Archive logs by year


L.V. Trubnikova, B.I. Bairachnyi, A.A. Maizelis The use of the first stage of galvanic lines wash waters treatment for application of nickel sublayer on workpieces

The local schemes of combined treatment of galvanic lines wash waters which include electrolytic extraction of metal ions from electrolyte capture baths in a form of sublayer on workpieces as the first stage treatment are presented. In dependence with parameters of nickel plating technological process different versions of schemes are observed. The advantages of copper and nickel ions extraction in the form of non-porous multilayer sublayer Cu (Ni-Cu) firmly linked with the base made of carbon and alloy steel are presented. The local treatment allows decreasing expenses on water and flushing and thus save up to 25 % of nickel anodes.
References: 1. Gibkie avtomatizirovannye gal'vanicheskie linii: Cprav.[Flexible automated galvanic lines. References book], V.L. Zubchenko and others, under general supervision of V.L. Zubchenko; M., Mashinostroenie,publ., 1989., p. 672.
2. Trubnikova, L.V. Lokal'nye shemy izvlechenija metallov iz otrabotannyh rastvorov i promyvnyh vod [Local schemes of metal extraction from spent solution and rinse waters], L.V. Trubnikova, B.I. Bajrachnyj B.I.; Problemy promyshlennoj jekologii [Problems of indutrial ecology], abstract of the report of the research-and-practice conference, Chernivtsi, 10-13 October 1990, Chernivtsi State University, pp. 121-122.
3. Trubnikova, L.V. Lokal'naja shema izvlechenija metallov s doochistkoj gal'vanicheskih stokov s ispol'zovaniem glinistogo adsorbenta [Local schemes of metal extraction with electroplanting waste waters tertiary treatment with the use of clay adsorbent] L.V. Trubnikova, B.I. Bajrachnyj, D.L. Dons'koj; Jenergotehnologii i resursosberezhenie,journ.,2008, №6, pp. 47-52.
4. Trubnikova, L.V. Sovmeshhenie tehnologicheskih processov v gal'vanicheskom proizvodstve [Up-to-date technological processes in electroplanting industry], L.V. Trubnikova; Machine-building and technosphere in 21 century, collection of works of the 21 international scientific and technical conference, in 5 volumes, Sevastopol, 12-17 September 2005, Donetsk, Donetsk National Technical University, vol.3, pp. 286-290.
5. Trubnikova, L.V. Novoe napravlenie v tehnologii jelektroliticheskogo izvlechenija metallov iz sistemy promyvnyh vann gal'vanicheskih linij [New trend in technology of electrolytic extraction of metals from rinse tanks systems of galvanizing lines], L.V.Trubnikova; Jenergotehnologii i resursosberezhenie,journ., 2010, №3, pp. 45-52.
6. Patent 78583 Ukraina, ICP 7 S25D 5/44. Sposob nikeljuvannja aljuminievyh splavov [Method of nickel-planting of aluminium alloys], B.І. Bajrachnij, L.V. Trubnіkova, T.V. Ljashko, M.O. Vodolazhenko (Ukraine), № a 2005 0089; declared 7.02.2005; published 10.04.2007, application № 4, p. 4.
7. Patent 79556 Ukraina, ICP 7 S25D 3/56, S25D 5/10. Sposob poluchenija zashhitno-dekorativnyh mnogoslojnyh pokrytij [Method of producing protective-decorative multilayer coating], L.V. Trubnіkova, B.І. Bajrachnij, V.O. Savchenko, A.O. Majzelіs. (Ukraina); № a 2005 09969; declared 24.10.2005; published 24.06.07, application №9, p. 4.

D.V. Pavlov, S.O. VaraksinRecycling water supply of electroplating industry

The new technological scheme of electroplating industry waste waters treatment on the base of combination of electroflotation, membrane and vacuum- distillation equipment. The technical result is designing of electroplating recycling water supply system without liquid waste discharge and reduction of water consumption to 90-95%.
References: 1. Sanitary regulations and standards Drinking water. Hygienic requirements to water quality of centralized systems of drinking water supply. Quality control.
2. GOST 9.314-90. Water for electroplanting industry and cleaning schemes. General requirements.
3. List of fisheries regulations: threshold limit value (TLV) and approximately safe impact levels (ASIL) of harmful chemicals for water of fishery water obects.
4. Reference Document on Best Available Techniques for the Surface Treatment of Metals and Plastics. Edificio EXPO, c/Inca Garcilaso s/n, E-41092 Sevilla - Spain.
5. Kolesnikov V.A., Kapustin Ju.I. i dr.; edited by V.A. Kolesnikova. Jelektroflotacionnaja tehnologija ochistki stochnyh vod promyshlennyh predprijatij [Electroflotation technology of industrial enterprises waste waters treatment], M., Himija,publ., 2007, p. 304.
6. Kolesnikov V. A., Men'shutina N. V. Analiz, proektirovanie tehnologij i oborudovanija dlja ochistki stochnyh vod [Alanysis, development of technology and equipment for wast waters treatment], M., DeLi print,publ., 2005, p. 266.
7. Kolesnikov V.A., Meshalkin V.P. and others. Tehnologicheskie processy i sistemy vodoochistki jekologicheski bezopasnyh gal'vanicheskih proizvodstv: Ucheb. posobie [Technological processes and water treatment systems of ecologically-friendly electroplanting production. Study guide], M., Ivanovo, 2001, p. 255.
8. Ostrovskij G.M., Abiev R.Sh. and others. Novyj spravochnik himika i tehnologa. Processy i apparaty himicheskih tehnologij. Chast' II [New reference book for chemist and technologist. Processes and equipment of chemical technology. Chapter 2], research and production association «Professional», 2006, p. 916.
9. Desjatov A.V., Baranov A.E. and others. Edited by academician of Academy of Science Koroteev A.S. «Opyt ispol'zovanija membrannyh tehnologij dlja ochistki i opresnenija vody» [Use experience of membrane technology for water treatment and desalination], M., Himija,publ., 2008, p. 240.
10. Web-site of company «H2O GmbH»
11. Kolesnikov V.A., Varaksin S.O., Matveeva E.V. Sozdanie sistemy pit'evoj vody proizvoditel'nost'ju do 50 m3/chas dlja malyh naselennyh punktov [Development of drinking water system with capacity under 50 м3/h for small settlements], «Chistaja voda: problemy i reshenija»,journ,, № 1, 2009.

D. V. Serebrjakov, V. V. Morozov Analysis of features of module wastewaters treatment plant of operational compatibility

The most common schemes of package type facilities for sewage treatment aimed for local water disposal systems with low capacity are presented. Some frequent construction faulties which are inherent in such plants and well known from the experience of their operation are described. Types of loads used in these facilities – carriers of attached biomass - are also described; issues on biogenic elements removal, wastewaters tertiary treatment and sludge treatment are observed. The most widespread constructions of block-modular plants –biological treatment plants on the base of aerotanks and disk biofilters - are presented.
References: 1. Razumovskij Je.S., Medrish G.L., Kazarjan V.A. Ochistka i obezzarazhivanie stochnyh vod malyh naselennyh punktov [Treatment and disinfection of waste waters of small settlements], M., 1986, p. 174.
2. Vodootvedenie i ochistka stochnyh vod [Water disposal and waste waters treatment], S.V. Jakovlev, Ju.V. Voronov. M, 2004.
3. Serebrjakov. D. V. Ochistka stochnyh vod fil'trovaniem na ochistnyh sooruzhenijah maloj proizvoditel'nosti [Waste waters treatment by filtration at treatment plants of low capacity], Voda i jekologija: problemy i reshenija [Water and ecology:problems and solutions],mag., 2007, №4, pp. 39-47.
4. Ponomarev V. G., Ponomarev D.A. Obsledovanie i naladka fil'trov v sisteme ochistki stochnyh vod [Exploration and adjustment of filters in waste water treatment system], Vodosnabzhenie i sanitarnaja tehnika [Water supply and sanitary techniques],journ., 2005, №4, pp. 27-29.
5. Razumovskij Je.S., Terent'eva N.A., Juldashev A.A. Ustanovki dlja glubokoj ochistki stochnyh vod malyh naselennyh punktov [Plant for fine purification of waste waters of samll settlements], M, Research institute of communal service, Saint-Petersburg, Russia, issue 2 (83), 1991.
6. Zaletova N.A. Issledovanie biologo-himicheskogo metoda udalenija soedinenij fosfora iz gorodskih stochnyh vod [Investigation of biological chemical method of phosphorus compounds removal from municipal waste waters], synopsis of thesis of the candidate of technical science, M., 1979.
7. Al'tovskij G.S., Mel'per V.Z., Gepina G.I. Doochistka gorodskih stochnyh vod [Tertiary treatment of municipal waste waters], M., 1985.
8. Je.S. Razumovskij, Je.I. Rukin. Ochistnye sooruzhenija «Biodisk» dlja malyh naselennyh mest [Treatment plant "Biodisk" for small settlements], Vodosnabzhenie i sanitarnaja tehnika [Water supply and sanitary techniques],journ., 2005, №4, pp. 27-29.
9. I.M. Tavartkiladze, T.P. Tarasjuk, M.I. Docenko. Ochistnye sooruzhenija vodootvedenija. Spravochnik [Water disposal treatment plants. Reference book], Kiev, 1988.
10. Davod Kossaj K. Sovershenstvovanie tehnologii ochistki stochnyh vod na vrashhajushhihsja biokontaktorah [Improvement of waste waters treatment technology on rotating biological contactor], synopsis of thesis, S-Petersburg, 2003.
11. Feofanov Ju.A., Kossaj K. Sovershenstvovanie processa ochistki stochnyh vod v biokontaktorah [Improvement of waste waters treatment process in biocontactors], collection of reports of the International research-and-practice conference "Reconstruction of Saint-Petersburg], Saint-Petersburg State University of Architecture and Civil Engineering, SPb, 2002.

E. P. Vetrov The study of energy efficiency of pumping stations work in water supply and sanitation systems

The investigations on pumping stations work energy efficiency as well as the joint work of the system “pump-pipeline” were carried out. The investigations indicated that despite the high actuality and significance of work conducted by pumping stations both in water supply systems and water disposal systems, currently there are still no investigations dedicated to complex study of the development of pumping stations efficiency estimation methods. The absence of alternative methods of pumping stations work efficiency estimation retards the applying of methods of optimization of pumps and pipeline systems joint work. To eliminate this problem the author tried to design a radically new method of pumping systems work efficiency estimation in water supply systems which as the investigations showed enables to quite easily indicate the level of system “pump-pipeline” work efficiency.
References: 1. Sergeev A.I., Vetrov E.P. Sovremennye metody ocenki jeffektivnosti raboty nasosnyh stancij v sisteme vodootvedenija [Up-to-date methods of estimation of pumping station work efficiency in water disposal systems], «Jenergosberezhenie i vodopodgotovka»,journ., Moscow, 2008, №5 (55), pp. 72-73.
2. Sergeev A.I., Vetrov E.P. Metod ocenki variantov raboty nasosnyh stancij v sisteme vodootvedenija // Proekty razvitija infrastruktury goroda. Vyp. 8 Perspektivnye napravlenija razvitija tehnologii i proektirovanija v vodohozjajstvennom komplekse goroda [Method of estimation of pumping stations work options in water disposal systems. Project of city's infrastructure development. Issue 8. Prospective directions of technology and designing development in city water sector], collection of scientific works, M., Prima-press Jekspo,publ., 2008, pp. 116-121.
3. Sergeev A.I., Vetrov E.P. Opyt vybora optimal'nyh rezhimov sovmestnoj raboty nasosnoj stancii i SPRV [Experience of optimum mode selection of joint work of pumping station and water distribution system],collection of articles to the 4th international exhibition and conference Su Arnasy-2009: "Water Consumption: Reality, Problems and Prospects" Astana, 2009, pp. 122-127.
4. Sergeev A.I., Vetrov E.P. Rezul'taty issledovanija jeffektivnosti raboty nasosnoj stancii pervogo podema g. Cheremhovo [Results of investigation of the city of Cheremhovo first stage pumping station work efficiency], collection of materials of the All-Russian research-and-practice conference "Pronlems of construction, ecology and energy saving in conditions of the Western Siberia], Tyumen, «Jekspress»,publ., 2006, pp. 133-135.
5. Fortov E.V. Jenergosberezhenie – perspektivnyj vid biznesa [Energy saving - prospetive type of business], Jenergopolis,publ., 2009.
6. Hmel'nikov B.V., Mihajlov P.D. Monitoring vypolnenija proizvodstvennyh i investicionnyh programm v sfere vodosnabzhenija, vodootvedenija i ochistki stochnyh vod [Monitoring of implementation of production and investment programs in the sphere of water supply, water disposal and waste waters treatment], Vodosnabzhenie i sanitarnaja tehnika [Water supply and sanitary techniques], Moscow, 2009, №2.

V. R. CHupin, E.S. Melehov, R.V. CHupin The development of water disposal system hydraulic calculation technique

The new approach to water disposal system calculation based on its modeling by hydraulic linkage with unlimited selection and flows is presented. It gives the opportunity to define the contraflows in the network, possible sewage spill on the earth surface, volume of flows, flow capacity of water disposal system as well as modeling of different regimes of flows transportation with regard to possible blockage, encrustation of pipes and other violations which can take place during operation.
References: 1. Botuk B.O., Fedorov N.F. Kanalizacionnye seti. Uchebnoe posobie [Sewerage system. Study guide], M., Strojizdat, 1976, p. 272.
2. Alekseev M.I., Karmazinov F.V., Kurganov A.M. Gidravlicheskij raschet setej vodootvedenija. Chast' I [Hydraulic calculation of water disposal networks. Chapter 1], Saint- Peterburg, 1997, p. 127.
3. Merenkov A.P., Hasilev V.Ja. Teorija gidravlicheskih cepej [Theory of hydraulic circuit], M., Nauka,publ., 1985, p. 278.
4. Chupin V.R., Malevskaja M.B. Vyrabotka rekomendacij po minimizacii posledstvij ot avarijnyh situacij v sistemah vodosnabzhenija [Developing of recommendations on mitigation of emergency situations in water supply systems], Vodosnabzhenie i sanitarnaja tehnika [Water supply and sanitary techniques],journ., 1994, № 4, pp. 8-9.
5. Chupin V.R., Shlafman V.V., Melehov E.S. Optimizacija struktury sistem gruppovogo vodosnabzhenija [Optimization of group water supply systems structure], Vodosnabzhenie i sanitarnaja tehnika [Water supply and sanitary techniques],journ., 2005, № 6.

O.N. KuznetsovaElectroplating wastewaters treatment with refinery wastes

The brand new method of galvanic chromium plating wastes removal which enables to use all containing components in complex with high technical-economical indictors is presented. For recycling of chromium-containing water flows refinery wastes are used.
References: 1. Najdenko V.V., Gubanov L.N. Ochistka i utilizacija promstokov gal'vanicheskogo proizvodstva [Treatment and utilization of electroplanting industrial waste waters], Nizhny Novgorod, Dekom,publ., 1999, p. 368.

Chang Hoon Ahn, Jae Kwang Park, Kwang Soo KimThe flexibility of the activated sludge microorganisms to changes in the organic load in the enhanced biological phosphorus removal process.

On the example of batch-action bioreactor (SBR) with alteration of anaerobic and aerobic conditions the characteristics of the process of enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) by microorganisms which accumulate phosphates in terms of changing the load on organic substances is investigated. With the load on COD which is 150 mg/l the adaptability of different microorganisms was assessed. With the work of SBR-reactor the initial value of COD changed either gradually or abruptly. With the gradual increase of COD from stationary value to 300 mg/l the biomass steadily increases; system is characterized with a stationary flow of the EBPR process. However if COD initial value changes dramatically from 150 to 300 or 50 mg/l phosphor accumulating bacteria are impotent to adhere to such a significant leap that brings to instability of EBPR process. With the return of organic load to normal conditions in two days after its increasing the system again comes to a stable state whereas after its decreasing it does not happen. Using method of fluorescence in situ hybridization the monitoring of Rhodocyclus bacteria population is carried out. It is showed that phosphor accumulating microorganisms wash out more quickly with decreasing rather than increasing of organic load.
References: 1. American Public Health Association/American Water Works Association/Water Pollution Control Federation (APHA/AWWA/WPCF).(1998) Standard methods for the examination of water and wastewater 20th Ed., American Public Health Association, Washington, D.C.
2. Bott, C. B., and Love, N. G.2002. “Investigating a mechanistic cause for activated sludge deflocculation in response to shock loads of toxic electrophilic chemicals.” Water Environ. Res.,7 43, 306–315.
3. Brandl, H., Gross, R. A., Lenz, R. W., and Fuller, R. C.1988 “Pseudomonas oleoverans as a source of poly-Hydroxyalkanoates for potential applications as biodegradable polyesters.” Appl. Environ. Microbiol.,5 48, 1977–1982.
4. Brdjanovic, D., Slamet, A., van Loosedrecht, M. C. M. Hooijmans, C. M., Alaerts, G. J., and Heijnen, J. J.1998. “Impact of excessive aeration on biological phosphorus removal from waste water.” Water Res.,3 21, 200–208.
5. Crocetti, G., Hugenholtz, P., Bond, P. L., Schuler, A., Keller, J., Jenkins D., and Blackall, L. L.2000. “Identification of polyphosphate accumulating organisms and design of 16S rRNA-directed probes for their detection and quantification.” Appl. Environ. Microbiol.,6 63 1175–1182.
6. Dircks, K., Beau, J. J. M., van Loosdrecht, J. J., and Heijnen, M. H2001. “Glycogen metabolism in aerobic mixed cultures. Biotechnol. Bioeng.,7 32, 85–94.
7. Filipe, C. D. M., Daigger, G. T., and Grady, C. P. L.2001. “Stoichiometry and kinetics of acetate uptake under anaerobic conditions by an enriched culture of phosphate-accumulating organisms at different pHs.” Biotechnol. Bioeng.,7 61, 32–43.
8. Hesselmann, R. P. X., Werlen, C., Hahn, D., van der Meer, J. R., and Zehnder, A. J. B.1999. “Enrichment, polygenetic analysis and detection of a bacterium that performs enhanced biological phosphate removal in activated sludge.” Syst. Appl. Microbiol.,2 23, 454–465.
9. Hobie, J. E., Daley, R. J., and Jasper, S.1977. “Use of nucleopore filters for counting bacteria by fluorescence microscopy.” Appl. Environ. Microbiol., 58, 1225–1228.
10. Hung, C.-H., Peccia, J., Zilles, J. L., and Noguera, D. R.2002. “Physical enrichment of polyphosphate-accumulating organisms in activated sludge.” Water Environ. Res.,7 44, 354–361.
11. Isaacs, S., Hansen, J. A., Schmidt, K., and Henze, M.1994. “Examination of the activated sludge model no. 2 with an alternating process.” Water Sci. Technol.,3 12, 55–66.
12. Manz, W., Amann, R. I., Ludwig, W., Wagner, M., and Schleifer, K. H.1992. “Phylogenetics oligonucleotide probe for the major subclasses of proteobacteria: Problems and solutions.” Syst. Appl. Microbiol., 15, 593–600.
13. Matsuo, Y.1994. “Effect of the anaerobic solids retention time on enhanced biological phosphorus removal.” Water Sci. Technol.,3 06, 193–202.
14. Maurer, M., Gujer, R., Hany, M., and Bachmann, S.1997. “Intracellular carbon flow in phosphorus accumulating organisms from activated sludge systems.” Water Res.,3 14, 907–917.
15. Metcalf and Eddy, Inc.2003. Wastewater engineering-treatment, disposal, and reuse, 3rd Ed., D. H Stensel, G. Tchobanglous, and F. L. Burton, eds., McGraw-Hill, New York.
16. Mino, T., Loosdrecht, M. C. M., and van Heijnen, J. J.1998. “Microbiology and biochemistry of the enhanced biological phosphorus removal process.” Water Res.,3 211, 3193–3207.
17. Park, J. K., Whang, L. M., Wang, J. C., and Novatony, G.2001. “A biological phosphorus removal potential test.” Water Environ. Res.,7 35/6, 374–382.
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19. Smolders, G. J. F., Meij, J., van der Loosdrecht, M. C. M., and van Heijnen, J. J.1995b. “A structured metabolic model for anaerobic and aerobic stoichiometry and kinetics of the biological phosphorus removal process.” Biotechnol. Bioeng.,4 73, 277–287.
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D.V. Serebrjakov, P. Tuomikoski The use of the Finnchain scraper system for reconstruction of typical radial pits

The article presents the problems which occur at waste water treatment plants during using radial presetting and final setting tanks in which typical equipment (slime pipes and sludge scrapers) for sediment removal is mounted. The equipment without listed faults which is Finnchain scraping system (Finland) is presented. The work principle of this equipment is described, the main operational parameters are presented, and its advantages from its analogous are listed.
References: 1. Beljaev A. N., Vasil'ev B. V., Maskaleva S. E., Mishukov B. G., Solov'eva E. A. Udalenie azota i fosfora na kanalizacionnyh ochistnyh sooruzhenijah [Removal of azote and phosphorus at WWTP], Vodosnabzhenie i sanitarnaja tehnika [Water supply and sanitary techniques], №9, 2008.
2. Mishukov B. G., Solov'eva E. A. Udalenie azota i fosfora na ochistnyh sooruzhenijah gorodskoj kanalizacii [Removal of azote and phosphorus at WWTP of municipal sewerage], appendix to the magazine «Voda i jekologija. Problemy i reshenija» [Water and ecology: problems and solutions], SPb, 2004.
3. Mishukov B. G., Solov'eva E. A. Rezul'taty raboty vtorichnyh radial'nyh otstojnikov i ih matematicheskaja interpretacija [Results of secondary settling tanks work and their mathematical interpretation], Voda i jekologija [Water and ecology: problems and solutions],mag., № 2, 2001.


Experience of wastewater treatment plants designing and reconstruction

M.N. TereshukFeatures of biological treatment plants construction at high and low temperatures

The aim of biological treatment plants regardless of their location temperature zone is efficient and at the same time economical waste water treatment from both organic and biogenic elements provided during the whole year. Constructing biological treatment plants a lot of attention is paid to flows characteristics as well as to considering both chemical composition and temperature of waste water. Analysis of treatment plant construction is carried out with a view to execute maximum permissible concentrations for discharges into water bodies. For estimation of biological treatment plants construction features from different climatic zones the comparison of analysis techniques of five countries (Germany, Denmark, USA, SAR and Japan) was conducted.
References: 1. Sanitary regulations and standards (SanNiP) Hygienic requirements to surface water protection. Approved by RF from 22.06.2000.
2. Verordnung uber Anforderungen an das Einleiten von Abwasser in Gewasser AbwV — Abwasserverordnung, vom 17. Juni 2004, Deutschland.
3. Scheer H. Bemessung von Klaranlagen auf Stickstoff- und Phosphorelimination im internationalen Vergleich.
4. DWA-131. Bemessung von einstufigen Belebungsanlagen, Deutschland, Hennef Mai 2000.
5. Danish Society of Engineers, Guideline for Water Pollution Control, 1991.
6. Henze M, Internationale Konferenz zur vermehrten biologischen Phosphorelimination, Hannover, 1995.
7. Jansen J, Danish design practice for nitrogen removal, Denmark, 1991.
8. Water Environmental Federation, Design of municipal wastewater treatment plant, USA, 1992.
9. Metcalf & Eddy, Wastewater engineering – treatment, disposal and reuse, 1991.
10. EPA — Design Manuel for Nitrogen Control. U. S. Environmental Protection Agency, Lancaster, Pensylvania, 1993.
11. Wentzel M, Water Research Group, South Africa, 1996.
12. Water Research Commission, Theory, design and operation of nutrient removal activated sludge processes, South Africa, 1984.
13. Sewerage Bureau Tokyo, Sewerage in Tokyo, Japan, 1991.
14. Tserashchuk M. Erforschung der Grundlagen der Abbauvorgange beim Belebungsverfahren bei tiefen Temperaturen unter Berucksichtigung der russischen Abwasserbeschaffenheit. Deutschland, Bochum (nicht veroffentlicht).

E. O. Grafova, R. I. Ayukaev, O. I. Ovchinnikova Reconstruction of distribution system and regeneration of highly loaded aeration filter crushed-stone load.

Recommendations on reconstruction and modernization of waste water treatment plants consisting of presetting tanks, highly loaded aeration filters, final setting tanks and facilities of tertiary treatment and disinfection were worked out. The reconstruction of distribution system and regeneration of highly loaded aeration filter crushed-stone load which provides resumption of performance characteristics was carried out.

Treatment and disinfection of natural waters

Che A.V., Che A.A., SHukin A.ANonchemical method of wastewaters treatment and disinfection by explosive cavitation effect. Device for explosive cavitation effect

The method of wastewaters treatment and disinfection by explosive cavitation effect can be applied in domestic water supply for natural surface and ground waters treatment from ferrum and with their simultaneous disinfection. During waters treatment at the facility iron hydroxide molecules Fe(OH)3, Fe(OH)2 being in the water appear to be on the bubble sphere as a result of microbubble cavitation formation and under the impact of collapse power rush toward collapsing bubble focal point destroying spores of fungi and bacteria.
References: 1. Patent RU N 2136601, ICP C02F/46, published 1999.09.10
2. Patent RU N 2136600, ICP CO2F/49, published 1999.09.10
3. Patent RU N 2142421, ICP CO2F1/32, published 1999.12.10
4. Patent №282486, Slovenia http://web,viapvt, sk/pminter/vipru/html
5. Goncharuk V.V. Ozonirovanie kak metod podgotovki pit'evoj vody: vozmozhnye pobochnye produkty i toksikologicheskaja ocenka [Ozonization as a method of drinking water treatment:potential by-products and toxicological estimation], V.V. Goncharuk, N.G. Potapchenko, V.F. Vakulenko; Himija i tehnologija vody [Water chemistry and technology], 1995, vol. 17, №1.
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9. Zostman B. "Organosepticheskaja ocenka vody" [Organoleptic water estimation], M., Himija,publ., 1984.
10. Ivanov B.N. Zakony fiziki [Physics law], B.N. Ivanov; M., Vysshaja shkolaja,publ., 1986, pp. 214-215.
11. Proektirovanie i raschet ochistnyh sooruzhenij vodoprovodov [Designing and calculation of water pipeline treatment plants], L.A. Kul'skij, M.N. Bulava and others, Kiev, 1972, pp. 198-222. 12. Margulis M.A. UFN [Advances in Physical Sciences],journ., 2000, vol. 170, №3, pp. 263-287.
13. Orlov V.A. Ozonirovanie vody [Water ozonization],M.,Himija,publ., 1984.
14. Sirotjuk M.G. Jeksperimental'noe issledovanie ul'trazvukovoj kavitacii. Moshhnye ul'trazvukovye polja [Test investigation of ultrasonically-induced cavitation], edited by L.R. Rozenberg, M., Nauka,publ., 1968, pp. 168-220.
15. Skurlatov Ju.I. Ul'trafioletovoe izluchenie v processah vodopodgotovki i vodoochistki [Ultraviolet radiation in processes of water treatment and water purification], Ju.I. Skurlatov, E.V. Shtamm; Vodosnabzhenie i sanitarnaja tehnika [Water supply and sanitary techniques],journ., 1997, №9.
16. Teslenko V.S., Sankin G.N., Drozhzhin A.P.// FGV; 1999, vol.35, pp. 125-128.
17. Chugaev R.R. Gidravlika [Hydraulics], R.R. Chugaev; L., 1982, pp. 13-17.

Industrial wastewaters treatment

V. S. Machigin, L. N. SHerbakova, A. V. Gubanov, YU. M. Postolov, L. A. Sanova, V. N. SHabanovTreatment of fat-containing process wastewaters of confectionary production

The issue of confectionary plant fat-containing wastewaters treatment state and investigations of All-Russia Scientific-Research Institute of Fats for different manufactures are presented. The exact recommendations applied at JSC “Confectionery factory named after N.K.Krupskaya” in Saint-Petersburg are represented.
References: 1. Technological design standards of confectory industry enterprises.Industry-specific process engineering standard 21-92, developed by state manufacturing enterprise-1 and approved by Glavagropromnauchproekt of Ministry of Agriculture and Food of the USSR 9.10.1991, N 070 -41/7.
2. Marshalkin G. A. Tehnologicheskoe oborudovanie konditerskih fabrik [Technological equipment of confectory enterpises], G. A. Marshalkin, M., Legkaja i pishhevaja promyshlennost',journ., 1984.
3. Receptury na karamel' / Pishhevaja promyshlennost' [Recipe for caramel. Food industry], M., MPP USSR, State Institution of confectory and starch industry.
4. Dragilev A. I. Oborudovanie proizvodstva karameli [Equipment for caramel production], A. I. Dragilev, M., Legkaja i pishhevaja promyshlennost',journ., 1981.
5. Dragilev A. I. Oborudovanie dlja proizvodstva shokolada [Equipment for chocolate production], A. I. Dragilev, M., Kolos,publ., 1993.
6. Linevich R. N. Okislitel'no-sorbcionnaja obrabotka prirodnyh i stochnyh vod [Oxidative-sorption treatment of natural and waste waters], Vodosnabzhenie i sanitarnaja tehnika [Water supply and sanitary techniques], 1995, № 5.
7. Calculation of individual water use and disposal rate for Babaevsky confectory enterprise. Report of Kazgipropishheprom. Almaty, № 5.
8. Methodical quidelines on water biotesting. Engineering documentation 118-02-90. M., Goskomprirody, 1991.
9. Machigin V. S. Ochistka stochnyh vod predprijatij maslozhirovoj promyshlennosti [Treatment of waste waters of oil and fat production enterprises], V. S. Machigin, L. N. Shherbakova; M., AgroNIITJeIPP [Research Institute of information and technical-economic research of food industry], 1988, Serija 20, № 7.
10. Ochistka stochnyh vod predprijatij mjasnoj i molochnoj promyshlennosti [Treatment of waste waters of meat and dairy industry enterprises], CNIITJeI [Central research Institute of information and technical-economic research] review information, 1978.
11. Osnovnye napravlenija razvitija tehniki i tehnologii v spirtovoj i likerovodochnoj promyshlennosti [Main directions of techique and technology development in alcoholic beverage industry industry enterprises], CNIITJeI [Central research Insitute of information and technical-economic research] M., 1981, Serija 17, № 3.
12. Abstracts of reports of the International conference on ecology problems. L., 1990.
13. Polishuk N. I. Vodopol'zovanie na predprijatijah pishhevoj promyshlennosti [Water supply at food industry enterprises], N. I. Polishuk, M., Agropromizdat,publ., 1989.
14. Ochistka stochnyh vod predprijatij pishhevoj promyshlennosti [Waste water treatment at food industry enterprises], AgroNIITJeIPP,[Research Institute of information and technical-economic research of food industry], M., 1988, Serija 14, № 6.
15. Jakovlev S. V. and others. Ochistka proizvodstvennyh stochnyh vod [Indutrial waste waters treatment], M., Strojizdat,publ., 1979.
16. Promyshlennaja sanitarija i obrabotka stochnyh vod v pishhevoj promyshlennosti [Industrial sanitation and treatment of waste waters of food enterprises], CNIITJeIPishheprom [Central research Insitute of information and technical-economic research and food industry] M., 1979, № 2.
17. Obrabotka stochnyh vod na predprijatijah konditerskoj promyshlennosti [Treatment of waste waters at confectory industry enterprises], Jekspressinformacija (VINITI) / Pishhevaja promyshlennost' [Food industry],journ., 1975, issue 33, № 407, p. 24.
18. NEUARTIGE Betriebs-Klaran fur Susswarenfabrik - Zeits-chrift fur Lebensmittel-T.
19. Jakovlev S. V. Sovremennye metody ochistki stochnyh vod, soderzhashhih poverhnostnoaktivnye veshhestva [Up-to-date methods of waste waters treatment containing surfactant], review information, S. V. Jakovlev and others, M., CBNTI Minzhilkomhoza RSFSR, 1988, issue I (22), p. 61.

I. G. SHaihiev, G. A. Minlegulova Treatment of water bodies from chromium ions using wastewater of industrial and agricultural production.

The authors represent the sources of chromium formation in wastewaters, give classification of chromium toxic effect on living organisms. The authors also conduct a wide and comprehensive analysis and present positive sides of traditional methods of chromium compounds removal from wastewaters; analyze innovative ways of wastewater treatment from chromium compounds using flows of different productions.
References: 1. Sokolov O. A., V. A. Chernikov Atlas raspredelenija tjazhelyh metallov v obektah okruzhajushhej sredy [ Atlas of heavy metals distribution in objects of ecological interest], Pushchino, ONTI PNC RAN [Central library of Pushchino scientific center], 1999, p. 164. 2. Drinking water. Hygienic requirements to water quality of centralized systems of water supply. Quality control: SanPiN Approved by Chief State Medical Officer of RF 26.09.01. № 24; brought in action 01.01.02. 3. Kasikov A. G. Ochistka promyshlennyh stochnyh vod s ispol'zovaniem othodov proizvodstva [Industrial waste waters treatment with the use of industrial waste], Jekologija promyshlennogo proizvodstva, journ., 2006, № 9, pp. 28–34. 4. Kuz'michkina V. S. , G. I. Lomako, G. S. Petkevich, N. I. Michkevich, A. F. Pestrak Ispol'zovanie otrabotannyh travil'nyh rastvorov dlja ochistki promyshlennyh stochnyh vod [Use of spent etching solution for industrial waste waters treatment], News of the Academy of Science of BSSR. Series of chemical sciences, 1984, № 5, pp. 97–101. 5. Author certificate 1813734 USSR, ICP S 02 F1/66. Sposob ochistki stochnyh vod ot hroma [Method of waste water treatment from chromium], I. P. Golubnichij, K. N. Nessis-Gorskaja, E. L. Kamenshhik; applicant and patent holder PАО "Zaporozhsky elektroapparatny zavod" , № 4851603/26; declared 30.05.90; published 07.05.93. 6. Author certificate 881004 USSR, ICP S 02 F 1/62. Sposob obezvrezhivanija stochnyh vod ot hroma [Method of waste water disinfection from chromium], A. P. Amarjan, V. D. Vasil'ev, A. A. Pirogov, S. M. Serdoteckij, I. Ju. Dynin, L. I. Gracershtejn; № 2718106/29-26; declared 29.01.79; published 15.11.81. 7. Perelygin Ju. P. Obezvrezhivanie hromsoderzhashhih stochnyh vod gal'vanoproizvodstv othodami proizvodstva antibiotikov [Disinfection of chromiferous waste waters of electroplating production by antibiotics production wastes], Ju. P. Perelygin, O. E. Bezborodova, O. V. Zor'kina ; Gal'vanotehnika i obrabotka poverhnosti [Electroplating & surface treatment] journ., 2004, vol. 12, № 4, pp. 42–45. 8. Bezborodova O. E. Obezvrezhivanie hromsoderzhashhih stochnyh vod gal'vanicheskih proizvodstv othodami proizvodstva antibiotikov: avtoref. diss. kand. tehn. nauk [Disinfection of chromiferous waste waters of electroplating production by antibiotics production wastes], synopsis of thesis of candidate of technical science, Penza, 2005, p. 20. 9. M. P. Kim, T. I. Berestova, T. S. Davidovich Ochistka hromsoderzhashhih i kislotno-shhelochnyh proizvodstvennyh stokov metodom jelektrokoaguljacii . Voprosy ohrany vodnyh resursov v ugol'noj promyshlennosti: sb. nauch. tr. [Treatment of chromiferous and acid-alkaline industrial waste waters by electrocoagulation method. Issues of water resources and coal industry protection. Collection of scientific works], Perm, 1983, pp. 69–77. 10. Melitas N. Kinetics of soluble chromium removal from contaminated water by zerovalent iron media: corrosion inhibition and passive oxide effects / N. Melitas, O. Chuffe-Moscoco, J. Farrell //Environ. Sci. and Technol. – 2001. – vol. 35. – № 19. – P. 3948–3953. 11. Oh Young Ju. Effect of amorphous silica and silica sand on removal of chromium (VI) by zerovalent iron / Oh Young Ju, Song Hocheol, Shin Won, Sik Choi, Sang June, Kim Young-Hun //Chemosphere. – 2007. – vol. 66. – № 5. – P. 858–865. 12. E. B. Dubkova, V. A. Zajcev. Laboratornyj praktikum po kursu «Promyshlennaja jekologija»: Uchebnoe posobie [Laboratory course on the subject “Industrial ecology”: study guide], M., D.Mendeleyev University of Chemical Technology of Russia, 2000, p. 165. 13. Solozhenkin P. M. Teoreticheskie osnovy i prakticheskie aspekty gal'vanohimicheskoj ochistki stochnyh vod. Udalenie toksichnyh metallov [The theoretical basis and practical aspects galvanochemical wastewater treatment. Post 2. Removal of toxic metals], Voda i jekologija: problemy i reshenija [Water and ecology: problems and solutions], 2007, № 3, pp. 3–15 14. Patent 7166228 USA, ICP C 02 F 1/70. Method of treating a subsurface formation with ferrous iron to reduce contaminants to harmless species / R.D. Ludwig, Su Chinming, applicant and patent holder Enviromental Protection; № 10/963607; declared 14.10.04; published 23.01.07. 15. Shazly A. H. Hexavalent chromium reduction using a fixed bed of scrap bearing iron spheres /A. H. Shazly, A. A. Mubarak, A. H. Konsowa // Desalination. – 2005. – vol. 185. – № 1–3. – P. 307–316. 16. Zhang Rui-hua, Sun Hong-wen. Removal of chromium from waste waters using iron // J. Agro-Environ. Sci. – 2004. – vol. 23. – № 6. – P. 1192–1195. 17. Chen Shiao-Shing. Chromate reduction by waste iron from electroplating wastewater using plugflow reactor /. Chen Shiao-Shing, Hsu Bao-Chrung, Hung Li-Wei // J. Hazardous Mater. – 2008. – vol.152. – № 3. – P. 1092–1097. 18. V. A. Kolesnikov, V. I. Il'in. Jekologija i resursosberezhenie v jelektrohimicheskih proizvodstvah. Mehanicheskie i fiziko-himicheskie metody ochistki promyvnyh i stochnyh vod: Uchebnoe posobie [Ecology and resource saving in electrochemical industry. Mechanical and physical-mechanical methods of industrial waste waters treatment: study guide], M., Mendeleyev University of Chemical Technology of Russia, 2004, p. 219. 19. E. P. Vasenin, A. G. Tarasov Primenenie travil'nyh rastvorov v processah ochistki hromsoderzhashhih stochnyh vod [Use of etching solutions in processes of chromiferous waste water treatment], abstracts of report of the regional conference “Improvement of efficiency of water treatment and water disposal plants work], Kuibyshev, 1990, pp. 21–22. 20. Pat. 2096334 RF, ICP S02F1/28. Sposob ochistki stochnyh vod ot soedinenij Cr(VI) [Method of waste water treatment from compounds of Cr (VI)], applicant and patent holder Tugushev R. Je. ; № 5016867/25; declared 17.10.91; published 20.11.97. 21. Singh I. B. Hexavalent chromium removal using iron bearing industrial sludges / I. B. Singh, D. R.Singh, // Indian J. Chem. Technol. – 2001. – vol. 8. – № 6. – P. 487–495. 22. Sun Ying-xue, Хu Dong . The use of filtering material on the base of iron compounds for chromium removal from waste waters ; Water and Wastewater. – 2003. – vol. 34. – № 2. – C. 32–34. 23. S. V. Sverguzova, L. A. Porozhnjuk . Ochistka hromsoderzhashhih stochnyh vod s pomoshh'ju modificirovannoj pyli staleplavil'nyh pechej [Chromiferous waste waters treatment with the use of modified dust of steelmaking furnace], Jekologija i promyshlennost' Rossii, journ., 1999, № 4, pp. 17–19. 24. Sverguzova S. V. Kompleksnoe obezvrezhivanie stochnyh vod, utilizacija osadkov vodoochistki i vtorichnoe ispol'zovanie gipso- i metallsoderzhashhih promyshlennyh othodov [Complex waste water disinfection, water treatment sludge utilization and reclamation of hypso- and metal containing industrial water waters], synopsis of thesis of candidate of technical science, Kazan, 2008, p. 38. 25. Ochola C. E. Establishing and elucidating redaction as the removal mechanism of Cr(VI) by Reclaimed Limestone Residual RLR (Modified Steel Slag) / C. E. Ochola., Horage K. Moo-Young //Environ. Sci. Technol. – 2004. – vol. 38. – № 22. – P. 6161–6165. 26. Bajan E. M. Osazhdenie rjada tjazhelyh metallov iz vodnyh rastvorov karbonatsoderzhashhim tehnogennym othodom [Sedimentation of number of heavy metals form water solutions of carbonate containing technogenic waste], synopsis of thesis of candidate of technical science, Novocherkassk, 2004, p. 19. 27. Technological process of ferrochrome production with the use of iron containing wastes and leather production wastes, html. 28. Zaharova I. N., Kalaeva S. Z., Makarov V. M., Shipilin A. M. Poluchenie magnitnyh ferrokolloidov na osnove toksichnyh promyshlennyh othodov [Production of magnetic ferrocolloids on bases of toxic industrial wastes], 29. A. P. Titov, S. E. Krivega, G. P. Bespamjatnov. Kaskadnyj metod obezvrezhivanija stochnyh vod gal'vanicheskih proizvodstv . Issledovanija po opredeleniju jekonomicheskoj jeffektivnosti nauchno-issledovatel'skih rabot i metody obezvrezhivanija othodov v proizvodstvah organicheskogo sinteza: sb. nauch .tr. [Cascade method of electroplating production waste waters treatment. Investigation on identification of research works economic efficiency and methods of wastes disinfection in organic synthesis production: collection of scientific works], Leningrad, 1976, pp. 94–97. 30. Dos Santos C.F. Potential application of highly reactive Fe(0)/Fe3O4 composites for the reduction of Cr(VI) environmental contaminants / C. F. dos Santos, J. D. Ardisson, F. C. C. Moura, R. M. Lago, E. Murad, J. D. Fabris // Chemosphere. – 2008. – vol. 71. – № 1. – P. 90–96. 31. Chen Bing-meng. Treatment of chromiferous waste waters by method of deoxidation, adsorption and coagulation; Yangzhou Univ. Natur. Set. Ed. – 2000. – vol. 3. – № 4, pp. 80–82.


Feofanov U.A.The problems of resources and energy saving in water supply systems

The main problems which bring to significant energy consumption in water supply systems are listed. The reasons of unsatisfactory state of municipal pipelines are described. These reasons cause significant volumes of water leakage, numerous breakdowns in water-supply network. As a result of metal pipes corrosion and formation of corrosion product on them the pipe cross-section decreases, hydraulic resistance and pressure loss increases that lead to network section flow capacity decreasing, increasing of costs on electric and water supply, water transportation cost price rise. The article gives recommendations on the order of repair works with the view to decrease the water consumption in housing fund. Recommended order of repair works on water leakage level reduction firstly in buildings where the greatest intensity of water use is indicated will give a result with less financial expenses.
References: 1. Water strategy of the Russian Federation on period till 2020 approved by government decree on 27 of August 2009 # 1235-p.
2. Metodika opredelenija neuchtennyh rashodov i poter' vody v sistemah kommunal'nogo vodosnabzhenija [Method of evaluation of unaccounted expenses and leakage of water in systems of municipal water supply], Karmazinov F.V., Feofanov Ju.A., Mahnev P.P, Judin M.Ju., Minpromjenergo,publ., M., 2005, p. 56.
3. Feofanov Ju.A., Zhuhovickij A.V. Sovremennye materialy i vidy trub dlja remonta i stroitel'stva inzhenernyh setej: Uchebnoe posobie [Advanced materials and types of pipes for repair and construction of engineering networks], Saint-Petersburg State University of architecture and civil engineering,SPb, 2006.
4. SNiP 2.04.02-84. Water supply. Public utilities.
5. Water supply of Saint-Petersburg, edited by F.V.Karmazinov, «Novyj mir»,publ., SPb, 2003.
6. Vodosnabzhenie i vodootvedenie v Sankt-Peterburge [Water supply and water disposal in Saint-Petersburg], team of authors,SPb., Novyj zhurnal,journ., 2008.
7. The practice of water supply. translated from German, SPb, Novyj zhurnal,journ., 2010, p. 496.

P.I. YakovlevAdjustment of the river underground inflow by complex use of hydrometric and hydrochemical methods in conducting hydro-geological works in the river valleys

It is showed that from the point of view of water supply organization from underground and surface sources the most prospective section of rivers are those where unloading line module of underground waters several times or significantly higher than background values. The methods of indication of intensive unloading underground waters sections by hydrometric and hydrochemical methods that considerably simplify the conduction of geological exploration works in underground waters are described. For more precise identification of quantative characteristic of underground inflow the management of channel hydrochemical balance is used.
References: 1. Alekin O.A. Osnovy gidrohimii [Basics of hydrochemistry], L., Gidrometeoizdat,publ., 1970.
2. Gidrogeologija SSSR [Hydrogeology of the USSR], vol.1. Moskovskaja i smezhnye oblasti [Moscow region and neighbouring areas], M., Nedra,publ., 1966.
3. Gavich I.K. , Luchsheva A.A. , Semenova-Erofeeva S.M. Sbornik zadach po obshhej gidrogeologii [Collection of tasks on general hydrogeology], M., Nedra,publ., 1985.
4. Kuzovlev V.V., Shletterer M. «Trudy presnovodnogo issledovanija» tom I: otchet ob jekspedicii po Verhnej Volge (2005) [Works of fresh water investigation, vol. I: report on expedition along the Upper Volga, 2005], 2006, IGAN, Tomsks State Technical University, Tomsk State University, University of Innsbruck (Austria).
5. Posohov E.V. Ionnyj sostav prirodnyh vod. Genezis i jevoljucija [Ion composition of natural waters. Genesis and evolution] L., Gidrometeoizdat,publ., 1985.
6. Jakovlev P.I. Vyjavlenie zon intensivnoj razgruzki podzemnyh vod gidrologicheskimi i distancionnymi metodami [Identification of zones of intensive groundwater discharge by hydrological and remote-sensing methods], Ispol'zovanie i ohrana prirodnyh resursov Rossii [Management and protection of natural resources of Russia], 2001, №6, pp. 46-49.
7. Jakovlev P.I. Vyjavlenie uchastkov intensivnoj razgruzki podzemnyh vod v reki s ispol'zovaniem distancionnyh i gidrologicheskih metodov [Identification of sectors of intensive groundwater discharge by hydrological and remote-sensing methods], Razvedka i ohrana nedr [Prospect and protection of mineral resources],journ., 2009, №7, pp. 43-49.

E. GruzdevaRepair of wells as the way to optimization of local water supply.

Inspite of the fact that Russia has more than one-fifth of the world reserves of fresh water, some russian regions lack it. According to estimations of the state program "Chistaya voda" ("Clean water") there are 2600 sections of technogenic pollution of underground waters indicated in Russia (including: European part of the RF - 1940 sections (74%), Asian part of the RF - about 700 (26%)) which characteristics do not meet regulatory requirements of SanPiN "Pitievaya voda" (Sanitary Regulations and Standards "Drinking water"). Along with this the quality of fresh water from artesian springs still remains high enough and there are a great deal of such deposits of water. It is obvious that the solution can be the following: development of artesian water supply when there are significant number of already bored well but which is not used for one reason or another. The situation is complicated with the fact that their number exceeds the number of working ones.
References: 1. slja V.G. Rekonstrukcija vodozabornyh skvazhin v sel'skoj mestnosti [Reconstruction of water intake stations in rural areas] Vodosnabzhenie i sanitarnaja tehnika [Water supply and sanitary technique], № 5, 2010.
2. Methodical manual "Water intake stations operation", Belarusian National Technical University, 2002; UDC 628.112 (

N.U. BolshakovUse of math models for optimization of biogenic elements removal process and modernization of waste water treatment plants

The results of implementation of nitride denitrification technology in aerotanks working in the regime of traditional biological treatment with nitrification are presented. On the example of the city of Tikhvin waste waters plant it is showed that using simulation models enables to both increase the treatment efficiency on biogens and obtain a significant economical result. The achieved results allow recommending the applying method to other treatment plants.
References: 1. Hence M. Biologicheskaja ochistka stochnyh vod [Biological treatment of waste waters], M., Mir,publ., 480, 2004; Bol'shakov N.Ju. «Optimizacija tehnologicheskogo processa v sisteme ajerotenk-otstojnik dlja minimizacii sbrosa organicheskih veshhestv i biogennyh jelementov» [Optomozation of technological process in system of aerator-clarifier unit for organic substances emission minimization], synopsis of thesis of candidate of technical science, SPb, St. Petersburg State Technological Institute, 2005, p. 17.
2. SNiP 2.04.03-85. Sewerage. Public utilities. M., JSC "ZPP", 2008, p. 87.

Trifonov O.V.The study of the treatment plants final settling tanks periphyton

The periphiton forming on solid substrates in final settling tanks of urban wastewaters treatment stations is investigated, It taxonometric structure, quantitative development, productive-destructive indicators are explored. The high content of heavy metals and biogenic elemenents (nitrogen and phosphorus) in periphyton is indicated. On the base of conducted investigations the conclusion on prospectivity of periphyton use for the wastewaters treatment quality improvement is made.
References: 1. Alimov A.F. Vvedenie v produkcionnuju gidrobiologiju [Introdution to productional hydrobiology], L., Gidrometeoizdat,publ., 1989, p. 152.
2. Makarevich T.A., Derengovskaja R.A., Nikitina L.V. and others. Komponentnyj sostav jepifitona v vodoemah i vodotokah Belarusi [Component composition of epiphyton in water body and water channels of Belarus], development strategy of aquaculture in conditions of the XXI century:materials of the international research-and-practice conference, Minsk, 23-27 of August 2004, ALC «Tonpik», 2004, pp. 216-219.
3. Makarevich T. A. Perifiton i ego rol' v produkcii organicheskogo veshhestva i migracii radionuklidov v ozernyh jekosistemah [Periphyton and its role in organic substances production and radionuclide migration in lake ecosystems], thesis of candidate of biological science, Institute of Zoology of the Academy of Sciences of BSSR, 1995, p. 212.
4. Zhmur N.S. Tehnologicheskie i biohimicheskie processy ochistki stochnyh vod na sooruzhenijah s ajerotenkami [Technological and biochemical processes in waste waters treatment at plants with aerotanks], M., Akvaros,publ., 2003, p. 512.
5. Makarevich T.A., Zhukova T.V., Ostapenja A.P. Himicheskij sostav i jenergeticheskaja cennost' perifitona v mezotrofnom ozere [Chemical composition and energetic value of periphyton in mesotrophic lake], Gidrobiologicheskij zhurnal [Hydrobiological Journal],journ., 1992, vol.28, № 1, pp. 30-34.
6. Panasenkova L.P., Panasenkov Ju.V. Ispol'zovanie metoda prikreplennoj mikroflory v ochistke stochnyh vod krupnogo predprijatija CBP. Problemy jekologii[Use of method of attached microflora in waste waters treatment of large enterprise of pulp and paper industry. Problems of ecology], materials of the conference "Problems of ecology", Irkutsk, 25-28 of October 1999, Irkutsk State University, 1999, chpter 2, pp. 61-66.

Yu. MaltsevaCentral Asia water resource management: problems and opportunities for cooperation and conversation

Currently the necessity of Central Asia countries cooperation in the sphere of their water resources is widely discussed. Regions come across exact problems in water resource management such as water-bearing layer pollution, water lack, its unequal distribution, energetic problems concerning water, problems of irrigation and many others. The differences in economic development of littoral countries as well as their demand on water resources are the obstacles in the process of their cooperation which is vital in achieving legal and rational use of total water resources of the region.
References: 1. Weinthal, E. 2006. Water Conflict and Cooperation in Central Asia. Background Paper for the UN Human Development Report.
2. International Water Management Institute (
3. Hodgson,S. 2010. Strategic Water Resources in Central Asia: in search of a new international legal order. EUCAM.
4. Granit, J. et al. 2010. Regional Water Intelligence Report Central Asia. SIWI.
5. Interstate Commission for Water Coordination of Central Asia (
6. Muzalevsky, R. 2010. The Rogun Controversy: Decoding Central Asia s Water Puzzles. CACI Analyst. 03.03.2010.
7. Pannier, B. 2009. Battle Lines Drawn In Central Asian Water Dispute. (
8. Khamzayeva, A. et al., 2009. Water Resources Management in Central Asia. Regional and International Issues at Stake. Documentos CIDOB. Asia 25.
9. Asian Development Bank, 2002. Cooperation in Shared Water Resources in Central Asia: Past Experience and Future Challenges.
10. Steley, C, 2007. Central Asia – Regional and National Water Sector Review. (
11. Ballyev, K., 2010. Current instruments of transboundary water cooperation in the Aral Sea Basin and perspectives for improvement with the support of the Third Aral Sea Basin. (

I.G. Shaikhiev, G.A. MinligulovaTreatment of water bodies from chromium ions using wastewater of industrial and agricultural production. Part 2. Chrome ions removal by industrial waste waters.

Sorption treatment of water bodies from chrome ions at industrial plants is firstly restrained by high cost of sorbents. The solution can be the following: use of non-traditonal reagents which are industrial and agricultural production wastes.
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M.M. Asadov, S.A. AlievaQuality analysis of phenomena on interphase boundary of the system "flow of moist natural gas - surface active agent emulsion".

The mechanism of interphase tension occurrence on the boundary of the system "flow of moist natural gas - surface active agent emulsion" in isothermal approximation is observed. It is showed that such mechanism provides a quality interpretation of the natural gas treatment process from moisture in the presence of hydrate inhibitor on the base of surface active agent. The essence of the mechanism is s simultaneous accounting of surface and interphase intension of the medium.
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