Archive logs by year


M. N. TereshukFeatures of biological treatment plants at high and low temperatures

Biological reactors of SBR (Sequencing Batch Reactor) type became widely used in the world practice of biological clarification for treatment of both municipal and industrial waste water. The treatment of waste water by means of SBR technology is performed cyclically and is one of the alternatives to conventional reactors of flow type. The article considers such important problem as the major differences between SBR and flow reactors, the principles of SBR operation, the technique of calculation, the advantages and the disadvantages of SBR technology.

B. G. Mishukov, E. A. Soloveva, T. P. Pavlova, B. G. Izakson, V. S. KeishBiomembrane technology of sewage treatment

The basic types of biomembrane reactors and their constructional features are described and the major problems of membrane regeneration and the complications arising during exploitation are discussed. The main plant performance figures are presented and the process layouts for biological treatment through using of biomembrane reactors are described. The disadvantages of membrane technology are well-known: high membrane cost and poor water throughput capacity. For that reason in economic criterions the membrane plants are behind the conventional facilities of bio-chemical waste water treatment. As to capital investments, the prime costs are represented by membrane costs which are the double of construction cost of more reliable secondary clarifiers. Among the operating costs a high value of electric power consumption stands out. Under certain conditions these differences in costs may be reduced using the other specific conditions of plants disposition and future development.

B. G. MishukovAssessing the role of precipitation fermentation in methane-tanks in the process of nitrogen and phosphorus removal and energy saving

It is shown that whereas the use of sludge digesters is advantageous for stability provision to the sludge deposed in sewage treatment plants, it gravely complicates the processes of nitrogen and phosphorous removal and it cannot be considered as a searching remedy for energy saving. The formal estimations according to balance of heat without regard to expenses for digester sludge liquor dentrification and dephosphorization would not give a comprehensive idea of the complication of sludge treatment flowsheet and of the expenditures connected with the disposal of this sludge.

N. YU. Bolshakov, V. V. Vashenko Minimization of secondary pollution during sewage sludge processing

The problem of the improvement of the efficiency of phosphorous removal from the sewage requires the implementation at sludge treatment stage of such processes that would provide the possibility to treat the sludge without sensible separation of phosphorous accumulated during biological treatment. The aim of this work was to study the secondary contaminations by phosphorous in the course of sludge mineralization (aerobic stabilization) and compaction of sediments. It is shown that at the stage of aerobic stabilization the water yield of uncompacted active sludge is considerably improved, so as to facilitate the further processes of sludge treatment.

I. G. SHaihiev, G. A. Minlegulova Treatment of water bodies from chromium ions using waste industrial and agricultural production. Part 3. Removal of chromium ions waste of agricultural raw materials

The immense amounts of farm animal wastes and vegetation residues arise from agriproduct processing. Generally these waste products are subjected to utilization or to burying. These materials represent an organic substance formed by various biopolymers which are provided with functional groups that may be utilized for different purposes including heavy metals removal. It is evident that the use of industrial and agricultural wastes for waste water treatment makes it possible to resolve simultaneously two ecological problems. The wastes pass into category of secondary material resources and contribute to toxic pollutants removal from water bodies. It is clear that further expansion of waste utilization for waste treatment would allow to reduce significantly at minimum costs the environmental discharge (specifically, the discharge of chromium) in the area of industrial enterprises operation

M. G. Jadykina, F. B. SHkundina, L. N, Martynenkova Hydrochemical study of the Belaya River water in the area of sewage disposal of the city of Beloretsk

The change of chemical composition of Belaya river under the influence of waste water of biological treatment plants (the city of Beloretsk) were investigated. The analysis of seasonal compositional variation in the period 2008-2010 showed that the waste water effect on water composition varied with the season. The soiling index values permits to range the water in investigated sections of Belaya river in IV class of quality – “polluted”. A heavy increase of chlorides, sulfates and dry residues concentration has been marked in 2010 this jump being due to anomalous climatic conditions (failure of rain and high summer temperature).


Zh. B. IvanovaRussian legislation on the protection of water resources from industrial pollution (pre-Soviet period)

The correlation between the development of the industry and the environmental legislation which existed in Russia in XIX century is reviewed. The analysis of normative acts of pre-revolutionary period is carried out and it is shown that the application of these regulatory documents has contributed to rational utilization of natural resources and to practical solution of the problems of legitimate protection of the environment.
Key words: legislation, water resources protection, jurisprudential works, pre-revolutionary period.
References: 1. Kinjapina N. S. Politika russkogo samoderzhavija v oblasti promyshlennosti [ Policy of the russian autocracy with the regard to manufacturing industry 20-50 years of 19th century], M., 1968.
2. Molchanov B. A. Chelovek i priroda v tradicionnom pravosoznanii narodov Severnoj Rossii [Human and nature in the traditional legal consciousness of population of the North Russia], Arkhangelsk, 1998, p.8.
3. Golichenkov A. K., Novickaja T. E., Chirkin S. V. Ocherki istorii jekologicheskogo prava: razvitie pravovyh celej ohrany prirody [ Sketches of environment law history: development of legal aims of nature protection] Vestnik Moskovskogo Universiteta, journ., Ser. 11, Pravo, 1991, № 1, pp.50–57.
4. Najdenov N. A. Vospominanija o vidennom, slyshannom i ispytannom [Memories of seen, heard and experienced], M., 1903, vol. 1, pp. 93–94.
5. Berdjaev N. A. Istoki i smysl russkogo kommunizma [Sources and sense of russian communism], M.. 1990, pp. 7–8.

V. P. Kargapolcev On the necessity of development of maintenance system for heat meters and water meters

In connection with the publication of Federal Law №261 “On the energy efficiency …” a very important question of present interest was raised which is relative to fabrication of heat meters and water meters for the purpose of equipment of all thermal energy and water consumers with these metering units and to creation of the basis of their verification and calibration. It has been suggested to create a single register of flow calibration rigs and to organize within the limits of specific federal district a round-robin comparison of the results using the procedure developed by OJSC Tevis (the city of Tolyatti) and approved by the Center for Standardization and Metrology (ЦСМ).
Key words: heat meters, water meters, metering units, flow calibration rig, verification, calibration.
References: 1. Kargapol'cev V. P. Poverochnye ustanovki dlja rashodomerov, ispol'zuemyh v zhilishhno-kommunal'nom hozjajstve [Calibration rig for flow rate meters used in housing and public services] Commercial accounting of energy carriers: materials of the 30 international research and practice conference, SPb, 2010.
2. Kargapol'cev V. P. Trebovanija k prolivnym ustanovkam dlja rashodomerovschetchikov vody i tehnologicheskih zhidkostej [Requirements for calibration rigs for flowe rate meters of water and process liquids] Neftegazpromyslovyj inzhiniring, jour., № 3, 2004.
3. Kargapol'cev V. P., Kosolapov A. V., Sidenko A. A. O nekotoryh podhodah k resheniju voprosov metrologicheskogo obespechenija ZhKH [On some approaches to housing and public services metrological support issues], Promyshlennye ASU i kontrollery, journ., № 5, 2007.

S. G. Amelichkin, V. G. Ivanov, A. N. Medvedev Aerosol disinfection technology of waterworks using ECA solutions

The results of the researches being carried out for 15 years at the department Water Supple, Water Disposal of St.Petersbug’s Institute of Lines of Communication are presented. The studies were conducted with the aim of determination of optimal biocidal parameters for electrochemical activated solutions destined for aerosol disinfection of water supply facilities (ECA solutions). The results of cooperative (with CJSC) development of technology and equipment for volume disinfection by the aerosols of the anolyte in water supply systems of water and waste water facilities are presented. A large list of references relative to article topic is annexed.
Key words: disinfection, waterworks, aerosol technology, anolyte, electrochemically activated solutions.
References: 1. Amelichkin S. G., Ivanov V. G., Dikarevskij V. S. Obezzarazhivanie pit'evyh i stochnyh vod produktami jelektrohimicheskoj aktivizacii [Disinfection of drinking and waste waters by products of electrochemical activation], Vodosnabzhenie i sanitarnaja tehnika [Water Supply and Sanitary Technique],journ., M., 2000, № 10, p.3.
2. Dikarevskij B. C., Ivanov V. G., Amelichkin S. G., Jakovlev Ju. N. Obezzarazhivanie pit'evyh i stochnyh vod — zalog ozdorovlenija nacii, povyshenija reproduktivnosti i dolgoletija [Disinfection of drinking and waste waters - pledge of nation sanitation, reproductivity increasing and longevity], Academia, publ., Architecture and civil engineering, Russian Academy of Architecture and Construction Sciences, M.,2002, № 3 p.4.
3. Amelichkin S. G., Ivanov V. G., Dikarevskij V. S. Obzor primenenija metodov obezzarazhivanija vody (dostoinstva i nedostatki) [Review of water disinfection methods use (pros and cons), Academia, publ., Architecture and civil engineering, Russian Academy of Architecture and Construction Sciences, M.,2006, №1, p.6.
4. Amelichkin S. G., Ivanov V. G., Begunov P. P., Simonov Ju. M. Razrabotka tehnologii obezzarazhivanija stochnyh vod na stancii Semrino Oktjabr'skoj zheleznoj dorogi s ispol'zovaniem aktivirovannyh rastvorov, poluchaemyh na ustanovke JeKOTEST [Development of waste waters disinfection technologies at station Smerino of Oktjabr railway station with the use of activated solutions obtained by EKOTEST installation], SPb, 1997, p.30.
5. Amelichkin S. G., Dikarevskij V. S., Ivanov V. G., Medvedev A. N. i dr. Dezinfekcija vodoprovodnyh sooruzhenij jelektrohimicheski aktivirovannymi rastvorami [Disinfection of waterworks by electrochemical activated solutions], Vodosnabzhenie i sanitarnaja tehnika [Water Supply and Sanitary Technique],journ., M.,2004. № 8. 4 s.
6. Ivanov V. G., Dikarevskij V. S., Amelichkin S. G., Jakovlev Ju. N., Medvedev A. N., Hjamjaljajnen M. M. Primenenie jelektrohimicheskoj aktivacii dlja obezzarazhivanija vody i sooruzhenij vodosnabzhenija i vodootvedenija [ Application of electrochemical activation for disinfection of water and installations of water supply and water disposal], Systems of water supply, water disposal and water resources protection in the beggining of the 21st century: materials of academical readings hold on Saint-Petersburg State University of Transport on 10 and 11 of April 2001, SPb, 2001, p.4.
7. Dikarevskij V. S., Ivanov V. G., Amelichkin S. G. Jelektrohimicheskaja aktivacija kak perspektivnyj metod obezzarazhivanija vody i emkostnyh sooruzhenij [Electrochemical activation as a prospective method of water and tank installations disinfection], materials of international scientific and technical seminar on the occasion of Saint-Petersburg 300th anniversary "Modern technologies of water treatment in struggle for environment protection], SPb, 2003.
8. Ivanov V. G., Amelichkin S. G., Hjamjaljajnen M. M. Application of electrochemical activated solutions for water disinfection: materials of the 60th scientific conference of professors, teachers, research workers, engineers and post-graduate students of Saint-Petersburg State University of Architechture and Civil engineering, SPb, Saint-Petersburg State University of Architechture and Civil engineering,Publ., 2003, pp. 25–26.
9. Amelichkin S. G., Ivanov V. G., Hjamjaljajnen M. M. Issledovanie relaksacii svojstv jelektrohimicheski aktivirovannyh rastvorov [Investigations of electrochemically activated solutions properties relaxation] materials of the 61th scientific conference of professors, teachers, research workers, engineers and post-graduate students of Saint-Petersburg State University of Architechture and Civil engineering, SPb, Saint-Petersburg State University of Architechture and Civil engineering,Publ., 2004, pp. 20–22.
10. Amelichkin S. G., Ivanov V. G., Dikarevskij V. S., Begunov P. P., Hjamjaljajnen M. M. Obezzarazhivanie vody JeHA rastvorami [Disinfection of water by electrochemically activated solutions],New investigations in the shpere of water supply, water disposal, hydrology and water resources protection: materials of academical readings hold on Saint-Petersburg State University of Transport on 17–18 of March 2004, SPb,2004,pp. 7–9.
11. Amelichkin S. G., Ivanov V. G., Medvedev A. N. Opyt primenenija anolitov dlja obezzarazhivanija vody i ajerozol'noj dezinfekcii vodoprovodnyh sooruzhenij Sankt-Peterburga [Experience of anolyte application for water disinfection and aerosol disinfection of waterworks of Saint-Petersburg], materials of the 6th international congress JeKVATJeK-2004 «Voda: Jekologija i tehnologija» [Water:ecology and technology] hold on 1-4 of June, part 1., M., 2004, pp. 517–518.
12. Patent № 2258116 «Sposob dezinfekcii vodoprovodnyh setej i sooruzhenij » [Method of disinfection of water supply systems and waterworks], patent holder S. G. Amelichkin, A. N. Medvedev and others, 2005.
13. Amelichkin S. G., Ivanov V. G., Medvedev A. N. Ajerozol'naja dezinfekcija vodoprovodnyh setej i emkostnyh sooruzhenij v GUP «Vodokanal Sankt-Peterburga [ Aerosol disinfection of water sypply systems and tanks in SUE "Vodokanal-Saint-Ptersburg"] :materials of the 7th international congress JeKVATJeK-2006 «Voda: Jekologija i tehnologija» [Water:ecology and technology] hold on 29 of May - 1st of June, part 2., M., 2006, pp. 318–320.
14. Amelichkin S. G., Jakovlev Ju. N., Medvedev A. N. Primenenie v GUP «VODOKANAL SANKT-PETERBURGA» ajerozolej anolita, vyrabatyvaemyh ajerozol'nymi generatorami «MAG» [Application of aerosol anolyte produced by aerosol generators "MAG" at SUE "Vodokanal-Saint-Petersburg], materials of the 7th international congress JeKVATJeK-2006 «Voda: Jekologija i tehnologija» [Water:ecology and technology] hold on 29 of May - 1st of June, part 2., M., 2006, p. 552.
15. Amelichkin S.G. Ajerozol'naja tehnologija dezinfekcii vodoprovodnyh sooruzhenij JeHA rastvorami [Aerosol technology of disinfection of waterworks by electrochemically activated solutions],materials of the third academical readings hold in Saint-Petersburg State University of Transport on 11-12 April 2006 "New technologies in the sphere of water supply, water disposa, hydrology and water resources protection, SPb, Russian Academy of Architecture and Construction Sciences, Publ., 2006, pp.24-28.
16. Dikarevskij V. S., Ivanov V. G. Amelichkin S. G., Tvardovskaja N. V. Obezzarazhivanie i dezinfekcija s primeneniem jelektrohimicheski aktivirovanogo rastvora anolita v sistemah VKH [Disinfection with the use of electrochemically activated solution of anolyte in systems of water and sewage utilities], Voda MAGAZINE, journ., № 5, 2008, pp. 56–63.
17. Dikarevskij V. S., Ivanov V. G. Amelichkin S. G., Medvedev A. N. Novaja tehnologija obemnoj dezinfekcii i dezodoracii ajerozoljami JeHA rastvorami [New technology of dimensional disinfection desodorization by aerosols of electrochemically activated solutions],Russian Academy of Architecture and Construction Sciences, Publ., Moskva-Orel, 2009, vol. 2, issue 12, pp. 170–172.

T. M. Portnova, I. L. Bobrova, S. CHorovich, A. Novakovich Results of adjustment works at the new unit of tap water preparing at the St. Petersburg Southern Waterworks - Unit K-6

A brief description of the system for tap water preparing at Southern Waterworks St. Petersburg is given. The process flow for drinking water treatment at the new unit (water conditioning unit K-6) is described. The results obtained at the 1st stage of commissioning are presented. A special attention is given to a high degree of automation and to the number of operating personnel.
Key words: drinking water, WWTP, K-6, technological scheme, start-up and adjusting works, experiment results.

S. I. Ivanov, M. G NovikovNew technology for surface water reagent treatment

The product «ДЕЗАВИД концентрат» (DEZAVID concentrate) developed by Russian researchers is in fact a reagent of double action as it simultaneously offers the properties of efficacious disinfectant and of cationic floculant as well. A comprehensive sanitation-and-epidemiological assessment has been carried out in Sysin Scientific Research Institute of Human Ecology and Environmental Hygiene (RAMS) in 2005-2010. The reagent was approved for utilization, including domestic water supply. Laboratory experiments and pilot plant trials of this reagent in the processes of water treatment were conducted by Vodokanal of the city of Cherepovets. The results of the trials which showed a high efficiency of DEZAVID concentrate were a prerequisite to widespread use in water treatment processes.
References: 1. Ocenka jeffektivnosti obezzarazhivanija prirodnoj, pit'evoj i stochnoj vody dezinficirujushhim sredstvom «Dezavid» [ Efficiency estimation of natural, drinking and waste waters disinfection by disinfectant "Dezavid"], report №762-НИР, M., SUE "«MosvodokanalNIIproekt", 2001, p.28. 2. Zholdakova Z. I., Odincov E. E., Harchevnikova N. V. i soavt. Novye svedenija o toksichnosti i opasnosti himicheskih i biologicheskih veshhestv: guanidin gidrohlorid (GGH) [ New information about toxicity and danger of chemical and biological substances:quanidine hydrochloride], Toksikologicheskij vestnik, journ., 2004, №6, pp. 34-35. 3. Zholdakova Z. I., Odincov E. E., Harchevnikova N. V. i soavt. Novye svedenija o toksichnosti i opasnosti himicheskih i biologicheskih veshhestv: poligeksametilenguanidin gidrohlorid (PGMG-gidrohlorid) [New information about toxicity and danger of chemical and biological substances:polyhexamethylene guanidine hydrochloride], Toksikologicheskij vestnik, journ., 2004, №6, pp.35-36.

S. M. Galkin, A. A. Kanovskii New solutions for collection, treatment and discharge of storm water of the LABKO OY Company (Finland)

A thorough analysis of existing systems for surface water run-off treatment with the use of storage and flow-through processes is carried out. The advantages and the disadvantages of each technological decision are shown. A new solution for water flow storage with the use of Q-Bic elements is proposed. Technical parameters of Q-Bic elements are given.
Key words: surface water run-off, treatment, flow-through process, storage process, water flow storage, Q-bic element.

V. A. Blinov, A. B. Ivanov The possibility of using effective microorganisms for wastewater treatment from heavy metal ions

The results of the experiments on utilization of EM products in the form of solution for heavy metals removal from the waste water are presented. These data show the applicability of ‘effective microorganisms’ method for recycling water supply of industrial enterprises.
Key words: investigations, EM-agent, flask, metals removal, recycling water supply.

O. V. Mosin Natural filter material shungite

The description of well-known sorbent schungite mined in Zazhoginskoe minefield in Karelia is presented. The physicochemical properties, the structure and the chemical composition of the sorbent are shown as well as the efficiency of mineral filters with schungite bed.
Key words: shungite, natural sorbent, fullerene-like moleculars, water treatment.
References: 1. Mineral'noe syr'e Karelii [Mineral raw materials of Karelia], Karelia department of USSR Academy of Science. Institute of geology. Petrozavodsk, 1977, p.201.
2. Filippov M. M. Shungity Karelii: terminy i opredelenija [ Shungite of Karelia: terms and definitions] Geologija i poleznye iskopaemye Karelii, journ., Petrozavodsk, 2001, issue 4, pp. 82–90.
3. Zemcov V. A. Magnitnye svojstva vysokouglerodistyh shungitov [Magnetic properties of high-carbon shungites] Geologija i poleznye iskopaemye Karelii,journ., Petrozavodsk, 2003, issue 6, pp. 104–108.
4. Rozhkova N. N., Gribanov A. V. Structural modification of shungite carbon / International conference on Carbon at the Robert Gordon University. Aberdeen. Scotland. 2006. Extended abstract-CD-1P71.
5. Pokrovskij B. Shungit – mineral zdorov'ja [Shungite - mineral of health], M., JSC «ASS-Centr», JSC «IKTC «LADA», 2007, p. 64.
6. Kulikova V. Lechenie shungitom [Theraby with shungite], M., Centrpoligraf,Publ., 2006, p. 126.
7. Kalinin Ju. K. Jekologicheskij potencial shungita. Shungity i bezopasnost' zhiznedejatel'nosti cheloveka [Ecological potential of shungite. Shungite and vital activity security], materials of the 1st all-russian research and practice conference (3-5 of October 2006), edit. by Ju. K. Kalinina, Petrozavodsk, Karelia science center of Russian Academy of Science,Publ., 2007, p. 126.
8. Rozhkova N. N. Izmenenie svojstv shungitov, obuslovlennoe vzaimodejstviem s vodoj. Shungity i bezopasnost' zhiznedejatel'nosti cheloveka [Change of shungite properties caused by interaction with water. Shungite and vital activity security], materials of the 1st all-russian research and practice conference (3-5 of October 2006), edit. by Ju. K. Kalinina, Petrozavodsk, Karelia science center of Russian Academy of Science,Publ., 2007, p. 126.
9. Jushkin N. P. Globuljarnaja nadmolekuljarnaja struktura shungita: dannye rastrovoj tunnel'noj mikroskopii [ Glogy submolecular structure of shungite: data of scanning tunneling microscopy], Reports of Academy of Science, 1994, vol. 337, № 6, pp. 800-803.
10. Kroto H. W., Heath J. R., O’Brien S. C., et. al. «C60: Buckminsterfullerene» / Nature, 1985, 318, 162.
11. Reznikov V. A., Polehovskij Ju. S. Amorfnyj shungitovyj uglerod — estestvennaja sreda obrazovanija fullerenov [Amorphous shungite carbon - natural environment of fullerene formation], Pis'ma v Zhurnal Tehnicheskoj Fiziki,journ., 2000, vol. 26, issue 15, pp. 94-102.
12. Shpilevskij M. Je., Shpilevskij Je. M., Stel'mah V. F. Fullereny i fullerenopodobnye struktury [Fullerene and fullerene-like structures], Inzhenerno-fizicheskij zhurnal, journ., 2001, vol. 76, № 6.
13. Eleckij A. V., Smirnov B. M. Fullereny i struktura ugleroda [Fullerene and carbon structure], Uspehi fizicheskih nauk, journ., 1995, № 9.
14. Piotrovskij L. B. Fullereny v biologii i medicine: problemy i perspektivy [Fullerene in biology and medicine: problems and prospectives], Fundamental'nye napravlenija molekuljarnoj mediciny, journ., collection of works.
15. Stel'mah V. F., Striguckij L. V., Shpilevskij Je. M., Zhukovskij P., Karvat Ch. Fullereny i fullerenopodobnye struktury [Fullerene and fullerene-like structures], Minsk, 2000, pp. 98–105.
16. Andrievsky G. V., Bruskov V. I., Tykhomyrov A. A., Gudkov S. V. Peculiarities of the antioxidant and radioprotective effects of hydrated С60 fullerene nanostuctures in vitro and in vivo / Free Radical Biology & Medicine. 2009. 47 p. 786–793.
17. Rozhkova N. N., Andrievskij G. V. Fullereny v shungitovom uglerode [Fullerene in shungite carbon], collection of scientific papers of international symposium "Fullerene and fullerene-like structures" 5–8 of June, 2000, Belarus State University, Minsk, 2000, pp. 63–69.
18. Mosin O. V. Novyj prirodnyj mineral'nyj sorbent – shungit [New natural mineral sorbent - shungite], Santehnika, journ., 2011, № 3, pp. 34–36.
19. Parfen'eva L. S. i dr. Jelektroprovodnost' shungitovogo ugleroda [ Electrical conductivity pf shungite carbon], Fizika Tverdogo Tela, journ., 1994, vol.36, № 1, pp.234–236.
20. Panov P. B., Kalinin A. I., Sorokoletova E. F., Kravchenko E. V., Plahotskaja Zh. V., Andreev V.P. Ispol'zovanie shungitov dlja ochistki pit'evoj vody [Apllication of shungite for drinking water treatment], Karelia science center of Russian Academy of Science,Publ., 2007, p. 103.
21. Kalinin Ju. K. Jekologicheskij potencial shungita / Sb. Shungity i bezopasnost' zhiznedejatel'nosti cheloveka [Ecological potential of shungite. Properties of shungite and vital activity security], materials of the 1st all-russian research and practice conference (3-5 of October 2006), edit. by Ju. K. Kalinina, Petrozavodsk, Karelia science center of Russian Academy of Science, Publ., 2007, pp. 5–10.
22. Hadarcev A. A., Tuktamyshev I. Sh. Shungity v medicinskih tehnologijah [Shungite in medicine technologies], Vestnik novyh medicinskih tehnologij,journ., 2002, vol. 9,2, pp. 83.
23. Podchajnov S.F. Mineral ceolit – umnozhitel' poleznyh svojstv shungita Sb. Shungity i bezopasnost' zhiznedejatel'nosti cheloveka [ Zeolite mineral - multiplier of the useful properties of shungite. Shungite and vital activity security], materials of the 1st all-russian research and practice conference (3-5 of October 2006), edit. by Ju. K. Kalinina, Petrozavodsk, Karelia science center of Russian Academy of Science, Publ., 2007, pp. 6 –74.

A. V. Che, A. A. Che, A. A. SHukin Binary metastable effect at the critical points of capillary-porous materials

A binary metastable process in critical points of capillary-porous bodies is discussed. The area of application of this process is shown by the example of combined-cycle plants.
Key words: screen high-pressure gas blanket, capillar liquid, metastable process, bubble chamber, Mach number, combined-cycle plants.


Unknown author From the history of the toilet

A brief history of lavatory appearance and development from the origin up to our times is presented. The history always bashfully sidestepped the description of the latrines for the governors and the governed, whereas the problem of civilized arrangement of the room to ease oneself has occupied the man as late as 10 thousand years ago.
Key words: first toilet,cloaca maxima, middle ages, Leonardo Di Vinchi, water-closet, "Unitas".

A. N. Kim, O. S. Uhanova Groundwater in St. Petersburg and Leningrad region, issues of improving their quality using local filtering materials in non-centralized systems of drinking Water Supply

The article deals with the problems of noncentralized domestic water supply arising in the realization of the conception of Leningrad Region territory integrated development in connection with the construction of large residential compounds, the organization of the industrial zones, the business incubator zones and the technological parks. The areas of the groundwater occurrence in Leningrad Region are investigated. The analysis of these waters quality index was carried out and it is shown that most commonly the inconsistency with the norms of Russian Sanitary regulations and standards was observed for iron and manganese content. It was also shown that the groundwater utilization for the purpose of domestic water supply is permissible only after purification from the components which are present in quantities exceeding the permissible rates. Taking into account the deficiency of filtering materials in this region, it is easy to understand the importance and the relevance of the problem of local filtering materials utilization. In the course of searching of an adequate technical decision a new local filtering material - ferro-manganese nodules (FMN) – became known. The description of FMN occurrences is presented and the chemical composition of this product is given. The results of pilot studies allow suggesting that the further studies of this natural sorbent are promising for groundwater treatment in the systems of noncentralized domestic water supply.
Key words: ground waters of the Leningrad Region, ferrum and manganese removal, ferro-manganese nodules, sorption properties of nodule.
References: 1. Data of the Regional center of bowels state monitoring in North-West Federal Region, 2010.
2.Grejser E. L., Ivanova N. G. Presnye podzemnye vody: sostojanie i perspektivy vodosnabzhenija naselennyh punktov i promyshlennyh obektov [Fresh ground waters: state and prospevtives of water supply of populated localities and industrial plants] Razvedka i ohrana nedr [Prospect of mineral resources], journ., 2005 , issue 5, pp. 36-42.
3. Jahnin Je. Ja., Tomilin A. M., Shelemotov A. S. Ocenka kachestva i himicheskij sostav podzemnyh vod dochetvertichnyh otlozhenij Leningradskoj oblasti [ Estimation of quality and chemical content of ground waters of antequaternary deposits in the Leningrad Region], Razvedka i ohrana nedr [Prospect of mineral resources], journ., 2005 , issue 5, pp. 42-48.
4. Kulakov V. V., Soshnikov E. V., Chajkovskij G. P. Obezzhelezivanie i demanganacija podzemnyh vod [Deferrization and demanganesation of ground waters],Habarovsk, Far Eastern State Transport University, 1998, p. 100.
5. Nikoladze G. I. Uluchshenie kachestva podzemnyh vod [Improvment of ground waters quality], synopsis of thesis of doctor of technical science, M., 1996, pp. 54.
6. Vodosnabzhenie II [Water supply], Je. Karttunen, SPb, Novyj zhurnal,journ., 2005, p. 688.
7. Gorshkov A. I., Baturin G. N., Berezovskaja V. V., Dubinina G. A., Sivcov A. V. Mineralogija i genezis zahoronennyh konkrecij Baltijskogo morja [Minerology and genesis of buried nodules of the Baltic Sea], Report of Academy of Science, 1993, vol. 330, №1, pp. 79-83.
8. Chirkst D. Je., Cheremisina O. V., Ivanov M. V., Chistjakov A. A. Sorbcija zheleza (II) zhelezomargancevymi konkrecijami[Iron sorbtion by ferromagnese nodules] Zhurnal prikladnoj himii, journ., 2005, vol. 78, issue 4, pp. 599-605.
9. Chirkst D. Je. Razrabotka novyh sorbentov dlja ochistki vody na osnove ZhMK Finskogo zaliva [Development of new sorbents for water treatment on the basis of FMN of Finland Gulf], SPb: National Mineral Resources University, report on research work, 2005.
10. Guljan A. T. Issledovanie novyh fil'trujushhih materialov i razrabotka rekomendacij po ih ispol'zovaniju v konstrukcijah vodoochistnyh fil'trov [Investigation of new filtring materials and development of recommendations on their application on water treatment filters constructions] synopsis of thesis of doctor of technical science, M., 1971, p. 22.

Kvartenko A. N.Integrated multiprocess cleaning groundwater complex physical and chemical structure

The technologies for underground water treatment in North-Western region of the Ukraine are discussed with regard to regional specificity of chemical composition. It is shown that underground water is a complicated multicomponent system and the treatment and conditioning of such a system requires the use of a complex of biological and physico-chemical methods. The results of laboratory experiments are given. It is shown that the realization of the conditions for biological processes activation along with the processes of auto coagulation and sedimentation in natural water is the main problem arising in the case of this technique application for the treatment of iron-containing water.
Key words: ground waters of Ukranian regions, biological iron corrosion, iron and manganese removal, coagulation, technological schemes.
References: 1. National report on drinking water quality and state of drinking water supply in Ukraine 2003 ,Rovno, National University of Water Management and Nature Resources, Publ., 2005.
2. Orlov V. O. Water treatment filters with soft filling. Rovno, National University of Water Management and Nature Resources, Publ., 2005., 163s. 3. Kljachko V. A., Apel'cin I. Je. Ochistka prirodnyh vod [Natural waters treatment], M., Strojizdat,Publ., 1971 p.579.
4. Kul'skij L. A. Teoreticheskie osnovy i tehnologija kondicionirovanija vody [Theoretical base and technology of water conditioning], Kiev, Naukova dumka, Publ., 1983, p.527.
5. Nikoladze G. I. Uluchshenie kachestva podzemnyh vod [ Improvment of ground waters quality],M., Ctrojizdat,Publ., 1987.
6. Holodnyj N. G. Zhelezobakterii [Iron bacterium], M., publication by USSR Academy of Science, 1953,1.
7. Dubinina G. A. Biologija zhelezobakterij i ih geohimicheskaja dejatel'nost'[ Biology of iron bacteria and their geochemical activity], synopsis of a thesis of doctor of biological science, M., Institute of microbiology of Russian Academy of Science, 1977.
8. Kvartenko A. N. Ispol'zovanie prikreplennoj mikroflory dlja ochistki podzemnyh vod s povyshennym soderzhaniem zheleza [Use of attached microflora for treatment of underground waters with increased concentration of ferrum] synopsis of a thesis of candiadate of technical science, Rovno, 1997.
9. Safonov N. A., Kvartenko A. N, Safonov A. N. Samopromyvajushhiesja vodoochistnye ustanovki [Self-draining waste waters treatment units] Rovno, Rovno State Technical University, Publ., 2000.
10. Orlov V. O., Kvartenko O. M., Martinov S. Ju., Gordієnko Ju. І. Deferrization of underground waters for drinking water supply, Rovno, Mechanical transport technical school, 2003, p. 155.
11. M. G. Zhurba, Zh. M. Govorova, A. N. Kvartenko, Biohimicheskoe obezzhelezivanie i demanganacija podzemnyh vod. Vodosnabzhenie i sanitarnaja tehnika [ Biochemical defferization and demanganesation of ground waters], Water supply and sanitary technique, journ., №9, 2006, pp.17-23.
12. V. V. Dzjubo, L. I. Alferova On-line journal of the Tomsk State University of Architecture and Civil Engineering, 16.09.2006.
13. Izuchenie kineticheskih parametrov processa ajeracii-degazacii podzemnyh vod [Investigation of kinetic parameters of underground waters aeration-degasification process] Dzjubo V. V., L. I.Alferova Cherkashin V. I. Problemy ochistki podzemnyh vod dlja pit'evogo vodosnabzhenija i puti ih reshenija v Zapadno-Sibirskom regione [Problems of underground waters treatment for drinking water supply and ways of their solving in West Siberian region] Izv. Vuzov, Stroitel'stvo, aid, 1998, №2, pp. 94-99.
14. Dushkin S.S. Magnitnaja vodopodgotovka na himicheskih predprijatijah [Magnetic water treatment at chemical enterprises], S. S. Dushkin, V. N. Evstratov, M., Himija,Publ., 1986, p.144.
15. Zenin S.V.. «Issledovanie struktury vody metodom protonnogo magnitnogo rezonansa» [Investigation of water structure by the method of proton magnetic resonance], report of Academy of Science, 332(3), 328-329 (1993).
16. Angelos Michaelides, Karina Morgenstern. «Nature Materials», Science, 343-355 (2004).
17. R. Moro et al., Physical Review Letters, 97, 123401 (18 September 2006).
18. Kvartenko O. M. Technology of treatment and conditioning of underground waters of different physical-chemical content, Vіsnik NUVGP. Collection of scientific practices, issue 4(40), Rovno, 2009, pp.441-447.
19. Kvartenko A. N. Intensifikacija processov ochistki podzemnyh vod slozhnogo fiziko-himicheskogo sostava [ Intensification of treatment processes of underground waters of complicated physical-chemical content] Vіsnik NUVGP. Collection of scientific practices, issue 4(40), Rovno, 2009, pp.441-447.

Smirnov A. M., Smirnov M. N. Modern technology in water treatment systems

The water conditioning technology implemented in the course of existing plant modernization is discussed. The subject matter of this technology protected by Russian patents consists in transition from suspended solids (SS) removal by means of sedimentation followed by filtration, to the removal of the main part (95-97%) of SS through floatation with subsequent post-treatment by filtration. It is shown that the same decisions may be utilized not only for water conditioning processes, but at the stage of waste water post-treatment downstream the secondary clarifiers of sewage complete biological treatment plants as well. Due to floatation filters utilization the depth of purification significantly increases meeting the requirements on effluent discharge in fishery water body.
Key words: water treatment technology, sand filters, reconstruction, filters with granular load, highly-efficient flotation filters, flotation, coagulation, tertiary treatment.

Efremova A. N, Harchenko T. B., Savkina N. A.Modernization and reconstruction of the waste water treatment plants in the city of Ivanovo

The project of modernization and renovation of sewage treatment plant in the city of Ivanovo is presented. The objective of the works is the modernization of biological treatment facilities and the construction of the digester unit intended for sewage sludge digestion. The modernization project provides for the organization of the processes of waste water deep denitrification and dephosphorisation, such that the treated water quality in terms of BOD and azote and phosphate concentration would meet the requirements for effluent discharge into fisheries waters. For the purposes of biogas generation and utilization and its conversion into thermal and electric energy the unit of digesters would be provided with cogeneration plants, flare systems, gas storage vessels and gas-cleaning plants.
Key words: sewerage systems reconstruction, energy saving, biogens removal, methane-tanks, mesophilic conditions, cogeneration plant, economical effect.

SHalanda A.V.Biogas

Currently the biogas technology application is spreading throughout the Russia in consequence of the increase of gas and electro energy prices. In the nearest years the acceleration in the rate of this increase would make the biogas the only energy source for power supply of agricultural enterprises, food-processing industry, and municipal water and wastewater treatment plants. The biogas energetic is a reliable and cost-effective alternative to the natural gas and the centralized power supply. The utilization of the farm animal waste, the waste of agricultural and food industries, and the sewage effluents for biogas generation would form the base for the organization of the innovated cost-effective enterprises and would contribute to their competitiveness in changing competitive business environment. A survey of the history of biogas technology development is given. The principal technology and equipment of biogas station are discussed by the example of the station chosen as the base project for Russian hinterland. The technical data of biogas station are given for several branches generating the wastes. It is shown that the cost of the biopower plant is determined by the type of primary products, the humidity and the amount of these products and by the level of plant completeness, i.e. by the amount and the type of available optional equipment.
Key words: biogas, history of development, biogas stations, reactor, major equipment, service equipment, industry solutions, price.
References: 1. Biojenergetika: mirovoj opyt i prognoz razvitija [Bioenergy: world experience and projected growth], Scientific publication, M, FGNU «Rosinformagroteh», 2008, p.404.
2. Barbara Jeder, Hajnc Shul'c. Biogazovye ustanovki [Biogas installation],practical guide, Frankfurt am Main, 1st publication — 1996, 2d publication — 2006.
3. G. Kostina. Biomassa polzet v bak [Biomass creeps to the tank],Jekspert, journ., №5., 5th of February 2007.

Stepanov A. V., Miklashevskii N. V.Modern water treatment systems. Part I. Treatment of municipal wastewater by membrane bioreactor technology (MBR)

Actually the membrane bioreactor technology (MBR) for domestic waste water treatment belongs to one of the most promising and dynamic branches of water treatment industry – ultrafiltration membrane technology. The MBR reactors represent a good alternative to conventional technique of biological treatment with additional units of post-treatment. This statement has been proved by long-term exploitation of these reactors by the company Aquametosynthesis. The main advantages and benefits of MBR technology utilization at water-purifying plants are discussed on the basis of practical experience of designing and construction of domestic waste water treatment facilities including MBR reactors.
Key words: membrane bioreactor, MBR.
References: 1. A. M. Poljakov, M. N. Vidjakin, Santehnika, journ., №4/2009.
2. S.Judd S., The MBR Book. Principles and Applications of Membrane Bioreactors for Water and Wastewater Treatment, Elsevier Science, 2006.
3. Stepanov A.V., Miklashevskij N.V. «Opyt proektirovanija i jekspluatacii vodoochistnyh kompleksov po tehnologii MBR» [Experience of designing and exploitation of water treatment complexes by MBR technology], materials of the 2d international conference "Industrial technologies of waste waters treatment in th 21 century: problems and solutions] Saint-Petersburg, 26-28 of October 2011.
4. Presentation technical proposal for designing and production of domestic waste waters treatment plants by MBR technology, key number 762/2011, web-site of CJSC "Akvametosintez".

K. Bekchiev Experience of using geotubes for sludge dewatering the city of Chişinău (Moldova)

The author discusses the technical decision of the problem of vital importance related to disposal of dewatered sludge arriving from municipal sewage treatment facilities. Geotube dewatering technology was selected and implemented at the sludge lagoon of the city of Chişinău. The description of the process is given and the main stages of dewatering are presented. The main technical characteristics of geotubes are presented.
Key words: geotube, sludge dewatering, release of sludge lagoon, reconstruction of biological treatment plants of Chisinau (Moldova), experience of application.

SHevchenko T. A. Improving the reliability of wastewater nutrients

The author discusses the biological and physico-chemical techniques for improving the reliability of waste water purification from biogeneous contaminants.
Key words: treatment, biogenic elements, chemical deposition, combined schemes.
References: 1. Jepov A. N., Savel'eva L.S. Perspektivy dostizhenija sovremennyh normativov kachestva ochishhennyh stochnyh vod po koncentracijam biogennyh jelementov [Prospectives of achivement of modern quality standarts of treated waste waters by concentration of biogenic elements], M., SUE «Mosvodokanal», 1996, pp. 60-72.
2. Iv Djufurne (Francija). Uluchshennyj process udalenija biogennyh jelementov v zatoplennom biofil'tre s voshodjashhim potokom [Improved process of biogenic elements removal in hydraulically flooded biofilter with upward flow], M., SUE «Mosvodokanal», 1996, pp. 123-133.
3. Meshengisser Ju. M., Shhetinin A. I., Galich R. A., Mihajlov V. K. Udalenie azota i fosfora pri stupenchatoj denitrifikacii i pnevmaticheskom peremeshivanii [Removal of nitrogen and phosphorus with graded denitrification and pneumatic mixing] Vodosnabzhenie i sanitarnaja tehnika [Water supply and sanitary technique], 2005, № 7, pp. 42-46.
4. Merkel' O. M. Sovershenstvovanie metodov udalenija fosfora iz bytovyh stochnyh vod [Improvement of methods of phosphorus removal from domestic waste waters] thesis of candidate of technical science, 05.23.04, Novosibirsk, 2003 p.158.
5. Hutornjuk G. N. Vlijanie stochnyh vod svinokompleksa na rabotu stancii ajeracii [Effect of pig complex waste waters on aeration station capacity] Hutornjuk G.N., Kryzhanovskij A.N., Ambrosova G.T. and other, Vodosnabzhenie i sanitarnaja tehnika [Water supply and sanitary technique], journ., 1999, № 3, pp. 32-34.
6. Skljar V. I., Jepov A. N., Kaljuzhnyj S. V. Integrirovannaja mehanicheskaja, biologicheskaja i fiziko-himicheskaja obrabotka zhidkih stokov [Intergrated mechanical, biological and physical-chemical treatment of liquid flows], Moscow State University, 2006.