygina, N. M. Polivekok, I. G. Valeev, A. Ja. Belik, Workds of the state research and design institute of basic chemistry, collection of science works, Moscow, 1978, № 47, pp. 41 – 43.
112. Patent 2293063 Russian Federation, IPC C 02 F 1/66, C 02 F 103/10. Sposob nejtralizacii kislyh shahtnyh vod i ustanovka dlja ego osushhestvlenija [Method of neutralization of acid alkaline waters and equipment for its implementation] N.G. Maksimovich, V.N. Basov, S.B. Holostov; applicant and patent holder Federal state research institution "Natural scientific Institute" № 2005106659/15; declared 14.03.05; published 10.02.07.
113. Beljaeva G. N. Obrabotka stochnyh vod vodopodgotovitel'nyh ustanovok [Treatment of waste waters of waste water treatment plant] G.N.Beljaeva, Fizikohimicheskie metody v tehnologii ochistki promyshlennyh stochnyh vod [Physical chemical methods in industrial waste waters treatment technology], works of the research institute VODGEO, collection of scientific papers, M., 1987, pp. 65-69.

I.F. Suvorov, K.A. Lapshakova, A.S. Yudin Application of diaphragm discharge for water disinfection in swimming pools

The investigation results of antibacterial properties of water treated by diaphragm electric discharge in relationship with its effect on microorganisms are presented. The explanation of the aftereffect occurrence – water ability to maintain its damaging ability in respect of pathogenic microorganism after electric discharge treatment is given.
References: 1. Rogozhkin G.I. Ochistka i obezzarazhivanie vody v bassejnah [Treatment and disinfection of water in swimming pools], G.I. Rogozhkin, Santehnika,journ., 2003, №4.
2. Goncharuk, V.V. Sovremennoe sostojanie problemy obezzarazhivanija vody [Up-to-date state of water disinfection problem], V.V.Goncharuk, N.G.Potapchenko, Himija i tehnologija vody [Water chemistry and technolgy],journ., 1998, № 2, pp. 190-217.
3. Bozhko, I.V. Fal'kovskij, N.I. (2006) Fenomenologicheskoe issledovanie diafragmennogo razrjada v vode [ Phenomenological analysis of the diaphragm discharge in water], collection of scientific papers, 2(14), pp. 177-179.
4. Kolikov V.A. Prolongirovannaja mikrobnaja ustojchivost' vody, obrabotannoj impul'snym jelektricheskim razrjadom [ Prolonged microbial resistance of water treated by pulsed electric discharge], V.A. Kolikov , Zhurnal tehnicheskoj fiziki,journ., 2007, vol. 77, №2, pp. 118-125.
5. Lapshakova K.A. Obezzarazhivanie bytovyh stochnyh vod malyh naselennyh punktov diafragmennym jelektricheskim razrjadom [Disinfection of small towns' domestic waste waters by diaphragm discharge],abstract of a thesis by candidate of Science, defended on 27.03.2009, Lapshakova K.A. ,Irkutsk, 2009, p. 18, I.F.

V.S. Esilevskii, V.N. Kuznecov, L.V. Uvarova Prospects for reducing energy consumption by using fuzzy logic in control systems for wastewater pumping stations

The work of water disposal plant (wastewater pumping station) with use of a regulator based on fuzzy logic is observed. Linguistic rules of water pumping sets operation for maintaining the wastewater level in discharge tank with the set limits are developed. The calculation of investigated system energy consumption was made.

A.A. Tutundzhjan, G.G. Babajan, G. P. Pirumjan Formation features of the chemical composition of the Southern basin natural water of the Republic of Armenia

The article presents researches on formation features of the chemical composition of the Sothern basin natural waters of Armenia. Physiographic, geologic, climatic status of natural waters and influence of industrial, agricultural and municipal wastewaters on its chemical composition are listed. It was showed that industrial and municipal wastewaters pollutes surface waters with heavy and toxic metals ( Aras river neat the city of Agarak; Gorisget river near the city of Goris; Voghdji river near the city of Kapan and Kajaran; Merkhiget river near the city of Mehri; Vorotan river near the cirty of Sisian). The main source of pollution of the river Mehri is agriculture but ecological environment of the river basin was satisfactory though.
References: 1. Atlas of the Armenian Soviet Socialist Republic. Edition of the Academy of Science of the ASSR and the Head office of geodesy and cartography of the USSR, Yerevan, Moscow.
2. Manasjan M.G., Grigorjan A.T., Potosjan A.G. “Sjunikskij marzpriroda,naselenie,promyshlennost'” [Syunik Marz's nature, population and industry] Yerevan, 2002.
3. Aslanjan A.T. Regional'naja geologija Armenii[Regional geology of Armenia] Ajpetart, Erevan, 1958.
4. Mnacakanjan B.P. “Vodnyj balans Armenii” [Water balance of Armenia], Yerevan, 2005.
5. Population census data of the republic of Armenia, Yerevan, 2001.
6. “Okruzhajushhaja sreda i prirodnye resursy Respubliki Armenija” [Environment and natural resources of the republic of Armenia] collection of statistic analyses, Yerevan, 2006.
7. Proceedings of the international conference “The importance of ecology and nature protection in the sustainable development perspectives”/ 2021 November,2008 Yerevan, Armenia.
8. Collection of abstracts of reports of the 1st science conference of the Armenian chemical society "Advanced problems of the chemical science in Armenia", July, pp. 17-18.
9. Collection of reports of the international conference on chemistry and chemical technology, Yerevan, 2007.
10. Ecological geochemical environment assessment of the city Kajaran, investigation data of the ecological noospheric investigations center of the Armenian National Academy of Sciences, Yerevan, 2008.

R.G. Gevorkjan, A.O. Sargsjan, G.P. Pirumjan Efficient treatment of radioactive liquid wastes with thermochemically modified natural zeolites of Armenia

The efficient technology of radioactive isotopes and heavy metal extraction from radioactive liquid wastes of the Armenian nuclear plant with the use of mechanically, thermally, chemically and radioactively modified natural zeolites.
References: 1. «Prirodnye ceolity» [Natural zeolite], Moskow, «Himija», journ., 1985, p. 224.
2. Petrosov I.H., Dzhrbashjan R.T., Mnacakanjan A.H., «Glavnejshie mestorozhdenja ceolitov Armenii» [The main zeolite depoists of Armenia], Yerevan, 1999, p. 190.
3. Sargsyan H., Gevorgyan R., Guyumjyan O., Djrbashyan R., Mnacakanyan A., Mchitaryan R., Petrosov I., Sadoyan A., «Deposits of Armenian zeolites», 13 TH International Zeolite Conference, Montpellier, 813.07.2001, Book of abstract, 01R03.
4. Gevorgyan R.G., Sargsyan H. H., Karamyan G.G, Keheyan Y.M,Yeritsyan H. N., Hovhannesyan A.S., Sahakyan A.A., «Study of Sorption Properties of Irradiated Zeolites from the Armenian geological area», Jornal «Chemie der Erde», 2002, pp.237242.
5. Sargsyan H., Gevorgyan R., Yeritsyan H., Keheyan Y., Sahakyan A., Hovhannisyan A., «ZEOLITE MODIFICATION AND APPLICATION STUDY FOR DECONTAMINATION OF NUCLEAR LIQUID WASTE», 13 TH International Zeolite Conference, Montpellier, 813.07.2001, Book of abstract 31R09,31R10.
6. Gevorkjan R., Sargsjan A., Ericjan G., Kegejan E., Karamjan G., Saakjan A., «Modificirovannye ceolity Armenii dlja obezvrezhivanija zhidkih radioaktivnyh othodov» [Modified zeolites of Armenia for liquid radioactive waste treatment] Saint-Petersburg, «Vestnik MANEB», journ., №6(42), vol.2, 2001, pp. 59-60.

E. MertaThe new system “Finnflow” for floating material removal

Collection and removal of floating materials, flotation foam, fats and oil products are urgently required in wastewater mechanic treatment plants (settling tank, flotation installation, grease-skimming tank and oil traps). The main problem in floating material removal is their strong water cutting. It is caused by the fact that construction features of most common equipment intended for collection of floating materials (swing lines, floating grease skimming tanks, and different overflows) cannot prevent a large amount of water from falling into the drain. The system FinnFlow designed for floating materials removal from the surface of settling tanks, flotation installations and etc. and which enables to minimize the removed floating materials moisture is described.

I.A. DanilinExperience of using water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) to reduce the concentration of heavy metals in rainwater sewage

The maintenance of proper sanitary condition of water reservoirs and their biodiversity requires taking measure on city rainwater sewage tertiary treatment. It is showed that the use of the water hyacinth - Eichhornia crassipes of Pontederiaceae decreases potential carcinogenic and non- carcinogenic risk caused by heavy metals content in water.
References: 1. Bogomolov M.V. Sovremennye problemy razvitija sistemy vodosnabzhenija Moskvy [Up-to-date problems of Moscow water supply system development],electronic version, 2005,
2. Official web site of the State Unitary Enterprise "MOSVODOSTOK"
3. Official web site of the State Unitary Enterprise "MOSVODOKANAL"
4. Kruchinin N.A., Nikolaeva G.M., Dmitriev A.G. i dr. Patent na izobretenie : Sposob ochistki stokov i vody vodoemov ot toksikantov [Invetion patent: Method of waste waters and water bodies treatment from toxicants], ballot paper № 25 from 10.09.2005.
5. Duffus J.H., Park M.V. Chemical Risk Assessment, Training Modul 3, UNEP/ IPCS, 1999.
6. Synzynys B.I., Tjantova E.N., Momot O.A., Koz'min G.V. Tehnogennyj risk i metodologija ego ocenki [Technogenic risk and methodology of its estimation], study guide on studing "Technogenic systems and ecological risks", Obninsk, 2005, p. 75.
7. Scorecard's Guide to Health Risk Assessment/2005// chemicalprofiles/def/hra_guide.html.
8. Shvyrjaev A.A., Men'shikov V.V. Ocenka riska vozdejstvija zagrjaznenija atmosfery v issleduemom regione [ Effect risk assessment of air pollution in the investigated area], M., Moscow State University,publ., 2004, p. 124.
9. Urbah V.Ju. Statisticheskij analiz v biologicheskih i medicinskih issledovanijah [ Statistic analysis of biological and medical investigations], M., Medicina,publ., 1975, p. 295.
10. Mahlin M.D. Akvariumnye rastenija zapadnogo polusharija [Aquarium plants of the Western Hemisphere], M., Kompanija del'ta,publ., 2002, pp.77-78.


O.A. Savateeva, I.A. Nisiforova The health status of the population of the city of Dubni, Moscow region, and its interrelation with quality of drinking water area

The assessment results of ecological risk for population health of the city of Dubni due to the drinking water pollution are presented. The calculation of the pollutants oral impact is conducted in accordance with “A manual on risk assessment for population health under the influence of chemical substances polluting the environment” as well as methodical guidelines “A comprehensive hygienic assessment of the intensity degree of the different territories medico-ecological situation caused by the pollution of living environment by toxicants”. The stage-by-stage procedure of the ecological risk assessment with the main results and subsequent conclusions was carried out.
References: 1. Methodological recommendations "Risk evaluation criteria for popultion health due to priority chemical substances polluting environment], Moscow, 2001.
2. Methodological recommendations "Complex hygienic assessment of tension level of medical-ecological situation in different territories caused by toxicants pollution of population life environment], adopted by chief sanitary officer of Russia on 30th of July 1997, №2510/57169732.
3. Nisiforova I.A. Ocenka jekologicheskih riskov dlja zdorov'ja naselenija g. Dubna ot zagrjaznenija atmosfernogo vozduha i radiacionnogo vozdejstvija. Bakalavrskaja rabota [Assessment of ecological risks for city of Dubna population health due to air pollution and radiation impact], Dubna, Dubna University, 2008.
4. Reports on environment state of the city of Dubna in Moscow Oblast. Dubna, Regional ecological center "Dubna", 2000-2008.
5. Assessment of population health risk due to chemical and physical factors of population life environment. Methodological recommendations, adopted by chief sanitary officer in Novosibirsk Oblast V.N. Mikheev, Novosibirsk, 2003.
6. Use of cancerogenic potential factors in estimating risk of chemical substances effect , Methodological recommendations, Moscow, 2001.
7. Rahmanin Ju.A. Zdorovaja sreda, zdorovaja molodezh' – kak osnovnoj faktor ustojchivogo razvitija. // Molodjozh' za bezopasnuju okr. sredu dlja ustojchivogo razvitija [ Healthy environment, healthy young people as a basic factor of stable development. Young people stand for environment security for stable development], Youth scientific ecological conference, Dubna, 4-6 of July 2008, materials and reports by team of authors, M.: JSC «GEOSYS», 2008.
8. Revich B.A., Avaliani S.L., Tihonova G.I. Osnovy ocenki vozdejstvija zagrjaznjonnoj okruzhajushhej sredy na zdorov'e cheloveka [The basics of environmental pollution impact evaluation on human health], M., Akropol',publ., 2004, p. 267.
9. Reconnaissance study of the quality of drinking water in various parts of the city of Dubna. Report, Dubna: the Regional environmental center «Dubna», 2007.
10. Guidebook on population health risk assessment at impact of chemical substances polluting environment. Adopted and introduced by First Deputy Minister of Ministry of Health of the Russian Federation G.G. Onishhenko on 5th of March 2004.
11. Synzynys B. I., Tjantova E. N., Melehova O. P. Jekologicheskij risk [Ecological risks], Moscow, Logos,publ., 2005.

I.G. Shaihiev, G.A. Minligulova Industrial waste water treatment by wastewaters of other industries. Part 5. The use of the impurities contained in the effluent, as reagents for wastewater treatment

With a view to reagent economy the treatment of wastewaters containing inorganic pollutants can be fulfilled by using wastewaters of different industries. The article presents issues of coagulation treatment using aluminum- and iron-containing compounds which contain in wastewaters as well as flocculation treatment with a use of wastewater admixtures.
References: 114. Kutepov A.M. Ochistka proizvodstvennyh stochnyh vod [Treatment of industrial waste waters], A.M. Kutepov, N. V. Sokolov, V.I. Sokolov, S.S. Berdonosov, Himicheskaja promyshlennost',journ., 1987, № 4, pp. 39 – 40.
115. Zapol'skij A.K. Koaguljanty i flokuljanty v processah ochistki vody [Coagulants and flocculants in water treatment processes], A.K. Zapol'skij, A.A. Baran, L., Himija,publ., 1987, p. 203.
116. Labkina V.V. Razrabotka sposoba otmyvki alkilata s utilizaciej stochnoj vody [Development of alkylite cleaning method with waste waters utilization], Labkina V.V. and others, 1984, pp. 51-56.
117. Labkina V.V. Intensifikacija otmyvki alkilata ot katalizatornogo kompleksa v proizvodstvah jetili zopropilbenzola i utilizacija stochnyh vod [Intensification of akylite cleaning from catalyst complex at ethylisopropylbenzene procution plants and utilization of waste waters], Labkina V. V. and others, Neftepererabotka i neftehimija,journ., 1985, № 10, pp. 20-22.
118. Patent 2071941 Russian Federation, IPC6 C 01 F 7/56. Sposob poluchenija koaguljanta [Methods of coagulant obtaining] V.P. Zuev; M.A. Demidov, M.A. Loginov; applicant and patent holder LCC «Jeksiton», № 93033184/26; declared 25.06.93; published 20.01.97.
119. Jolshin A.I. Promyshlennoe ispol'zovanie modificirovannyh aljumohloridnyh stokov proizvodstva jetilbenzola v processe fizikohimicheskoj ochistki stokov neftepererabatyvajushhih zavodov [Industrial use of ethylbenzene production modified alumochloride waste waters in the process of phisical chemical treatment of oilrefining plants waste water] A. I. Jolshin and others, Jekologicheskie sistemy i pribory, journ., 2001, № 10, pp. 13-18.
120. Patent 82569 Socialist Republic of Roumania, IPC C O2 F 1/52. Procedeu pectru purificarea apelor reziduale / Lucian Teodorescu. № 106473; declared 29.01.81; published 30.01.83.
121. Shut'ko A.P. Ispol'zovanie aljumosoderzhashhih othodov neftehimicheskih i neftepererabatyvajushhih preldprijatij dlja kompleksnoj obrabotki vody [Use of aluminium-containing waste waters of petrochemical and oil-refining enterprises], A.P. Shut'ko, V.F.Sorochenko, Ja.B.Kozlikovskij, Neftepererabotka i neftehimija, journ., 1985, № 28, pp. 12-23.
122. Shajhiev I.G. Issledovanie ochistki shhelochnyh stochnyh vod proizvodstva polisul'fidnyh kauchukov oksihloridom aljuminija [Investigation of treatment of alkaline water waters of production of polysulfide ribber by aluminium oxychloride] I.G. Shajhiev,S.V. Stepanova, S.A. Arsen'ev, S.V. Fridland, report abstracts of science and practice conference "Eclogical technologies in oil-refining and petrochemistry", Ufa, 2003, pp. 84-85.
123. Shajhiev I.G. Lokal'naja ochistka stochnyh vod proizvodstva polisul'fidnyh kauchukov. Vlijanie rN sredy na jeffektivnost' ochistki oksihloridom aljuminija [ Local treatment of polysulfide production plants waste waters. Effect of pH medium on purification efficienct by aluminium oxychloride] I.G.Shajhiev, S.V. Stepanova, R.Sh. Galimzjanov, S.V. Fridland, Himicheskaja promyshlennost' segodnja,journ., 2004, № 7, pp. 51-53.
124. Shajhiev I.G. Lokal'naja ochistka stochnyh vod proizvodstva polisul'fidnyh kauchukov. 1. Issledovanie oksihlorida aljuminija v kachestve koaguljanta [ Local treatment of polysulfide production plants waste waters. 1. Investigation of aluminium oxychloride as a coagulant], I.G.Shajhiev, S.V. Stepanova, R.Sh. Galimzjanov, S.V. Fridland, Himicheskaja promyshlennost' segodnja,journ., 2004, № 9, pp. 51-55.
125. Shakirov F.F. Issledovanie koaguljacionnoj ochistki stochnyh vod proizvodstva soevogo moloka aljumosoderzhashhimi koaguljantami [Investigation of coaguation treatment of soymilk production waste waters by aluminum-containing coagulants], F.F. Shakirov, I.G.Shajhiev, A.A. Ibatullin, report abstracts of the 6th republican scientific conference "Pressing ecological problems of the republic of Tatarstan"], Kazan, 2004, pp. 239-240.
126. Shakirov F.F. Issledovanie koaguljacionnoj ochistki stochnyh vod proizvodstva soevogo moloka [Investigation of coaguation treatment of soymilk production waste waters] F.F. Shakirov, I.G. Shajhiev, materials of the 1st All-Russian conference "Pressing enironment protection problems of Russian regions], Ulan Ude, 2004, pp. 182-185.
127. Patent 5511398 Japan, IPC C 02 F 1/52, B 01 D 21/01. Metod ochistki vod osnovnymi soljami aljuminija iz othodov [Method of waters treatment by basic aluminium salts from wastes], Fukumori Rokuro, № 126219, declared 31.10.74, published 25.03.80.
128. Author certificate 1650611 USSR, IPC C 02 F 1/58. Sposob kompleksnoj ochistki stochnyh vod [Method of complex waste waters treatment], E.M. Pavlova, L.D. Pavluhina, Ju.K. Shamraeva, L.Ja. Kruglova, Z.I. Suslova, D.D. Uspenskij, Ju.D. Birjukov, G.A. Gnusova; applicant and patent holder Research Institute «Minudobrenija», № 4655140/26; declared 16.01.89; published 23.05.91.
129. Gimpel' S.B. Ispol'zovanie zhelezosoderzhashhih stochnyh vod v kachestve koaguljanta [use of iron-containing waste waters as a coagulant], S.B. Gimpel', A.E. Morozov, V.G. Hanineva, Vodosnabzhenie i sanitarnaja tehnika [Water supply and sanitary technique],journ., 1987, № 8, pp. 14-15.
130. Sizyh M.R. Tehnologija ochistki stochnyh vod okislitel'nogo krashenija [Technology of oxidative dyeing waste waters treatment] M.R. Sizyh, A.A. Rjazancev, Vodosnabzhenie i sanitarnaja tehnika [Water supply and sanitary technique],journ., 1996, № 10, pp. 23-24.
131. Sizyh M.R. Ochistka stochnyh vod predprijatij mehovoj promyshlennosti [Fur production enterprises waste waters treatment], M.R. Sizyh and others, Jekologija i promyshlennost' Rossii, journ., 2004, № 4, pp. 22-25.
132. Author certificate 861334 USSR, IPC C 02 F 1/58. Sposob ochistki stochnyh vod, soderzhashhih lakokrasochnye zagrjaznenija [Method of treatment of waste waters containing paint pollution], B.A. Mitin, E.G. Rezo, V.A. Savchenko, V.A. Stegiko, E.A. Ureckij; applicant and patent holder Brest State Technical University, № 2656309/2926; declared 21.08.78; published 07.09.81.
133. Polishhuk L.L. Ochistka agressivnyh stochnyh vod na predprijatijah chjornoj metallurgii [Treatment of corrosive waste waters at iron industry enterprises], L.L. Polishhuk, T.V. Matveeva, L.D. Klenysheva Vodosnabzhenie i sanitarnaja tehnika[Water supply and sanitary technique],journ., 1988, № 12, pp.23-24.
134. Szostak K. Usuwanie cynku z l scilkow hutniczych przy wykorzystaniu sciekow alralicznych, Л. Szostak, Ою Sobota, S. Mazyrek, Pr. Inst. Met. Zelara, 1992, vol. 44, № 34, pp. 38-44.
135. Author certificate 1474103 USSR, IPC C 02 F 1/54. Sposob ochistki stochnyh vod, soderzhashhih sinteticheskie lateksy [Method of treatment of waste waters containing synthetic latex], T.Sh. Sevojan, Zh.I. Abramjan, S.V. Arshakjan; applicant and patent holder All-Union research and design institute of polymer products, № 4168427/2326; declared 25.12.86; published 23.04.89.
136. Patent 2068395 Russian Federation, IPC C 02 F 1/56. Sposob ochistki stochnyh vod ot ftora [Method of waste water treatment from fluorine], N.V. Zhulin; applicant and patent holder Sibirskij gosudarstvennyj proektnyj i nauchnoissledovatel'skij institut cvetnoj metallurgii [Siberian State research and design insitute of nonferrous metals industry], № 93044540/26; declared 09.09.93; published 27.10.96.
137. Author certificate 966032 USSR, IPC3 C 02 F 1/54. Sposob ochistki vody ot vzveshennyh veshhestv [Method of waste water treatment from suspended substances], S.A.M. Dzhafarov, A.A. Abdullazade, D.A. Aliev, D.N. Alieva, N.N. Naumova, K.F. Ahundov, A.P. Mamedova; applicant and patent holder Bashkir department of the research institute "VODGEO" , № 2735312/2326; declared 11.03.79; published 15.10.82.
138. Gagnon D. Casein: the new key to higher wastewater treatment performance. D. Gagnon, H. Lavallee , С Daneault С Papeterie. 2005, № 1, pp. 16-21.

E.V. Ikanina, V.F. Markov, L.N. MaskaevaCu (II) removing from waste water with a high content of hardness salts

The copper (II) sorption by composite sorbent КУ-2x8 – Fe (OH) 3 from aqueous solutions with a high content of hardness salts was researched in dynamic conditions. It is stated that the use of combinational design method and alkaline concentrated solution increases the sorbent capacity and selectivity in respect of cooper cation. The total capacity of the sorbent for copper (II) in conditions of competing influence of cations determining the wastewater hardness exceeds the similar value for base cation exchanger КУ-2×8 in 1.5-2 times.
References: 1. Skorohodov V.I., Anikin Ju.V., Radionov B.K. Sorbcionnoe izvlechenie cvetnyh metallov iz shahtnyh vod [Sorbtion removal of nonferrous materials from mine waters], Cvetnye metally [Non-ferrous Metals],journ., 2000, № 11,12, pp. 71-73.
2. Markov V.F., Maskaeva L.N., Ikanina E.V. Kompozicionnyj sorbent dlja izvlechenija iz stokov tjazhelyh metallov i vlijanie prirody shhelochi na ego sorbcionnye svojstva [ Composite sorbent for heavy metalls removal from waste waters and effect of alkaline nature on its sorbtion properties], abstracts of the report of the research and practice conference "Innovative technologies in the Ural Region industry" hold as a part of the International industrial exhibition "Industry Expo", 5-6 of November 2008, M., Publishing center of Mendeleev Russian University of Chemistry and Technology, pp. 48-49.
3. Ikanina E.V., Markov V.F., Maskaeva L.N. Vlijanie prirody aniona na obmennuju emkost' polimerneorganicheskogo sorbenta [Effect of the anion nature on polymer organic sorbent exchange capacity], report abstracts of the 19th All-Russian students science conference "Problems of theoretical and experimental chemistry" Tezisy doklada XIX Vserossijskoj studencheskoj nauchnoj konferencii «Problemy teoreticheskoj i jeksperimental'noj himii», 27–29 of April2009, Yekaterinburg, Ural State University, pp. 90-91.
4. Markov V.F., Paznikova S.N., Maskaeva L.N., Ikanina E.V., Vasin A.A. Izvlechenie nikelja, cinka i kadmija iz vodnyh rastvorov polimerneorganicheskim kompozicionnym sorbentom [Removal of nickel, zink and cadmium from water solutions by polymer organic composite sorbent], Cvetnye metally [Non-ferrous Metals],journ., 2008, № 9, pp. 39-42.
5. Charlot G. Metody analiticheskoj himii. Kolichestvennyj analiz neorganicheskih soedinenij. [ Methods of analytical chemistry. Quantitative analysis of inorganic compounds], part 2, M., Himija,publ., 1969, pp. 883-885.
6. Lur'e Ju.Ju. Spravochnik po analiticheskoj himii [Reference book on analytical chemistry], M., Himija,publ., 1989, pp. 448.
7. Ionity v cvetnoj metallurgii [Ionites in non-ferrous metallurgy], K.B. Lebedev and others, M., Metallurgija,publ., 1975, p. 352.

V.M. Vasilev, A.V. Malkov Development of a new sewerage scheme of the city of Ufa

Currently the sewerage system of the city of Ufa is well worn and requires reconstruction. The system feature is a presence of a large amount of pressure pipelines. Considering a high cost and operation complexity of the current network, low reliability, complexity of the city architectural layout the decision on construction of the single city gravity system channeling with the construction of deep-laid tunnel collectors in accordance with the General plan for 2015-2025 years was made. The tunnel collector enables to transport significant expenses of wastewaters, reduce the number of pumping plants, decrease energy consumption, simplify the operation process of sewerage network, stop the untreated wastewaters discharge and increase the sewerage system reliability.
References: 1. V.M. Vasil'ev and others «Tehnicheskaja jekspluatacija sistemy kanalizacionnyh tonnelej» [ Technical operation of sewer tunnels system], Study guide book of Saint-Petersburg State University of Architecture and Civil Engineering, 2002.

V.N. Zhilin, D.N. Ilin Protection of water and heat supply systems from corrosion and deposit without water preparation

The method of thermodynamic water treatments was presented. It is based on using blend composition СОТ-2000 which provides removal of old scum and corrosion deposits without causing any damage to treated surface; formation of corrosion-preventing energy protection at surfaces of contact with water; prevention of the new scum adhesion in the process of subsequent use of boiler, water treatment. The composition of СОТ-2000 placed in water forms weakly alkaline environment and gradually destroys intermolecular structural bonds in scum converting the latter into slime and partially into dissolved condition.

S.M.Asadov, A.M.Aliev Determination of physical and chemical properties of produced water of Absheron Peninsula in Azerbaijan

The heavy metal ions concentrations containing in produced waters of Absheron peninsula deposit in Azerbaijan are defined. The quantitative dependencies of chemical and biological oxygen consumption indicators as well as dependencies between the amount of phenol and oil produced waters properties at room temperatures are investigated. It is established that given indicators have a monotonic dependence from produced waters density.
References: 1. Asadov S.M., Aliev A.M., Shabanov A.L. Azerb. neft. hoz. [Azerbaijan oil industry], journ., 2004. № 11, pp. 35 – 38.
2. Asadov S.M., Aliev A.M. Svojstva ionov tjazhelyh metallov neftjanyh plastovyh vod [Properties of heavy metal ions of oil reservoir water] Voda i Jekologija: problemy i reshenija [Water and ecology: problems and solutions], Saint-Petersburg, 2008, № 2, pp. 44-49.
3. Bespamjatov G.P., Krotov Ju.A. Predel'no dopustimye koncentracii himicheskih veshhestv v okruzhajushhej srede. Spravochnik [Maximum admissible concentration of chemical substances in environment], L.: Himija,publ., 1985, p. 528.
4. Krashennikov S.A., Kuznecova A.G., Saltanova V.P. Tehnicheskij analiz i kontrol' v proizvodstve neorganicheskih veshhestv [Technical analysis and control in inorganic substances production], 3d edition, revised and supplemented M., Vysshaja shkola, publ., 1986, p. 208.
5. Kreshkov A.P. Osnovy analiticheskoj himii. Fizicheskie i fizikohimicheskie (instrumental'nye) metody analiza [Fundamentals of analytical chemistry. Physical and physical-chemical (instrumental) methods of analysis.], Book 3, 2d edition, revised, M., Himija,publ., 1977, p. 488.
6. Kul'skij L.A., Goronovskij I.T., Kaganovskij A.M. Spravochnik po svojstvam, metodam analiza i ochistke vody. V dvuh chastjah [Reference book on properties, analysis methods and treatment of water. In two parts], Kiev, Naukova Dumka,publ., 1980, part 1, p. 680, part 2, pp. 681 – 1206.
7. Unificirovannye metody analiza vod [ Unified methods of waters analysis] edited by Ju.Ju.Lur'e., M., Himija,publ., 1971, p. 580.
8. Lejte V. Opredelenie organicheskih zagrjaznenij pit'evyh, prirodnyh i stochnyh vod [Identification of organic pollutions of drinking, natural and waste waters], translated from German and edited by Ju.Ju.Lur'e. M., Himija,publ., 1975, p. 200.

L.A. Margarjan, S.G. Minasjan, G.P. Pirumjan A comprehensive assessment of the surface water quality by computer simulation

The electronic model developed by authors for calculation of comprehensive assessment of the surface waters is presented. The model is based on complicated mathematic formulas and calculations and developed on the basis of Excel. For full comprehensive assessment of water quality eight different water quality indexes are used in the electronic model. There is an opportunity to give characteristics to water body’s water consumption availability using fisheries, cultural and household as well as drinking water standards. The model assesses water quality in the given point of water observation for the given year. Model functioning takes monthly data of water consumption in the river as well as 11 obligatory and 28 sample hydrochemical indicators of water quality which list can be changed in accordance with the assessment aim.
References: 1. P i r u m ja n G.P. (2008) Jekologicheskaja himija [Ecological chemistry],Yerevan, Avtorskoe izdatelstvo,publ., p. 180.
2. P i r u m ja n G.P., B a b a ja n G. G. (2008) Metodologija jekologogidrohimicheskoj ocenki prirodnyh vod [Methodology of ecological hydrochemical natural waters assessment],Yerevan, Zangak97,publ., p. 88.
3. Sadovnikova L.K., Orlova D.S., Lozanovskaja I.N. (2006) Jekologija i ohrana okruzhajushhej sredy pri himicheskom zagrjaznenii [Ecology and environment protection under chemical pollution], Moscow, Vyssh. shk.,publ., p. 334.
4. P o r ja d i n A. F., H o v a n s k i j A.D. (1996) O c e n k a i regulirovanie kachestva okruzhajushhej prirodnoj sredy [Assessment and regulation of environment quality], M., Priboj,publ., p. 350.
5. N i k a n o r o v A.M. (2005) N a u ch n y e osnovy monitoringa kachestva vody [Science basis of water quality monitoring], Saint-Petersburg, Gidrometeoizdat,publ., p. 577.
6. N i k a n o r o v A. M. (2004) O r g a n i z a c i ja i funkcianirovanie monitoringa kachestva vody r.Severskij Donec na territorii Rossii i Ukrainy [Organisation and functioning of the Severski Donets river water quality monitoring on the territory of Russia and Ukraine], Rostov-on-DOn, Gidrometeoizdat,publ., p. 374.
7. K a l i n i n M.Ju., Obodovskij A.G. (2003) Monitoring, ispol'zovanie i upravlenie vodnymi resursami bassejna r. Pripjat'[Monitoring, use and control of water resources of the river Pripyat], Minsk, Belsjens,publ., p. 269. 8. Zulkifli A.R. (2000) Water quality management in Malaysia.: Department of Environment Malaysia, p. 35.
9. Curtis G. Cude (2001) Oregon water quality index: a tool for evaluating water quality management effectiveness. Journal of the American water resources association. 37(1), pp. 125-137.
10. Curtis G. Cude (2002) Oregon water quality index: A tool for evaluating water quality management. Journal of the American water resources association. 38(1), pp. 315-318.
11. Margarjan L.A., Minasjan S.G., Pirumjan G.P. (2007) Ispol'zovanie origonskogo indeksa kachestva vody dlja gidrohimicheskoj ocenki jekologicheskogo sostojanija r. Sevdzhur, sravnenie izmenchivosti soderzhanija biogennyh jelementov i nalichija jevtroficheskih processov v reke po mnogoletnim i sezonnym dannym.[Use of Oregon index of water quality for hydrochemical assessment of the environmental status of the river Sevjur, comparison with the variability of nutrient elements and presence of eutrophication process in the river according to multiyear and seasonal data], Voda i Jekologija: problemy i reshenija [Water and ecology:problems and solutions],journ., 4, pp. 70–75.
12. Saffran K., Cash K., Hallard K. (2001) Canadian Water quality guidelines for the protection of aquatic life. CCME water quality index 1.0. Users Manual.: Canadian Council of Ministers of the environment, p. 5.
13. Neary B., Cash K., Hebert S., Khan H., Saffran K., Swain L., Williamson D. (2001) Canadian Water quality guidelines for the protection of aquatic life. CCME water quality index 1.0. Technical Report.: Canadian Council of Ministers of the environment, p. 12.
14. Mercier V., Fox D., Khan H., Taylor D., Raymond B., Bond W., Caux P.Y. (2004) Application and testing of the water quality index in Atlantic Canada. Report Summary.: Canadian Council of Ministers of the environment, p. 6.
15. Margarjan L.A., Minasjan S.G., Pirumjan G.P. (2006) Kompleksnaja ocenka zagrjaznennosti vod r. Razdan [Complex assessment of the river Razdan water contamination rate] Informacionnye Tehnologii i Upravlenie,journ., 4–2, pp. 102–118.
16. Margarjan L.A., Pirumjan G.P. (2008) Dinamika azmenenija gidrohimicheskih parametrov reki Kasah i kompleksnaja ocenka kachestva vody 19772007gg [Dynamics of changes of hydrochemical parameters of the Kasagh River and complex assessment of water quality 1977-2007], Jekologicheskaja himija, journ., 17(1), pp.54-61.
17. Obobshhennyj perechen' predel'no dopustimyh koncentracij i orentirovochno bezopasnyh urovnej vozdejstvija vrednih veshhestv dlja vody rybohozjajstvnnyh vodoemov [General kist of maximum allowable concentrations and approximately safe level of harmful agents impact for fishery water bodies],Ministry of fisheries of the USSR, (1990) M., VNIERH, p. 44.
18. Ryboohrana. Sbornik normativnyh aktov [Fish protection. Collection of normative acts], Ministry of fisheries of the USSR, (1988) M., Jurid. Lit,publ., p. 370.
19. Programma dejstvij po ohrane okruzhajushhej sredy dlja central'noj i vostochnoj Evropy [Programme of action on environment protection for Central and Eastern Europe, (1994) Switzerland, EU, p. 89.
20. William C. Dennison, Todd R. Lookingbill, Tim JB Carruthers, Jane M. Hawkey,Shawn L. Carter (2007) An eyeopening approach to developing and communicating integrated environmental assessments. Front Ecol Environ. The Ecological Society of America. 5(6), pp. 307-314.
21. Predel'no dopustimye koncentracii vrednyh veshhestv v vode vodoemov sanitarnobytovogo vodopol'zovanija i trebovanija k sostavu i svojstvam vody vodoemov u punktov pit'evogo i kul'turnobytovogo vodopol'zovanija [ Maximum allowable concentrations of harmful agents in waters for sanitation and domestic use and requirements to composition of water bodies for drinking and domesting water use] Ministry of Health of the USSR, (1973) M., Hydrometeorological centre, p. 14.
22. P r o t a s o v V.F. (2001) Jekologija, zdorov'e i ohrana okruzhajushhej sredy v Rossii [Ecology, health and protection of environment in Russia], Moscow, Finansy i statistika,publ., p. 672.
23. S t a r o d u b o v V.I., Beljaev E.N., Kiselev A.S. (2002) Issledovanie metodami mnogofaktornogo analiza prichinnosledstvennyh svjazej mezhdu stepen'ju zagrjaznenija vody i zdorov'em naselenija Volzhskogo bassejna [Investigations of casual relationships between water contamination level and population health of the Volgian basin by multiple factor analysis], Moscow, Federal Sanitary and Epidemiological Supervision Center of Ministry of Health of Russian Federation, p. 391.

V.V. Surmaljan, G. P. Pirumjan Hydrochemical evaluation of pollution in rivers Gavaraget, Dzknaget and Drakhtik

In accordance with the hydrochemical monitoring results the classification of the rivers Gavaraget, Dzknaget and Drakhtik for drinking, domestic, fishery and irrigative utilization using Canadian, Oregon, Malaysian and combinatorial indexes of water quality during 2005-2008 is presented. The share of factors caused by the influence of agriculture, animal breeding and washout from soil cover was estimated. It is showed that a huge contribution into water pollution was made by Al, Cu, Mn, V ions. Also it is showed that the pollution level of the river Gavaraget increased in period from 2005 to 2008 when the water quality of rivers Dzknaget and Drakhtik improved in the same period.
References: 1. Fomin G.S. Voda. Kontrol' himicheskoj, bakterial'noj i radiacionnoj bezopasnosti po mezhdunarodnym standartam [Control of chemical, bacterial and radiation safety according to international standards],encyclopedic guide book, Moscow, 2000.
2. Standard methods for examination of water and wastewater. 20th edition, 1998, Edited by Lenore S. Clesceri, Arnold E.Greenberg, Andrew D. Eation.
3. Nikanorov A.M. Nauchnye osnovy monitoringa kachestva vod [Scientific basis of water quality monitoring], Saint-Petersburg, Gidrometeoizdat,publ. 2005.
4. Nikanorov A.M. Gidrohimija [Hydrochemistry], Saint-Petersburg, Gigrometeoizdat,publ., 2001.
5. Canadian Water Quality Guidelines for the Protection of Aquatic Life. CCME Water Quality Index 1.0 User's Manual.
6. Malazian Water Quality Issues. Malazian Water Quality Index by Dr. Zulkifli Abdul Rahman.
7. Nikanarov A.M. Organizacija i funkcionirovanie monitoringa kachestva vody r. Severskij Donec na territorii Rossii i Ukrainy [Organisation and functioning of the river Severski Donets water quaility monitoring on the territory of Russia and Ukraine], collection of regulatory and procedural documents, Rostov-on-Don, 2004.

G.V.YagovA centenary of the first Vodokanal laboratory foundation. An historical sketch.

References: 1. O gigiene vody: Doklad, predstavlennyj na Vtorom russkom vodoprovodnom sezde v Varshave v 1895 g. [On water hygiene: report submitted at the 2nd Russian water congress in Warsaw in 1895], compiled by L.K. Baginskij, engineer of Warsaw town water supply, Warsaw, Tip. S. Orgel'branda synovej, 1895, p. 42.
2. A.A. Inostrancev Voda i pochva Peterburga [Water and soil of Saint-Petersburg], SPb., 1910.
3. V.D. Dmitriev Istorija razvitija vodosnabzhenija i vodootvedenija Sankt-Peterburga [History of water supply and water disposal development in Saint-Petersburg], SPb., 2002.
4. Vodosnabzhenie Sankt-Peterburga/GUP «Vodokanal S.-Peterburga» [Water supply of Saint-Petersburg/ SUE "Vodokanal Sankt-Peterburg", edited by F.V. Karmazinov, SPb., 2003.


V.V. KashirinWater and death

This article using results obtained by geologists presents the process which lead to destruction of the land. The author starts the analysis with an attentive observation of the sea destructive activity, that is, with a phenomenon of destruction and retreat of sea coasts and pulling out of the earth’s material to the world ocean. The author brings readers to the only doubtless conclusion that is the world ocean having the earth gravitational filed can appear to be the main factor ( or one of the main factors) defining global geodynamic processes within a biosphere as well as the fact that the land is bound to disappear quite quickly on the scale of geological time. Disappearance of the Land means the disappearance of the Life in our planet in its usual form and completeness for us. The presented hypothesis of the land destruction by waters of the world ocean is certainly unusual and may seem to be incredible. But its doubtless advantage is that it can be proved both theoretically and directly by performing measurements.

O.A.Nikitina, F.B.Shkundina The use of benthic cyanobacterial algal cenoses for the environmental assessment of rivers

The benthic cyanobacterial algal cenoses were used for environmental state assessment of one of the rivers of the city of Sterlitamak (the Republic of Bashkortostan). The analysis of the benthic cyanobacterial algal cenoses showed that in the researched water reservoir the miscellaneous community of algal and cyanoprocaryote forms and consists of 107 species and infraspecific taxons in the vegetative period. The environment state estimation shows a low level of pollution with organic substances. On the distribution of algal and cyanoprocaryote species by saprobity zones in Olkhovka river o-saprobes (35,5-46,6 %) prevailed. The state of the river autotrophic benthos was successfully characterized by results of estimation of algae and cyanoprocaryote cells physiological state using the luminescence microscopy method. Cells of autotrophic benthos maintained their viability even during the ice period that characterizes a satisfactory water reservoir environment state. The largest number of live algal in the river was discovered in summer.

V.S. Vasileva, S.V. Vydumchik, O.O. Gavrilenko, M.A. Ksenofontov, L.E. Ostrovskaja, T.G. PavlyukevichTechnology and equipment for the sorption of polymer composites

The properties of Penopurm sorbent were investigated. It represents hydrophobic semirigid foamed polyurethane with a density of 8-15 kg/m3 and sorption capacity for oil products of 25-70 kg/kg which efficiently adsorbs free, emulsifying oil products dissolved in water. The results analysis showed that the sorption capacity of Pernopurum sorbent depends on density and viscosity of an oil product: the smaller it is the larger amount of the oil product is absorbed by a sorbent. The Penopurum sorbent efficiency is presented by features of the physical-chemical structure of the polyurethane polymer matrix which consists of different chemical nature polymer blocks which content flexible segments of polyester and hard aromatic urethane parts as well as a large number of polar groups. The presence of open pores in foamed plastic provides an access for sorbed substance inside a sorbent that leads to sorbate extraction not only by adsorption (surface adsorption) but also as a result of adsorption (adsorption with a total volume of polymer foam).

A.I. Martirjan, A.M. Sarojan, G.P. Pirumjan The research of opportunity to obtain peroxosolvates of calcium and magnesium carbonates

The ability of calcium and magnesium carbonates to form peroxosolvates in crystalline state is presented. It is showed that the transfer of H2O2 from these compounds to the aqueous phase happens with different speed.

SH. Hachatrjan, A.Sargsjan, R. Gevorgjan, G. Pirumjan Cleanup of radioactive waste water using natural and modified sorbents

The sorption behavior of natural zeolites and some other fossils of Armenia in respect of tritiated water (HTO) and cations катионов Cs134, Cs137 Mn54, Co60 were investigated. Their potential to separation and concentration of HTO from НТО-Н2О system was estimated. It was discovered that contact time plays a huge role in HTO separation from НТО-Н2О system. Based on the laboratory research results in the Yerevan State University the pilot plant for treatment of actual middle- and subactive liquid radioactive wastes (LRW) was designed. By using this plant ion-exchange properties of natural and modified (Na form) clinoptilolites of Novemberyan Field were investigated.

V. Chupin, E. Melekhov, R. ChupinDevelopment of sewerage systems hydraulic calculation

P. Taru, D. Mlambo, A.T. KuvaregaModeling of biological phosphorus removal in biological treatment systems on the example of a wastewater treatment plant in the city of Harare, Zimbabwe

The opportunity of the description of the wastewater treatment process at the Crowborough wastewater treatment plants in the city of Harare using modeling programs BioWinV2 and SASSPro V2 was investigated. As investigations showed modeling programs BioWinV2 and SASSPro V2 can be used for modeling of the treatment process at wastewater treatment stations with a minimal parameters calibration. The high age of sludge in bioreactor has extremely strong effect on phosphorus removal efficiency. The results of modeling show that the optimal phosphorous removal can be achieved only by optimal proportion of internal and total recycling coefficients.

T.G. Dercjan, L.A. Margarjan, G.P. Pirumjan Hydrochemical study of "Yerevan Lake" artificial pond water

The main hydrochemical indicators of water quality of the “Yerevan lake” water from 2005 to 2009 were defined. The investigations showed that the water in the water reservoir is mainly polluted with biogenic substances and heavy metals. During the investigation period the pollution level increasing was also observed.