Archive logs by year


Water supply

Kuprikov N.P. Innovation in water conditioning

Based on recent experience of Russian and foreign industry, NPF “Nevsky Kristal” develops and fabricates a broad range of electrolysis plants intended for producing of low analysis electrolytic sodium hypochlorite including those for direct water electrolysis. The article deals with the description of these technologies, the principal performances of which are given together with the limits of practicability for reagentless water decontamination.
Key words: decontamination, sodium hypochlorite, sodium chloride, electrolysis, direct water electrolysis equipment, sea water

Belyak A.A., Gerasimov M.M., Davlyaterova R.A., Smagin V.A., Smirnov A.D. Demanganization of decarbonated groundwaters of Tunguzkoe field (Khabarovsk city) with the use of ultrafiltration for sediment separation

A survey of water demanganization techniques for waters originating from various sources is presented. A pilot plant was designed, manufactured and installed at Khabarovsk water-diverting structure. The optimal conditions for Mn+2 ions oxidation and preliminary coagulation of suspended material with primary water alkalizing were determined. The results of in-process tests for two demanganization technologies showed that in both cases when using pressurized ultrafiltration and vacuum ultrafiltration almost complete removal Mn+2 ions could be realized. Ultrafiltration operational conditions were specified for treatment of water containing suspended solids resulted from coagulation.
Key words: groundwaters , ultrafiltration, coagulation, pressurized and vacuum ultrafiltration, ultrafiltration conditions, diaphragm efficiency
References: 1. Frog B.N., levchenko a.p. Vodopdgotovka (Water treatment). Moscow, 2003.
2. Nikoladze g.I. uluchshenie kachestva podzemnikh vod ( Improvment of underground weaters quality), M., strojizdat publ., 1987.
3. Klyachko V.a., apelzin I.e. ochistka priridnikh vod (Natural water treatment), M.,strojizdat, 1971.
4. Nikoladze g.I. technologia ochistki stochnikh vod ( Waste waters treatment technology) M., Vysshaja shkola publ., 1987.
5. Zolotova e.F., ass Ju.g. ochistka vody ot zheleza, ftora, marganca i serovdoroda (Water treatment from iron, fluorine and manganese) M., strojizdat publ., 1975.
6. Novikov V.K., Kashincev V.K., pravdin e.p., gajazov r.g. ochistka vody ot soedinenij dvuhvalentnogo marganca. (Water treatment from manganous compound) HitVpubl., 1980, vol. 2, №3, pp. 265-267.
7. seljukov a.V., Chekmareva s.V., Kuranov N.p., smirnov V.V. Demanganacija podzemnyh vod s ispol'zovaniem permanganata kalij (Water demanganation by using potassium permanganat) Zhurnal Vodosnabzhenie i sanitarnaja tehnika (Watersupply and sanitary engineering, Journal) 2009, №2.
8. seljukov a.V., Bajkova I.s. obezzhelezivanie-demanganacija podzemnyh vod vodozabora «severnyj» g. Hanty-Mansijska (Deferrizing-demanganation of the underground waters of the «severniy» water intake facility in the city of Khanty-Mansyisk) Zhurnal Vodosnabzhenie i sanitarnaja tehnika ( Watersupply and sanitary engineering,Journal) 2012, №2, pp. 15.
9. Materialy 6-oj Mezhdunarodnoj tehnicheskoj vystavki JeKVatJeK-2004 (Materials of the 6th International technical exhibition JeKVatJeK-2004). M. 1-4 ijunja 2004 g. Doklad Zenon environment Inc. (1-4 of June 2004. report of Zenon environment Inc.).
10. a.g. pervov, e.V. Dudkin, N.B. Motovilova, a.p. adrianov. ul'trafil'tracija — tehnologija budushhego (ultrafiltration — technology of future) Vodosnabzhenie i sanitarnaja tehnika (Watersupply and sanitary engineering) 2001, №9, p.9.

Water disposal

Dmitrieva E.Yu. The microorganisms-acting as the agents of biodegradation in underground sewage facilities

The study of microorganisms-acting as the agents of biodegradation in underground sewage facilities is the line of investigation of great importance that is finally focused on reducing of constructional materials disintegration rate and elongation of underground facilities working lifespan. This work represents an attempt to combine the most recent data on biological corrosion and the agents of this corrosion damage in sewage facilities with the classical knowledge of this field, which have been accumulated at the turn of nineties.
Key words: sewage collectors, biological corrosion, metal, concrete, biodegradation stages, studies, full-scale investigation, structural protection
References: 1. Andrejuk e.I., Bilaj V.I., Koval' Je.Je., Kozlova I.a. Mikrobnaja korrozija i ee vozbuditeli (Microbial corrosion and its agents) . Naukova dumka publ., Kiev, 1980.
2. Sorokin D.Ju. okislenie neorganicheskih sernyh soedinenij obligatno hemogeterotronymi bakterijami. (oxidation of nonorganic sulfides with obligate chemoheterotropic bacteria) Mikrobiologija publ., №72, pp. 725-739, 2003.
3. Cayford B. I., tyson g. W, Keller J., Bond p.l. 2010. Microbial community composition of biofilms associated with sewer corrosion. 6 th International Conference on sewer processes and Networks.
4. Cho K-s., Mori t. 1995. a newly isolated fungus participates in the corrosion of concrete sewer pipes. Water science and technology, 31, 263–271.
5. Cwalina B. 2008. Biodeterioration of concrete. architecture Civil engineering environment, 4, 133-140.
38 © Е. Ю. Дмитриева6. euzéby J. p. list of prokaryotic names with standing in Nomenclature. genus thiobacillus.
7. gomez-alvarez V., revetta r.p. and santo Domingo J.W. 2012. Metagenome analyses of corroded concrete wastewater pipe biofilms reveal a complex microbial system. BMC Microbiology, 12, 122
8. gu Ji-Dong, Fordb t. e., Berkec N. s, Mitchell r. 1998.Biodeterioration of concrete by the fungus Fusarium. International Biodeterioration & Biodegradation, 41,101-109.
9. Hernandez M., Marchand e. a., roberts D., peccia J. 2002. In situ assessment of active thiobacillus species in corroding concrete sewers using fluorescent rNaprobes. International Biodeterioration & Biodegradation 49, 271 – 276.
10. Islander, r., Devinny, J., Mansfeld, F., postyn, a., and shih, H. 1991. Microbial ecology of Crown Corrosion in sewers. J. environ. eng., 117, 751–770.
11. Ito t., sugita K., okabe s. 2004. Isolation, Characterization, and In situ Detection of a Novel Chemolithoautotrophic sulfur-oxidizing Bacterium in Wastewater Biofilms growing under Microaerophilic Conditions. appl.environ.Microbiol., 70, 3122–3129.
12. Javaherdashti r. 2009. a Brief review of general patterns of MIC of Carbon steel and Biodegradation of Concrete. IuFs J. Biol., 68: 65-73 13. Jensen H. s., Nielsen a. H., Hvitved-Jacobsen t. and Vollertsen J. 2008. survival of hydrogen sulfide oxidizing bacteria on corroded concrete surfaces of sewer systems. Water science & technology, 57, 1721-1726.
14. Jensen H. s., lens p. N. l., Nielsen J. l., Bester K., Nielsen a. H., Hvitved-Jacobsen th., Jensen H. s. 2011. growth kinetics of hydrogen sulfide oxidizing bacteria in corroded concrete from sewers. J. Hazardous Materials, 189, 685-691.
15. Katayama y., Hiraishi a., Kuraishi H. 1995. paracoccus thiocyanatus sp. nov., a new species of thiocyanate-utilizing facultative chemolithotroph, and transfer of thiobacillus versutus to the genus paracoccus as paracoccus versutus comb. nov. with emendation of the genus. Micribiology, 141, 1469-1477.
16. Kellermann C., griebler Ch. 2009. thiobacillus thiophilus sp. nov., a chemolithoautotrophic, thiosulfate-oxidizing bacterium isolated from contaminated aquifer sediments. . Intern. J. syst. evol. Microb., 59, 583–588.
17. Kelly D. p., Wood a. p. 2000a. reclassification of some species of thiobacillus to the newly designated genera acidithiobacillus gen. nov., Halothiobacillus gen. nov. and thermithiobacillus gen. nov. Int. J. syst. evol. Microb., 50, 511–516.
18. Kelly D. p., Wood a. p. 2000b. proposal for the reclassification of thiobacillus novellus as starkeya novella gen. nov., comb. nov., in the a-subclass of the proteobacteria. Int. J.syst. evol.Microbiol., 50, 1797–1802.
19. Moreira D. and Mils r. 1997. phylogeny of thiobacillus cuprinus and other Mixotrophic thiobacilli: proposal for thiomonas gen. nov. Int. J. syst Bacteriol., 47, 522-528.
20. Nancucheo I. and Johnson D.B. 2010. production of glycolic acid by Chemolithotrophic Iron- and sulfur-oxidizing Bacteria and Its role in Delineating and sustaining acidophilic sulfide Mineral-oxidizing Consortia. appl.environ. Microbiol., 76, 461-467.
21. Nica D., Davis J. l., Kirby l., Zuo g., roberts D.J. 2000. Isolation and characterization of microorganisms involved in the biodeterioration of concrete in sewers. International Biodeterioration & Biodegradation, 46, 61-68.
22. O’Connell, M., McNally, C., richardson, M. g. 2010. Biochemical attack on Concrete in Wastewater applications: a state of the art review. Cement and Concrete Composites, 32, 479-485. 23. Okabe s., Itoh t., satoh H., Watanabe y. 1999. analyses of spatial Distributions of sulfate-reducing Bacteria and their activity in aerobic Wastewater Biofilms. applied and environmental Microbiology, 65, 5107–5116.
24. parker, C.D., 1945. the corrosion of concrete 2. the function of thiobacillus concretivorus nov. spec. in the corrosion of concrete exposed to atmospheres containing hydrogen sul?de. australian Journal of experimental Biology and Medical science 23, 91–98.
25. okabe s., odagiri M., Ito t., satoh H. 2007. succession of sulfur-oxidizing Bacteria in the Microbial Community on Corroding Concrete in sewer systems. appl.environ.Microb., 73,3, 971–980.
26. roberts D. J., Nica D., Zu g., Davis J. l. 2002. Quantifying microbially induced deterioration of concrete: initial studies. International Biodeterioration & Biodegradation 49, 227 – 234.
27. satoh H., odagiri M., Ito t., okabe s. 2009. Microbial community structures and in situ sulfate-reducing and sulfur-oxidizing activities in biofilms developed on mortar specimens in a corroded sewer system. Water research, 43, 4729–4739.
28. selman a. Waksman and J. s. Joffe. 1922. Microorganisms Concerned in the oxidation of sulfur in the soil II. thiobacillus thiooxidans, a New sulfur-oxidizing organism Isolated from the soil". J Bacteriol., 7, 239–256.
29. Vollertsen J., Nielsen a. H., Jensen H. s., Wium-andersen t., Hvitved-Jacobsen t. 2008. Corrosion of concrete sewers — the kinetics of hydrogen sulfide of the total environment, 39, 162-170.
30. Zhang l., De schryver p., De gusseme B., De Muynck W., Boon N., Verstraete W. 2008. Chemical and biological technologies for hydrogen sulphide emission control in sewer systems: a review. Water research, 42, 1–12.

Drozd G.Ja. Corrosion damage, forecasting of operational environment degree of aggressivity and assurance of sewage collectors reliability at the design stage

The causes of sewage collectors damage under the effect of biologically active environment and gases producing sulphuric acid, which disrupts the concrete are uncovered. Empirical formulas allowing estimate sulfide content in waste water are given. The data of full scale investigation gave the dependency describing the formation of hydrogen sulphide in waste water under anaerobic conditions of sewage collectors. The experimental researches of hydrogen sulphide degasation from water in collectors in operation were carried out and the dependencies of average corrosion rate for high-density concrete under the action of hydrosulfuric environment were obtained. The techniques are presented for estimation of the degree of aggressivity of biogenous operational environment and for forecasting of corrosion damage zones in sewage channels by the example of drainage and communication tunnel in Ashghabat city.
Key words: sewage collectors, corrosion damage, biological activity, chemical corrosion, disruption rate, forecasting, degasation
References: 1. Ivanov F.M., Drozd g.Ja. Betonnye i zheleznobetonnye kollektory [Concrete and ferroconcrete collectors] Vodosnabzhenie i sanitarnaja tehnika [Water supply and sanitary engineering] , №2, 1988. — pp. 8-10.
2. Ivanov F.M., Drozd g.Ja. Dolgovechnost' betonnyh i zheleznobetonnyh kolletorov [Durability of Concrete and ferroconcrete collectors]. Beton i zhelezobeton. [Concrete and ferroconcrete, Journal], №12, 1989, — pp. 32-33.
3. Ivanov F.M., Drozd g.Ja. o srokah sluzhby zheleznobetonnyh kollektorov[on service period of ferroconcrete collectors] Beton i zhelezobeton. [Concrete and ferroconcrete, Jouranal], №2, 1992. — pp. 25-26.
4. shilin a.a., Drozd g.Ja. i dr. sostojanie kollektornyh i kanalizacionnyh setej Moskvy i ukrainy [state of collection and sewerage networks of Moscow and ukraine] podzemnoe prostranstvo mira [underground word space, Journal], №3-4, 1995. — pp. 109-110.
5. Drozd g.Ja., Zotov N.I. i dr. pro neobhidnist' udoskonalennnja vitchiznjaih budivel'nih norm// Budivinctvo ukraini., №1,2003. — s.31-33.
6. Dstu B V. 2.6. — 145:2010. Zahyst betonnyh i zalizobetonnyh konstrukcij vid korozii. Zagal'ni tehnichni vymogy (gost 31384:2008; NeQ). Kyiv: Minenergobud ukrainy, 2010. — 52 s.
7. Jurchenko V.a., Kovalenko a.N. i dr. obrazovanie jekologicheski opasnyh gazoobraznyh soedinenij pri transportirovanii stochnyh vod kanalizacionnymi setjami [the formation of environmentally hazardous gaseous compounds during transporation of wastewaters by sewarage networks] Kommunal'noe hozjajstvo
8. andrejuk a.a., Bilaj V.I., Koval' Je.Z., Kozlova I.a. Mokrobnaja korrozija i ee vozbuditeli [Microbial corrosion and its agents] . — K.: Naukova dumka publ., 1980, p. 288.
9. Drozd g.Ja. Korrozyonnoe razrushenye betonnih kanalyzacyonnih kollektorov [Corrosion damage of concrete sewerage collectors] Vodopostachannja ta vodovidvedennja Journal, 2012, №1, pp. 30-34.
10. Norbert Klose Biogene schwefelsaurekorrosion// abwassertehnik/ — 1985. — Bd. 36. — №1. — pp.13-24.
11. Horeni y., Modry s. Biochemika koros betonu ve sfokach: V conferencia «ohrana stavebneto diela pred korosion». — Bratislava, 1986, pp. 11-76.
12. Chitaishvili t. tionovye bakterii kak faktor korrozii betonnyh sooruzhenij, otmyvaemyh serovodorodnymi mineralizovannymi vodami [thionic bacteria as a factor of concrete constructions corrosion washed off by sulphurous mineralized waters] t.Chitashvili Ivanov F.M., gorshin s.N. Biopovrezhdenija v stroitel'stve [Biodeterioration in construction]. M.: strojizdat publ., 1984. pp. 193-199.
13. Pomeroy r.D., parkkurst I.D. the forecasting of sulfide Buildup rates in sewers. — progr. wat. techn., №9, 1977. pp. 53-63.
14. Alekin o.a. osnovy gidrohimii [Hydrochemistry basis] l. gidrometeoizdat publ.,1970. p. 444.
15. Drozd g., antipova t. priblizhennaja ocenka agressivnosti stochnyh vod, s tochki zrenija biogennoj korrozii betona samotechnyh kanalizacionnyh kollektorov [approximate estimation of wastewaters aggression from the point of view of concrete biogenic corrosion of gravity sewerage collectors] Inzhenernye reshenija jekologicheskih problem Donbassa [engineering solutions of Donbass ecological problem]. — Kiev: uMK Vo publ., 1992, pp. 55-63.
16. Drozd g.Ja. povyshenie jeksplutacionnoj dolgovechnosti i jekologicheskoj bezopasnosti kanalizacionnyh setej[Increasing of useage durabiliaty and ecological security of sewerage networks] : avtoref.dis. d.t.n.: zashhishhena 31.01.98: utv. 27.11.99 [synopsis of doctoral thesis defended on 31.01.98/ approved on 27.11.99] Drozd gennadij Jakovlevich; Donbasskaja gosudarstvennaja akademija stroitel'stva i arhitektury [Donbass national academy of construction and architecture] — Makeevka,1998, p. 33


Yakovlev P.I. An estimate of Zapadnaya Dvina river tributary stream at upstream flow – from the source up to Velizh village (Smolensk district)

The estimation of underground flow of Zapadnaya Dvina river in its upper course is given. It is shown that high parameters of the underground water influx into river are caused by favorable climatic, soil and hydrogeological conditions and by a high number of lakes in the region under research. Hydrometrical and hydrochemical methods were mainly used in this work to solve hydrological problems. The region under research is the area of abundant feeding of underground water-bearing horizons.
Key words: underground flow influx, minimum, winter, underflow, ion sink, hydrochemical methods, rivers, lakes
References: 1. geologicheskie karty sssr, M1:200000 s pojasnitel'noj zapiskoj list №36-III. g. Belyj, p. Zharkovskij, 1961 g; list №36-II-g. Velizh. 1977 g., list №36-XXXII-g. toropec. 1977 g.[ussr geological maps, M1:200000 with an explanatory note list №36-III — city of Belyj,village Zharkovskij, 1961; list №36-II the city of Velizh; list №36-XXXII — city of toropec, 1977].
2. gidrogeologija sssr, t.1. Moskovaskaja i smezhnaja oblasti [Hydrogeology of the ussr, vol, 1. Moscow and neighbouring areas] Nedra publ., M., 1966.
3. gidrogeologicheskie ezhegodniki. Bassejn Baltijskogo morja. [Hydrogeological year-book. Baltic sea basin]. vol.1. №4, 1939-90., gIMIZ publ., 1940-91.
4. gosudarstvennyj vodnyj kadastr, gVK. Mnogoletnie dannye o rezhime i resurasah poverhnostnyh vod.[state water cadastre. longstanding data on regime and resources of surface waters]. vol. 1, rsFsr, № 5, gIMIZ publ., 1986.
5. lebedeva N.a., IVpaN. estvestvennye resursy podzemnyh vod Moskovskogo artezianskogo bassejn [Natural resources of Moscow artesian basin underground waters] — M. Nauka publ., 1972.
6. otchety jekologo-geograficheskih jekspedicij v Verhnem podvizh'e v 2006-2010 godah [reports of ecological-geographic expeditions in Verkhnie podvizh'e in 2006-2010 years], tgu, tgtu, g. tver'— g. starica, 2008-2010.
7. otchety o rezul'tatah poiskov i razvedki podzemnyh vod dlja vodosnabzhenija v g. toropce (1983) i v g. andreapole (1987) tverskoj obl. [reports of research and exploring results of underground waters for watersupply in cities of toropez and andreapol] Funds of russian state geological prospecting university and Mining production association «Centrologija» M., 1985, 1988.
8. ocenka vodnyh resursov Moskovskogo artezianskogo bassejna (MaB) po dannym izuchennosti na 1.1.1972[assessment of water resources of Moscow artesian basin accroding to data on 01.01.1972] Funds of the state Hydrological Institute,l. 1974.
9. pochvennaja karta sssr [the ussr soil map]. smolenskaja, pskovskaja, tverskaja regions. Dokuchaev soil institute, VasKhNIl, M. 1978.
10. Jakovlev p.I., Merkulovich a.N. Vyjavlenie zakonomernostej formirovanija jeksplutacionnyh resursov podzemnyh vod severo-zapadnoj chasti MaB [Identification of regularities of operational resources formation for underground waters of the Moscow artesian basin North-Western part], topic 057-87; VNIgIK, department 14,city of tver'; funds of russian state geological prospecting university, M., 1987.
11. Jakovlev p.I. Korrektirovka podzemnogo pritoka v reke putem kompleksnogo is pol'zovanija gidrometricheskih i gidrohimicheskih metodov pri provedenii gidrologeoloicheskih rabot v rechnyh dolinah [adjustment of the river underground inflow by complex use of hydrometric and hydrochemical methods in conducting hydrogeological works in the river valleys] Voda i jekologija [Water and ecology, magazine], 2010. №4 pp. 12-29.


Water supply

Novytskaya O.S.Estimation of water losses in water supply and water distribution systems

A model of water draw-off from water supply systems is presented. This model takes account of water consumption variation in dependence of free head values. The dependencies of water consumption from head value are established, which take account of water wastage and water losses in water supply networks of residential buildings. The relationships are determined for evaluation of water losses in water supply networks of residential buildings and in water supply and water distribution systems. The program GRS_NEW, intended for hydraulic computation of water-supply systems is created; this program takes into account the dependency of water consumption from head value and determines water consumption increase by means of excessive head expressed in percents and in absolute values for each unit and for water supply and water distribution system in whole. These relationships showed a good correlation with the results of on-site investigations of various real facilities in cities of Ivano-Frankovsk and Rovno.
Key words: water supply and water distribution systems, water losses, leakage losses, water wastage, water-supply network hydraulic computation.
References: 1. Novytskaya O.S., Tkachuk O.A. Classification of water losses in water supply and water distribution systems. Naukovy visnik budivnitstva -Research bulletin of municipal engineering, Kharkov, 2011, no.66, pp.285-290 (in Ukranien)
2. Shopensky L.A. A study of operation conditions of residential building water conduits,'s abstract , NII sanitarnoy tekhniki, Moscow, 1968, 33 pp. (in Russian)
3. Ivanov S.G. Forecasting and evaluation of water losses in water distribution systems,'s abstract , Vologodsky polytekhnichesky institute, Vologda, 1997, 26 pp. (in Russian)
4. Svintsov A.P. Suppression of water losses in water distribution systems of residential building, Rossiysky universitet druzhby narodov, Moscow, 2001, 139 pp. (in Russian)
5. Desan Obradovi. Modelling of demand and losses in real-life water distribution systems // Urban Water, June 2000, – Volume 2, Issue 2 – P.131-139.
6. Ricardo Gomesa, Alfeu Sa Marquesb and Joaquim Sousa. Estimation of the benefits yielded by pressure management in water distribution systems // Urban Water Journal, April 2011. – Volume 8, Issue 2. – P.65–77.
7. R. Puusta, Z. Kapelanb, D.A. Savicb and T. Koppel. A review of methods for leakage management in pipe networks // Urban Water Journal, February 2010. – Vol. 7, Issue 1. – P.25–45
8. Novytskaya O.S., Tkachuk A.A. An improvement of computational schemes for designing of water distribution and water supply system, 8 International congress AQUATECH-2008, Moscow, 2008, pp.775-780 (in Russian)
9. Tkachuk A.A., Novytskaya O.S., Hydraulic computation of water-supply and water distribution systems, Voda Magazine, - (water use, water-supply, water discharge) – Water Magazine, no.10 (26) October, Moscow, 2009, pp.50-53 (in Russian)
10. Novytskaya O.S., Techniques for evaluation of water losses in residential accommodations, Problems of water use, water-supply, water disposal and hydraulics (Scientific and technical bulletin), no.15, Kiev, 2010, pp.45-51 (in Ukrainian)

Gurinovich A.D., Wawrjenuk P., Elsky.I Technique of water deferrization in water bearing bed by the example of existing water wells

The article deals with the technique of water deferrization and demanganization in water bearing bed, used at present at water wells of Jurovetsky water supply intake, this technique representing an alternative to traditional ones. It is shown that the deferrization efficiency is primarily determined by the design, technology and construction of the well operating in mode of alternating flows on the filter. It is emphasized that the choice of optimum well operation conditions must be based on thorough preliminary survey of the well, on determination of hydrogeological and hydrochemical parameters and characteristics of water bearing bed and on results of pilot testing. It is shown that ferruginous deposits clogging the area near the filter and the filter of the well, may be eliminated through reagent treatments which must constitute a part of compulsory scheduled operations during the exploitation of any groundwater wells.
Key words: water well, groundwater, iron, manganese, lowering the muddiness and the colour of water, well design, colmatage of water intake area, reagent treatments.
References: 1. Kowal A. L. «Odnowa wody. Podstawy teoretyczne procesów», Wrocław 1996 r. (in Polish)
2. Nawrocki J., Biłozor S. «Uzdatnianie wody, procesy chemiczne i biologiczne», Wydawnictwo Naukowe PWN, Warszawa — Poznań 2000r. (in Polish)
3. Recommended practice for research and development works on evaluation of the conditions of groundwater deferrization and demanganization in water-bearing horizon, Research and development centre, Dalgeotsentre, by Kulakov V.V, Arkhipov B.C., Kozlov S.A., Khabarovsk. 1999, 60 pp. (in Russian)
4. Kommunar G.M., Intrastratal purification of groundwater for purposes of water supply, Doc.Sci.Eng.Diss., 05.23.04, Moscow, VNII VODGEO, 1987, 469 pp. (in Russian)

Shayahmetova S.G., shayahmetov R.Z., Soshnikov A.N.Biological method of groundwater purification from ferriferous and manganese compounds

A method of groundwaters biological deferrization and demanganization is proposed. This technique makes it possible to exclude the use of strong oxidizing agents (chlorine treatment) for reducing the concentration of these substances in groundwater intended for domestic water supply. The treatment is carried out by means of immobilization on the sand bed of iron bacteria (р.Ochrobium tectum, р.Artrobacter) coccus forms present in initial groundwater. The model of biofilter is tested, which renders possible to reduce iron content on 98,9% and manganese content – on 91,9%, so bringing the degree of purification up to required values.
Key words: underground waters, manganese oxide, pollutant composition.
References: 1. SanPin – (Sanitary norms and regulations), Potable water. Hygienic requirements to the quality of water supplied by centralized systems of domestic water supply. Quality control., Moscow, Minzdrav Rossii, 2002, 102 pp. (in Russian)
2. Morozov S.V., Kuzubova L.I., Manganese in potable water. Analytical review, GPNTB AN SSSR, Novosibirsky institut organicheskoy khimii, Novosibirsk, 1991, 68 pp. (in Russian)
3. Nikoladze G.I., Improvement of groundwater quality, Moscow, Stroyizdat publ., 1987, 240 pp. (in Russian)
4. Mouchet P, Gerasimov G.N, Biological deferrization of water : motivation and realization, Vodosnabzhenie I sanitarnaya tekhnika – Water supply and sanitary engineering, 2006, no.11, part II, pp.40-47. (in Russian)
5. Shayahmetova S.G., Nazarov V.D., Mukhnurov F.Kh., Shayahmetov R.Z., Biological method of manganese oxidation in Neftekamsk’s water supply system, Voda I ecologiya – Water and Ecology, 2005, no.4. (in Russian)
6. Bergey's Manual, Moscow, Mir publ., 1980, 495 pp. (in Russian)
7.Mencha N.M., Iron bacteria in the systems of potable water supply from underground sources, Vodosnabzhenie I sanitarnaya tekhnika – Water supply and sanitary engineering, 2006, no.7, pp.25-32. (in Russian)

Kasymbekov Zh. K., Prutyanova Yu.O.A study of hydraulic elevator utilization for sludge evacuation from drain wells

It is shown that the increase of the geometrical parameter in the limit of mг = 6,0-9,0 lowers the relative head of the mechanism, thus limiting the possibility of its application for water lifting from the deep depth (more than 15-20 m). For cavitation-free mode of hydraulic elevator operation a good agreement is found between computed characteristics and experimental results. The rational value of energetic efficiency is in the limit of ηэ = 0,25 - 0,28, which is gained at relative head hг = 0,24 - 0,27 and entrainment ratio αг = 0,85 - 0,9. Experimental data show that the efficiency of sludge evacuation may rise up to 5,5 m3/ with the increase of entrainment ratio. However the existence of critical value of this parameter (α г= 0,85 – 0,95) doesn’t allow further increasing of the efficiency, so that this limit must be considered as the expected parameter when designing and operating this plant. Rational mode of ejection is provided when the distance between operative ajutage and the inlet of mixing chamber is no less than z1=(0,8-1,0)dкс.
Key words: hydraulic elevator, hydrocyclone, drain well, sludge, cleaning.
References: 1. Kasymbekov Zh.K., Hydrocyclone-ejector plants employed in the system of agricultural water supply, Alma-Aty, 2003, pp.188-190. (in Russian)
2. Kasymbekov Zh.K., Hydrocyclone-ejector technologies for water lifting and cleaning of agricultural water supply facilities,'s abstract , Taraz, 2003, 50 pp. (in Russian)

Water disposal

Marggraff M., Helsher A., Buer T.Thin-layer separators for settlers intended for rainwater, mixed water and preclarified water treatment

A special attention is paid nowadays to reducing of sewage load on sewage treatment plant because of creation of combined sewage network and inflow of polluted rainwater and mixed water at treatment facilities. In case of nearly similar water pollution indexes of rain water and mixed water in waterlines and of the water of settling tank overflow it is possible to realize further reducing of load on sewage treatment plant through lowering of pollution agents content at preliminary stage of treatment. That’s why even more rigorous requirements are established now in Netherlands in relation to quality of water discharged by these treatment facilities.
Key words: rainfall runoff, combined sewerage system, settling, separation(thin-layer) modules, efficiency, testing, reconstruction
References: 1. Prof. Dr.-lng. Kh. Krauth Dipl. lng. Olga Vetter. Anwendung von Flockungsverfahren bei der Regenwasserbehandlung; Schlulibericht zum PWAB-Forschungsvorhaben PA 97 189; Marz 1999.
2. E.D.A.R. Valladolid. TABLA DE VALORES DE DIMENSIONAMIENTO September 1996.
3. Wlllems, G. Ruschenberg.M. Ruhrverband. Kosten von Niederschlagswasserbehand-lung, Gewasserschutz-Wasser-Abwasser184, 12/1 -12/13, Aachen 2001.

Ivanenko I.I.Qualitative and quantitative research of surface runoff and drainage effluent for construction of surface runoff treatment facilities at community of Osinovaya Roscha

An analysis of technological schemes employed for surface runoff water treatment is given, the results of the researches regarding pollution intensity of surface runoff (rainwater and snow water) and drainage effluent (infiltration water) are presented. The relationships for evaluation of the volume of drainage (infiltration) water entering into canalization systems are obtained on the base of long-term field studies. The process scheme for surface runoff treatment plant designed and constructed for underground implementation at community of Osinovaya Roscha is described. A valid method of underground basin-accumulator purification is presented and the construction of underground disinfection facility with the use of UV-irradiation plant is described.
Key words: surface runoff, drainage water, researches, treatment facilities, flow-through scheme, equalizing reservoir, sediment discharge, scrubbing pockets, disinfection
References: 1. Recommendation on designing of systems for gathering, disposal and treatment of surface runoff resulting from settlement zones and industrial sites and stipulation of conditions for its disposal into water bodies, FGUP NII Vodgeo, Moscow, 2006 (in Russian)
2. Report, Development of the method of estimation of annual mass emission of polluting matters into water courses of Saint-Petersburg and its residential neighborhood according to rainwater and combined discharges of GUP Vodokanal SPb, GUP Vodokanal SPb, PUEKS, SPb, 1996 (in Russian)
3. Calculation of effluent discharge system for surface runoff settlers, Abstracts of 51 scientific and engineering conference, SPb, 1994 (in Russian)
4. A system for surface runoff treatment, Information sheet №610.93, ser.Р 70.25.17, SPTsNTI, 1993 (in Russian)
5. Ivanenko I.I., Conditions of azote and phosphorous entering into municipal waste water and waste water purification from these pollutants,'s abstract, SPbGASU, SPb, 1998 (in Russian)


Edelshtein K.K., Datsenko Yu.S., Puklakov V.V., Puklakova N.G.Scientific and methodological basis of designing for the purposes of water-storage reservoir ecological reconstruction

It is discussed the practicality of the transformation of valley reservoirs employed for river runoff and centralized water supply regulation into multisection water bodies with monitored internal water exchange. A universal modeling algorithm for grid model is proposed for automation of these bodies thermodynamic and chemical-biological regime computation. The segments of model computation are presented and the recommendations on bioproduction processes regulation with the purpose of providing the best drinking quality of the water within the main sections of these water bodies are given.
Key words: water storage reservoirs, water exchange, hydrological simulation, water quality
References: 1. Avakiyan A.B., Poddubny A.G., Fish capacity of water-storage reservoirs and the role of their aquatorial zoning, planification and development in the improvement of fish capacity, Vodnye resurcy – Aquatic resources, 1995, vol.22, no.1, pp.90-97 (in Russian)
2. Berdichevsky L.S., Volga river and fish capacity of Caspian Sea under conditions of water and hydrobiological regime degradation, Volga-1, Kuybyshev, 1971, pp.209-221 (in Russian)
3. Butorin N.V., Bakastov S.S., Ershova M.G., Dimensions of inundated areas of Rybinskoe artificial lake shore land at various heights of water, Bull.Instituta biol.vodochr., no.13, Moscow-Leningrad, AN SSSR publ., 1962, pp.51-54 (in Russian)
4. Voda Rossii: vodochranilischa – Water of Russia: water-storage reservoirs, Ekaterinburg, AQVA-PRESS publ., 2001, 700 pp. (in Russian)
5. Datsenko Y.S., Water-storage reservoirs eutrophication. Hydrological and hydrochemical aspects, Moscow, GEOS, 2007, 252 pp (in Russian)
6. Datsenko Y.S., Motovilov Yu.G., Puklakov V.V., Simulation of Kamskoe artificial lake hydroecological regime,Proc. of III Int.Science and Practice Conf. Ecology of river basins, Vladimir, 2005, pp.360-362 (in Russian)
7. Datsenko Y.S., Puklakov V.V., Cherkasov A.A., Edelshtein K.K., Software system for calculation of hydrological regime and water quality in water-storage reservoirs, Vodnoe choziaystvo Rossii - Water sector of Russia, vol.5, no.4, 2003, pp.339-347 (in Russian)
8. Deviatkin V.G., Meteleva N.Yu., Vaynovsky P.A., Influence of climatic factor on productiveness of Rybinskoe artificial lake littoral phytoplankton, Volga basin in XXI century: structure and performance of ecosystems of Borok-Izhevsk water-storage reservoirs, Permiakov publ., 2012, pp.64-66 (in Russian)
9. Zakonnov V.V., Sedimentogenesis in water-storage reservoirs of Volzhsky cascade,'s abstract , Moscow, 2007, 39 pp., (in Russian)
10. Matarzin Yu.M., Matskevich I.K., Problems of morphometry and zoning of water-storage reservoirs, Problems of water-storage reservoirs formation and their impact on nature and economics, no.1, Perm, 1970, pp.27-45 (in Russian)
11. Poddubny S.A., Suchova E.V., Simulation of hydrodynamical and anthropogenic factors influence on hydrobionts distribution in water-storage reservoirs, Rybinsk, OJSC Rybinsky Dom Pechati publ.,2002, 120 pp. (in Russian)
12. Pokrovskaya T.N., Mironova N.Ya., Shilkrot G.S., Macrophyte lakes and eutrophication of these bodies, Moscow, Nauka publ., 1983, 153 pp. (in Russian)
13. Puklakov V.V., Hydrologycal model of water-storage reservoir: operating manual, Moscow, GEOS, 1999, 96 pp. (in Russian)
14. Puklakov V.V., Grechushnikova M.G., Stepanenko V.M., Computer software State registration certificate no.201613255 The model of heat and mass exchange in water-storage reservoir, date of receipt of application: 3 of March 2011, date of filing in computer software Registration book: 27 of April 2011 (in Russian)
15. Hydrological calculation manual for water-storage reservoir designing, Leningrad, Gidrometeoizdat publ., 1983, 284 pp. (in Russian)
16. Frantsev A.V., Problems of water supply sources exploitation in Moscow, Uchinskoe and Mozhayskoe water-storage reservoirs, Moscow, MGU publ., 1963, pp.9-15 (in Russian)
17. Frantsev A.V., Some problems of rational design and exploitation of water-storage reservoirs and channels, Technology of natural and waste water treatment, Moscow, Mosckovsky rabochy publ., 1977, pp. 176-184 (in Russian)
18. Frantsev A.V., Effect of Uchinskoe water-storage reservoir purification and some techniques of its improvement, Proc.II conf.on problems of inland waters biology, Moscow-Leningrad, Nauka publ., 1959, pp.247-259 (in Russian)
19. Chernega S.S., The efficiency of water-storage reservoir reconstruction with the purpose of their eutrophication control, Vodnoe choziaystvo Rossii: problem, technologii, upravlenie - Water sector of Russia: problems, technologies, management, 2006, no.4, pp.1-18 (in Russian)
20. Edelshtein K.K., Water-storage reservoirs in Russia: ecological problems and the ways to solve these problems, Moscow, GEOS, 1998, 277 pp (in Russian)
21. Edelshtein K.K., Ecological problems of river runoff regulation and water-storage reservoir reconstruction, Vestn.Mosk.Universiteta, ser.5 Geography, 1994, no.5 pp.52-58 (in Russian)
22. Edelshtein K.K., Ecological upgrading of Moscow river water-storage reservoirs, Priroda – Nature, 1997, no.9, pp.92-97 (in Russian)
23. Goldyn R. Role of preliminary reservoirs in protection of the Maltanski Reservoir // Abstracts of II Intern. Conf. on Reservoir Limnology and Water Quality. Ceske Budejovice, 1992. Р. 30.
24. Hoehn E. The effect of the pre-reservoir on the trophic state of an oligomesotrophic drinkingwater reservoir (Kleine Kinzig) in the northern Black Forest, Germany // Abstracts of II Intern. Conf. on Reservoir Limnology and Water Quality. Ceske Budejovice, 1992. Р. 35.

Bespalova E.V.The influence of melt waters on Voronezh artificial lake state

An estimation of melt waters pollution is given and their influence on Voronezh artificial lake state is analyzed. The ways of minimization of melt waters negative impacts on water reservoir are discussed.
Key words: surface runoff, melt waters, Voronezh artificial lake pollution, water pollution index.
References: 1. Varfolomeev V.P., Snow melting is an enabling technology for snow handling, Stroitelnye I dorozhnye mashiny – Construction and road machines, 2008, no.1, pp.38-40 (in Russian)
2. Stupin V.I., Seidaliev G.S. et al, report, About state control and supervision of natural resources utilization and environmental conditions in Voronezh region in 2004, Voronezh, upravlenie Rosprirodnadzora for Voronezh region, 2005, 142 pp. (in Russian)
3. Stupin V.I., Seidaliev G.S. et al, report, About state control and supervision of natural resources utilization and environmental conditions in Voronezh region in 2005, Voronezh, upravlenie Rosprirodnadzora for Voronezh region, 2006, 112 pp. (in Russian)
4. Stupin V.I., Seidaliev G.S. et al, report, About state control and supervision of natural resources utilization and environmental conditions in Voronezh region in 2007, Voronezh, upravlenie Rosprirodnadzora for Voronezh region, 2008, 255 pp. (in Russian)
5. Stupin V.I. et al, report, About state control and supervision of natural resources utilization and environmental conditions in Voronezh region in 2010, Voronezh, upravlenie Rosprirodnadzora for Voronezh region, 2011, 131 pp. (in Russian)
6. Stupin V.I., Denisov Yu.F., Kuznetsova E.N., Turchaninov S.V., report, About state control and supervision of natural resources utilization and environmental conditions in Voronezh region in 2011, Voronezh, upravlenie Rosprirodnadzora for Voronezh region, 2012, 95 pp. (in Russian)
7. Kulbachevsky A.O., report, About environmental conditions in city of Moscow in 2010, Moscow, 2011, 135 pp., (in Russian)
8. Nikolskaya A.N., Schetinin I.V., Ecological aspect of potable water supply in city of Voronezh, Vestn.Voronezh.Universiteta, ser. Geography and geoecology, 2000, no.4, pp.159-161 (in Russian)
9. Prozhorina T.I., Chadova L.O., An estimation of Voronezh treatment facilities influence on water quality in Don river and Voronezhskoye artificial lake, Proc.VIII Interregional research and practice conf., 24 Mai 2012, Voronezh, VGU publ., 2012, pp.96-99 (in Russian)
10. Seidaliev G.S., Geoecological analysis of anthropogenic influence on Voronezhskoye artificial lake state,'s abstract , Voronezh, 2009 , 23 pp (in Russian)
11. Seidaliev G.S., Stupin V.I., The monitoring of Voronezh region water resources, Voronezh, Bolchovitinov publ., 2005 (in Russian)


Ivanenko I.I.155 years of Vodokanal St.-Petersburg

Water supply

Terentev V.I., Lopatin S.A.Unused opportunities of federal legislature regulating water sources protection

The brief analysis of normative legal acts containing the main requirements to organization of sanitary protection zone of water sources is presented. The regulatory voids which are the reason of low legal status of water bodies used for centralized water supply are defined. The legislative initiative based on legal opportunity of status improvement of water sources sanitary protection zone presented by federal legislature is formulated.
Key words: centralized water supply, sanitary protection zone, specially protected natural areas, law, legal status, general plan, cadaster, register.
References: 1.Kazachenko A.S. Regulatory and information support of urban development in settlements, materials of science-and-practice conference “Engineering-ecological systems”, 10-12 of October 2012, Saint-Petersburg University of architecture and civil engineering, SPb, 2012, 200-204 pp. (in Russian)
2.Lopatin S.A., Redko A.A., Terentev V.I Water source sanitary protection zone (2 and 3 zone) – important object of sanitary legislation, collection of materials to general meeting of Saint-Petersburg department of Russian Academy of Natur, Scein. “Human health and ecology”, 15 of March, 2013, Russian Academy of Natur.Scien., 2013, 50-58 pp. (in Russian)
3.Lopatin S.A., Terentev V.I. To question on optimization of water source sanitary protection zone status, materials of plenary meeting of research council on
4.Human ecology and environment hygiene of Russian Federation “Scientific-methodological and legislative basis for improvement of the normative-legal base of preventive health care: problems and solutions”, 13-14 of Dec,., 2012, Sysin research and development establishment of human ecology and environment hygiene, M., 2012, 255-257 pp. (in Russian)
5.Lopatin S.A., Terent'ev V.I., Terent'ev A.V. On legislative support of water sources’ sanitary protection, Vodoochistka, Vodopodgotovka, Vodosnabzhenie,journ., №4, 2011, pp. 4-9. (in Russian)
6.On Leningrad region environment condition, report of the Committee on Natural Resources of Leningrad region in 2009, Saint-Petersburg, 2010, p. 428 (online version). (in Russian)
7.On ecological situation in Leningrad region in 2012, report of the Committee on Natural Resources of Leningrad region in 2012, Saint-Petersburg, 2013, p. 110 (online version).(in Russian)
8.Porjadin A.F. Water and utilities of Russia in regard to communal services reforms (in Russian)
9.RF Government Regulation on 28.04.2007 №253 “Regulation on introduction of the State water register”, M., 2007 (online version).
10.Order of the Ministry of Natural resources of Russian Federation on 21.08.2007 №214 “On approval of order of presentation and composition of information submitted to local government authorities for introduction to the State water register”, M., 2007 (online version).
11.Terent'ev V.I., Lopatin S.A. Important subject of legislation: zone of water sources sanitary protection, Evrostroy, № 68, 2012, pp. 48-51.(in Russian)
12.Hramenkov S.V. Time to manage water, M., 2012, p.280. (in Russian)

Zavjalov M.V., Metelica S.G., Vinnichenko S.V., Protasovskij E.M., Kejsh V. S.Reconstruction of the water supply station “Serezhino” of Kingisepp, Leningrad region

From the beginning of 80’s dramatic deterioration of water quality in the river Luga is observed, especially with regard to water color and oxidability. With the enforcement of potable water standards [5, 8, 9, 10] requirements to drinking water quality were significantly toughened that resulted in the adoption of the program of joint action between local government bodies and operating organization JSC “Kingiseppskij Vodokanal” for reconstruction of water supply station “Serezhino”. Taking into account currently used technology of water treatment, effect of seasonal climatic factors as well as natural features of the river Luga, the reconstructing of water supply station “Serezhino” was planned with the view to bring drinking water quality to set standards. Article presents detailed description of hydrological conditions and completed analysis of water source, which is the river Luga, full description of pilot plant and extensive methodology of work performance. Full investigation results on all stages are presented. On the base of pilot investigations optimal scheme of water treatment which is also presented by authors of the article is developed. Currently developed project of “Serezhino” station reconstruction is being implemented.
Key words: water treatment plants, pilot testing, research setting, flotation, contact clarifier, reagent doses, and technological scheme of treatment.
References: 1.Water supply. Designing of systems and constructions, in 3 vol., edited by M.G. Zhurba, Moscow-Vologda, 2001. (in Russian)
2.Rules of use of water supply and water disposal systems in the Russian Federation (with amendments on 8 of August 2003), Approved by the resolution of the Government of the Russian Federation in 12 of February 1999, №16.(in Russian)
3.SanPIN Hygienic requirements to surface water protection. Sanitary regulations and standards, M., IPC “ State Committee on Sanitary and Epidemiology Surveillance”, 2001.(in Russian)
4.SanPIN Drinking water. Hygienic requirements to water quality of centralized systems of drinking water supply. Quality control. M., IPC “ State Committee on Sanitary and Epidemiology Surveillance”.(in Russian)
5.Methodological requirements Assessment of sanitary and epidemiological reliability of drinking water supply centralized systems, M., IPC “State Committee on Sanitary and Epidemiology Surveillance”, Russia, 2008. (in Russian)
6.GOST 2761-84. Sources of centralized domestic water supply. Hygienic and technical requirements and selection rules. (in Russian)
7.Hygienic standard Threshold limit value (TLV) of chemical substances in water of water objects of drinking, cultural and domestic water use.(in Russian)
8.Hygienic standard Threshold limit value (TLV) of chemical substances in water of water objects of drinking, cultural and domestic water use.(in Russian)
9.Hygienic standard “Additions and amendments №1 to hygienic standards “Threshold limit value (TLV) of chemical substances in water of water objects of drinking, cultural and domestic water use.”(in Russian)
10.Design and construction specifications 31.13.13330.2012. Water supply. Public utilities. Designing of constructions for sludge dewatering of natural water treatment plant. Reference aid to SNiP 2.04.02-84. NII VODGEO, M., 1989.(in Russian)

Aratskij P.B., Petrov V.Je., Utin A.V.Innovative automatic filter for water tertiary treatment

The problem of centralized tertiary treatment of water flowing from water supply network in communal utility system is discussed. Requirements to typical technical cleaning filters are developed; market of serially produced filters is analyzed. Two alternative methods of work processes schemes in water purifying filters («outside-inside”, “inside-outside”) are analyzed. Calculation of expenses for washing in two methods for automatic systems is presented. It is showed that at high concentration of pollutants in water the classic scheme of washing is inefficient when using of direct washing gives good results. Structural concepts for automatic filter with inside-outside washing are developed. Russian automatic filter which corresponds to the world analogue is presented.
Key words: automatic filter, water, direct washing, backwash, pollutant.
References: 1.Zhuzhikov V.A. The filtering. Theory and practice of separation of suspensions, Moscow, Himija,publ., 1980, p. 400. (in Russian)
2.Leont'ev N. E. Basics of filtration theory, study guide, MSU,publ., 2009, p. 88.(in Russian)
3.Technology development and production of the Russian domestic high-efficiency sea water filter of new generation modular design for marine technological and sanitary systems, Summary report of development work «Sudmash-Fil'tr» and LLC “TVELL”, 2013, p. 99. (in Russian)

Water disposal

Drozd G.Ja., Hvortova M.Ju.Reliability of sewerage system and accidental risks in production activity of water and sewage enterprises

The article shows the meaning of risks and gives risks characteristics in production activity of water-and-sewage enterprises. Ukraine sewerage system’s field studies data with analysis of causes effecting on reliability of constructions and defining the risk level of emergencies occurrence is presented. Classification of sewers by degree of their potential accident rate is developed. Differentiated approach to sewage pipelines reliability assessment with regard to factors on stages of design, construction and operation is proposed.
Key words: sewage pipelines, risk level assessment, emergency, reliability, corrosion, probability.
References: 1.Resolution of Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine on 19.03.2008 № 212, Kiev. On approval of criteria for distribution of economic entities by level of risk of their economic activity for environment and periodicity of state control measures implementation, Kiev. (in Ukranian)
2.Resolution of Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine on 14.01. 2009 №16, Kiev. On approval of criteria by which level of risk from economic activity implementation in sphere of drinking water supply and water disposal is assessed and periodicity of state control measures implementation is defined. (in Ukranian)
3.G.N.Krikunov, A.S.Belikov, V.F.Zalunin Life safety, Dnepropetrovsk, Porogi,publ,, 1992, p. 412.(in Russian)
4.Mel'chakov A.P. Calculation and assessment of accident risk and secure resource of construction objects (Theory, methods and engineering applications), Chelyabinsk, SUSU, publ.,2006, p. 49.(in Russian)
5.Kalinin V.M., Sokova S.D. Assessment of building technical state, student book, M., Infra-M,publ., 2010, p. 286.(in Russian)
6.Drozd G.Ja. On technical state of Ukraine sewerage system, Vodopostachannja ta vodovіdvedennja,journ., 2012, №1, pp. 34-40. (in Russian)
7.Drozd G.Ja. Corrosion destruction of concrete sewers, Vodopostachannja ta vodovіdvedennja,journ., 2012, №1, pp. 35-44.(in Russian)
8.Drozd G.Ja.Prognosis of the degree of aggressiveness of sewage collector operational environment, Vodopostachannja ta vodovіdvedennja,journ., 2012, №1, pp. 15-19.(in Russian)


Grechushnikova M.G., Kremeneckaja E.RDiurnal changes of gross primary production of phytoplankton of the Mozhaysk reservoir in different weather conditions

The article presents the investigation results of diurnal changes of gross primary production of phytoplankton of the Mozhaysk reservoir. Conducted frequent observation of the production process identified a significant synoptic heterogeneity, expressing in the change of the absolute values of gross output and dependence of its diurnal progress on meteorological conditions and diurnal changes in the content of mineral phosphorus in reservoir trophogenous layer. Obtained results have a practical value for intrabasin processes modeling and reservoir ecological state monitoring.
Key words: gross product, phytoplankton, synoptic cycle, mineral phosphorus, water temperature.
References: 1.Water quality management in conditions of phytoplankton development on the example of water source, Water supply and sanitary technique,journ., №10, part 1, 2010, pp. 13-16. (in Russian) .
2.Jorgensen S.Je. Lake system management, M., Agropromizdat,publ., 1985, p.159 (in Russian)
3.Odum U., Bases of ecology, M., Mir,publ., 1975, p. 740 (in Russian).
4.Henderson-Sellers B., Marklend H.R. Drying-up lakes, L., Girdrometeoizdat,publ.,1990, p. 278.(in Russian)
5.Pyrina I.L. , Bashkatova E.L. , Sigareva L.E. Primary production of phytoplankton at shallow zone of Rybinsk reservoir in 1971-1972, Hydrobiological regime of the Upper Volga reservoirs’ coastal shallow waters, works of Institute for biology of inland waters USSR Academy of Sciences, issue 33 (36), Yaroslavl, 1976, pp. 106-132. (in Russian)
6.Bashkatova E.L. Rybinsk reservoir coastal zone’s phytoplankton according to observations in 1971-1972, Hydrobiological regime of the Upper Volga reservoirs’ coastal shallow waters, works of Institute for biology of inland waters USSR Academy of Sciences, issue 33(36), Yaroslavl, 1976, pp. 84-105. (in Russian)
7.Bylinkina A.A. , Genkal L.F. Mineral phosphorus turnover rate and adsorption of glucose in water of coastal and deep-water zones of the Rybinsk reservoir, Biogenic elements and organic substances in water reservoirs, works of Institute for biology of inland waters USSR Academy of Sciences, 1974, issue 29(32), Rybinsk, pp. 7-16. (in Russian)
8.Devjatkin V.G. Composition and productivity of phytoplankton in coastal zone of the Rybinsk reservoir, Freshwater species and their biology, L., Nauka,publ., 1983, pp. 52-70. (in Russian)
9.Complex investigation of reservoirs. Mozhaysk reservoir. M., MSU,publ., issue 3, p. 467. (in Russian)
10.Kanikovskaja A.A., Sadchikov A.P. Seasonal changes of phyto- and bacterial plankton interrelation in water column of mesotrophic reservoir, depart. Of VINITI, Moscow, 1985. (in Russian)
11.Phosphorus regime modeling in valley reservoir, edited by K.K. Jedelshtejn, M., MSU, 1995, p. 79. (in Russian)
12.Hrustaleva M.A Regime of biogenic elements in the Mozhaysk reservoir, Complex investigations of reservoirs, issue 2, M., MSU, 1973, pp.71-75.. (in Russian)
13.Gavrilov I.T Opportunities and prospects of plant use for study of photosynthesis process, Hydrochemical investigations of surface and underground waters of the Mozhaysk reservoir area, MGU,publ., 1977, pp. 5-16. (in Russian)
15.Martynova M.V. On participation of bottom sediments in circulation of phosphorus in the reservoir, Hydrochemical investigations of surface and underground waters of the Mozhaysk reservoir area, MGU,publ., 1977, pp. 52-61. (in Russian)
16.Sapozhnikov V.V. and others. Process of quality water formation in drinking water reservoirs, M., MGU,publ., 1979, p. 25.. (in Russian)
17.Pyrina I.L., Devjatkin V.G., Elizarova V.A. Experimental study of heating effect on development of phytoplankton photosynthesis, Anthropogenic factors in life of reservoir, works of of Institute for biology of inland waters USSR Academy of Sciences, issue 30(33), 1975, Nauka,publ., Leningrad depart., L., pp. 67-84. (in Russian)
18.Ershova M.G.and others. Diurnal transformation of water composition in the Mohaysk reservoir, Water resources,journ., 2000, vol. 27, №4, pp. 485-497. (in Russian)

-Kell"s book presentation


Ivanenko I.I.A Message From the Editor-in-Chief


Kuzmin V. V., PogorelcevA. N., Maslij V. D.Lake water treatment from chromacity and oxidability by methods of nanofiltration

On the basis of the lead experimental study on the lake water treatment from chromacity and oxidability by nanofiltration membranes, the modern and efficient scheme of WWTP for the Leningrad Region municipal bodies was developed. Nanofiltration method allows using modular principle of the WWTP equipment packaging and providing normative quality of fresh water even during seasonal changes. At the same time the automation level of treatment process increases, chlorine and reagents demand significantly decreases,water consumption for own needs ,which makes no more than 2% from daily water consumption, reduces.
Key words: fresh water, chromacity, oxidability, turbidity, nanofiltration membrane, WWTP.
References: 1. SanPin «Drinking water» (in Russian).
2. Frenkel' V.S. Membrannye tehnologii: proshloe, nastojashhee, budushhee [Membrance technologies: past, present and future],. «Vodosnabzhenie i sanitarnaja tehnika» [Water supply and sanitary techniques],journ., № 8 — 2010. (in Russian).
3. Andrianov A.P., Spicov D.V., Pervov A.G., Jurchevskij E.B. Membrannye metody ochistki poverhnostnyh vod [Membrane methods of surface water treatment], «Vodosnabzhenie i sanitarnaja tehnika» [Water supply and sanitary techniques], №7 -2009. (in Russian).
4. Degremont. Tehnicheskij spravochnik po obrabotke vody [Degremont. Technical manual on water treatment], S-Petersburg, 2007. (in Russian).

Mokienko A. V., Petrenko N. F., Gozhenko A. I.Fundamental and applied aspects of using chlorine and chlorine dioxide as water disinfectant

The analysis of hygienic, medical and ecological aspects of chlorine and chlorine dioxide used as water disinfectant is given in the work presented. A comparative estimation of risks at the use of water contaminated by pathogenic microorganisms and the same water containing chlorination by-products proves that epidemic safety should predominate at disinfection. It is shown that chlorine dioxide provides an epidemic safety of drinking water due to a high veridical, bactericidal and mycocidal effectiveness and chlorine dioxide is not toxic neither in the context of the influence on the laboratory animals organisms nor for hydrobionts when dumping disinfected waste waters.
Key words: chlorine, chlorine dioxide, water, disinfection.
References: 1. Huck P. M. The Past, Present and Future of Water Treatment — A Conceptual Perspective/P. M. Huck//Water supply and Water Quality: Proc. IV Internat. conf. —Krakow, 2000. — P. 23-28 (in English).
2. Prokopov V. O. Gigijenichni problemy vodopostachannja v Ukraini [Hygienic problems of water supply in Ukraine ], Dosvid ta problemy naukovogo suprovodu problem gigijenichnoi nauky i praktyky [Experience and problems of scientific support for the problems of hygienic science and practice], Kyiv, 2011, pp. 106-132 (in Ukrainian).
3. Petrenko N. R, Mokyenko A. V. Dyoksyd hlora: prymenenyevtehnologyjah vodopodgotovky: Monografyja [Chlorine dioxide: application in water treatment technologies:Monography], Odessa, «Optimum»,publ., 2005, p. 486 (in Russian).
4. Mokienko A. V. Jekologo — gigienicheskie osnovy bezopasnosti vody, obezzarazhen-nojdioksidom hlora [Ecological-hygienic bases of safety of water treated by chlorinedioxide], dissertation of Doctor of medicine, 14.02.01, Institute of hygiene and medical ecology named. A. M. Marzeev AMS of Ukraine, Kyiv, 2009, p. 348 (in Russian).
5. Mokyenko A. V. Obezzarazhyvanye vodi. Gygyenycheskye у medyko-akologycheskye aspekti [Water disinfection. Hygienic and medical-ecological aspects], vol. 1. Hlor у ego soedynenyja [Chlorine and its compounds], Odessa, TES,publ., 2011,p. 484 (in Russian).
6. Mokyenko A. V. Obezzarazhyvanye vodi. Gygyenycheskye у medyko-akologycheskye aspekti [Water disinfection. Hygienic and medical-ecological aspects], vol. 2. Dioksid hlora [Chlorine dioxide], Odessa, TES,publ., 2011, p. 484 (in Russian).
7. Bronovickij G. Ju. Rezultati obezzarazhivanija vodi Dona rastvorom hlornoj izvesti na Rostovskoj vodoprovodnoj stancii [The river Don water disinfection results by bleach solution at the Rostov waterworks], Russkijvrachjourn., 1911, №41, pp. 7-11 (in Russian).
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9. Nedostatki metoda sanitarno — bakteriologicheskogo analiza vodoprovodnoj hlorirovannoj vody [Disadvantages of method of sanitary - bacteriological analysis of tap chlorinated water], MaslovA. K., ZenkovV. A., NesterovS. V. et alias, Gigiena i sanitarijajourn., 1986, № 2, pp. 61-63 (in Russian).
10. Znachenie indikatornyh mikroorganizmov pri ocenke mikrobnogo riska v vozniknovenii jepidemicheskoj bezopasnosti pri pitevom vodopolzovanii [Value of indicator microorganisms in microbial risk assessment in case of epidemic safety in the drinking water use], V. V. Aleshnja, P. V. Zhuravlev, S. V. Golovina et alias, Gigiena i sanitarijajourn., 2008, № 2, pp. 23-27. (in Russian)
11. Hoff J. С Microbial Resistance to Disinfectants: Mechanisms and Significance /J. С Hoff, E. W. Akin // Environmental Health Perspectives. — 1986. — V. 69. —P. 7-13 (in English).
12. McDonnell G. Antiseptics and Disinfectants: Activity, Action, and Resistance /G. McDonnell, A. D. Russell//Clinical Microbiology Reviews. — 1999. — V. 12, N 1. —p. 147-179 (in English).
13. Mokijenko A. V. Stijkist bakterij jak mizhdyscyplinarna problema. Mehanizm formuvannja adaptyvnoi multyrezystentnosti bakterij do biocydiv iz pogljadu fundamentalnyh osnovsupramolekuljarnoi himii [Bacterial resistance as an interdisciplinary problem. Mechanism of adaptive bacterial resistance formation to biocides from the point of view of fundamental bases of supramolecular chemistry], Visnyk Nacionalnoi akademii naukUkrainyJourn., 2010, № 8, pp. 49-56 (in Ukranian).
14. К obosnovanyju gormezysa как fundamentalnoj byomedycynskoj paradygmbi (obzor lyteraturi у rezultatov sobstvennih yssledovanyj) [To the justification of hormesis as a fundamental biomedical paradigm (review of the books and results of own researches)], Shafran L. M., Mokyenko A. V., N. F. Petrenko et alias, Sovremennbie problemi toksykologyyjourn., 2010, № 2-3, pp. 13-23 (in Russian).
15. Mokyenko A. V. Obezzarazhyvanye vodi: к analyzu vklada v avoljucyju adaptyvnoj multyrezystentnosty vodnih patogenov [Water disinfection: to analysis of contribution in evolution of water pathogens adaptive multiresistance], Shidnojevropejskyj zhurnal gromadskogozdorovjajourn., 2011, №1 (13), pp. 160-161 (in Russian).
16. Mokienko А. V. Gormezis i multirezistentnost bakterij: k analizu vklada vjevoljuciju jepidemicheskogo processa [Hormesis and multiresistance of bacteria: to analysis of contribution in epidemic process evolution], reports abstracts of the XV Congress of microbiologists, epidemiologists, Parasitologists of Ukraine «Problems and evolution of the epidemic process and parasitic systems leading infections modernity», Kharkiv, 23-25 of November 2011, p. 46 (in Russian).
17. Mokienko A. V., Petrenko N. F. Gormezis kakpuskovoj mehanizm reguljatornyh mutacij i ego rol vformirovanii multirezistentnosti bakterij [Hormesis as a trigger of regulatory mutation and its role in formation of multiresistance bacteria], Sovremennye problemytoksikologiijourn., 2011, № 5, p. 47 (in Russian).
18. Legionella pneumophila transcriptional response to chlorine treatment/ Bodet C, SahrT., DupuyM. [et al.]//Water Research.— 2012.—V. 46, N 3. - P. 808-816(in English).
19. Transcriptomic response of Escherichia coli O157:H7 to oxidative stress/Wang S.,Deng K., Zaremba S. [et al.] //Applied and Environmental Microbiology. — 2009. —V. 75, N 19. — P. 6110-6123 (in English).
20. Transcriptomic responses of Salmonella enterica serovars Enteritidis and Typhimurium to chlorine-based oxidative stress/Wang S., PhillippyA. M., Deng K. [etal.]//Applied and Environmental Microbiology. — 2010. — V. 76, N 15. — P. 5013-5024(in English).
21. Sergeev E. P., Elahovskaja N. P., Skvorcov A. F. Gigienicheskoe znachenie transformacii himicheskih veshhestv s obrazovaniem hloroforma v processe obezzarazhivanija pitevyh vod [Hygienic meaning of chemicals transformation with chloroform formation in process of drinking water disinfection], Gigiena i sanitarijajourn., 1981, №6, pp. 56-59 (in Russian).
22. Novikov Ju. V., Noarov Ju. A. Oznachenii trigalometanovvpitevoj vode [On importance of thrihalomethanes in drinking water], Gigiena i sanitarijajourn., 1984, № 4,pp. 51-55 (in Russian).
23. Biologichni osnovyekologichnoi bezpekyvykorystannja himichnyhzasobivznezarazhuvannja pytnoivody (Ogljad literatury tavlasnyh doslidzhen) [Biological bases of eco¬ logical safety in the use of chemical disinfection of drinking water (review of books and results of own researches)], Gozhenko A. I., Petrenko N. F., Mokijenko A. V. et alias, Zhurnal Akademii medychnyh nauk [Journal of Academy of medical sciences], 2008, vol. 14, №1,pp. 134-149 (in Ukranian).
24. Berg J. D. Effect of Antecedent Growth Conditions on Sensitivity of Escherichia coli to Chlorine Dioxide/J. D. Berg, A. Matin, P.V. Roberts//Appl. environ, microbiol. —1982. — V. 44, N 4. — P. 814-819 (in English).
25. Disinfection effect of chlorine dioxide on bacteria in water/Huang J., Wang L, Ren N. [al.] //Wat. Res. — 1997. —V. 31, № 3. — P. 607-613 (in English).
26. Effect of Particulates on Disinfection of Enteroviruses and Coliform Bacteria in Water by Chlorine Dioxide / Scarpino P.V. [et al.]// Proc. AWWA Water Qual. Technol. Conf.V. —1977 (in English).
27. Mechanisms of inactivation of hepatitis A virus in water by chlorine dioxide / Li J. W.,XinZ. Т., WangX. W. [etal.] //Water Research. — 2004. —V. 38, N 6. — P. 1514-1519(in English).
28. Effects of Ozone, Chlorine Dioxide, Chlorine, and Monochloramine on Cryptosporidium parvum OocystViability/Korich D.G., Mead J.R., Madore M. S. [etal.]//Applied and Environmental Microbiology. — 1990. —V. 56, N 5. — P. 1423-1428 (in English).
29. Inactivation of Cryptosporidium parvum oocystswith Ozone/ RenneckerJ. L, Marinas B. J., Owens J. H. [etal.] //Water Res. — 1999. —V. 33, N 11. — P. 2481-2488(in English).
30. Young S. B. Mechanisms of killing of Bacillus subtilis spores by hypochlorite and chlorine dioxide/S.B. Young, P. Setlow//Journal of Applied Microbiology. — 2003. —V. 95. — P. 54-67 (in English).
31. Melly E. Studies on the mechanism of killing of Bacillus subtilis spores by hydrogen peroxide/ E. Melly, A. Cowan, P. Setlow//Journal of Applied Microbiology. — 2002a. —V. 93. — P. 316-325 (in English).
32. Effect of oxidants on microalgalflocculation/SukenikA., Teltch B.,WachsA.W. [etal.] //Wat. Res. — 1987. — V. 21, № 5. — P. 533-539 (in English).
33. Comparative effectiveness of chlorine and chlorine dioxide biocide regimes for bio-fouling control / Mayack L. A., Soracco R. J., Wilde E. W. [et al.] //Water Research. —1984. — V. 18, N 5. — P. 593-599 (in English).
34. Disinfectant efficacy of chlorite and chlorine dioxide in drinking water biofilms / Cagnon G .A., Rand J. L, OLeary К. С [et al.] //Water Research. — 2005. — V. 39,N 9. — P. 1809-1817 (in English).
35. Petrenko N. F. Gigijenichneobgruntuvannjazastosuvannjadioksydu hloru utehnologijah vodopidgotovky [Hygienic justification of the use of chlorine dioxide in water treatment technologies], thesis of candidate of biological science, 14.02.01, Institute of hygiene and medical ecology named. A. M. Marzeev AMS of Ukraine, Kyiv, 2002, p. 153 (in Ukranian).
36. Petrenko N. F. Dioksid hlora kaksredstvo obezzarazhivanija stochnyh vod (obzor I iteratury i sobstvennyh issledovanij) [Chlorine dioxide as a tool of wastewaters disinfection], Petrenko N. F., Mokienko A. V., Sozinova E. K. at alias, Gigiena naselennyh mestjourn., 2007, Vyp. 50, pp. 60-65 (in Russian).
37. Petrenko N. F. Osoblyvosti doslidzhennja i vprovadzhennja poslidovnoi kombinovanoi dii dioksydu hloru ta hloru dlja znezarazhennja pytnoi vody [Featiures of the study and implementation of a coherent combined action of chlorine dioxide and chlorine for drinking water disinfection], Gigijena naselenyh misc,journ., 2011, issue 58, pp. 116-122 (in Ukranian).
38. Ashbolt N. J. Risk analysis of drinking water microbial contamination versus disinfection by-products (DBPs) / N. J. Ashbolt//Toxicology. — 2004. — V. 198. — P. 255-262 (in English).
39. Bull R. J. Key Health Issues With Alternate Disinfectants / R. J. Bull // Proc. Intern. Symp. «Chlorine Dioxide: Drinking Water Issues», 1998. — P. 27-44 (in English).

Markova T. I., JagovG. V.Instrumentation of the organic carbon analysis in water

The review of the TOC-analyzers is given; their features with regard to environmental testing use are analysed. Currently for objective estimation of mass concentration of organic substances contained in water it is generally accepted to use the following indicators: total carbon, total inorganic carbon, total organic carbon, volatile organic carbon(VOC), nonvolatile organic carbon(NVOC); description of the procedure of the total organic carbon value measurement is presented. The article covers the method of thermocatalytic oxidation which application is perspective for drinking water quality control and assessment of natural reservoirs conditions. Device and principle of operation of IOC-analyzers are observed. The opportunity of domestic analyzers «TOPAZ-NC» use for determination of total organic carbon content at performance of environmental and sanitary-hygienic researches is presented. The review of different laboratories in enterprises of housing and utilities services of Russia, where the device is al¬ready successfully applied, are presented.
Key words: water quality, organic carbon, TOC-analyzer, carbon analyzer, environment protection.
References: 1. GOST R 52991 -2008 Voda. Metod opredelenyja soderzhanyja obshhego у rastvorennogo organycheskogo ugleroda [Water.Methods of determination of total and dissolved organic carbon], Moscow, Standartynform,publ., 2009, p.11 (in Russian).
2. GogolashvylyS. L, NuryevM.Y. Organycheskyj uglerod vvodah. Metodbi analyzaу prybori [Organic carbon in waters. Ananlysis method and devices], Snergetyka Tatarstana, journ., 2010, № 3, pp. 82-88 (in Russian).
3. Kolbjagyn N. P. Analyzatori obshhego ugleroda v pryrodnbih, tehnologycheskyhу sbrosnyh vodah ot kompanyy ELEMENTAR [TOC-analyzers in natural, process and waste waters of the company ELEMENTAR ], materials of the international scienceand-research conference «Water use in technology, ecology, energy and economy of an enterprise», SPb, 2009, pp. 34-39 (in Russian).
4. Jagov G. V. «Analiz ugleroda i azota v probah vody. Ispol'zovanie TOS/TNb-analiza torovvhimiko-analiticheskih laboratorijah» [Analysis of carbon and nitrogen in water sample. Use of TOCVTNb-analyzers in chemical-analytical laboratories], Saint-Peterburg, LLC «Informanalitika», 2013, p. 72 (in Russian).
5. Jagov G. V. Kontrol' soderzhanija soedinenij azota pri ochistke stochnyh vod [Control of nitrogen compounds content during waste water treatment], Vodosnabzhenie i sanitarnaja tehnika [Water supply aid sanitary techniques], journ., № 7, 2008,pp. 45-49 (in Russian).
6. BojchukV. V., Kolbjagin N. P. Avtomaticheskie analizatory obshhego ugleroda v farmacevticheskoj promyshlennosti [Automatic TOC analyzers in pharmaceutical industry], Biotehnologija, journ., 2010, p. 94 (in Russian).
7. Analizatory obshhego organicheskogo ugleroda [Total Organic Carbon TOC-analyzers], Farmacevticheskaja otrasl'Journ., №4 (27), 2011, pp. 66-69 (in Russian).
8. Halikov I. S. Ispol'zovanie pokazatelja obshhego organicheskogo ugleroda v kachestve indikatora zagrjaznenija i ocenki sostojanija vodnyh ob'ektov [ Use of TOC performance as an indicator of pollution and water bodies conditions assessement], materials of VIII All-Russian conference on environment objects analysis Jekoanalitika-2011», Arkhangelsk, 26 of June- 2 of July 2011, p. 282 (in Russian).
9. JagovG. V., Tatarjova A. M. Priborno-metodicheskoe obespechenie dlja izmerenija koncentracii obshhego ugleroda v razlichnyh tipah vod [Instrument and methodic provisions of measurements of total carbon concentration], Vodosnabzhenie i sani-tarnaja tehnika [Water supply and sanitary techniques] Journ., 2009, № 11, pp. 46-49 (in Russian).
10. Jagov G. V. Sovremennye metody opredelenija soderzhanija obshhego azota i ugleroda vprobahprirodnyh vod. (in Russian) [Analysis of carbon and nitrogen in water sample], Voda. Himija ijekologija, journ., № 10, 2009, pp. 28-33 (in Russian).
11. Kuceva N. K. Obshhij organicheskij uglerod — pokazatel' soderzhanija organicheskih veshhestv v vode [Total organic carbon — indicators of organic susbstances content in water], collection of reports of XXI science-and-practice seminar «Issues of water quality analytical control» Saint- Peterburg, 18-21 Septm., 2007, pp. 29-31 (in Russian).
12. Strahova N. M. et alias. Opredelenie organicheskogo ugleroda v vode [Determination of organic carbon in water], materials of XVscience-and-practice seminar «Materialy XV nauchno-prakticheskogo seminara «Issues of water quality analytical control», Moscow, 19-23 Septm., 2011, pp. 61-62 (in Russian).
13. Nicak G.B. et alias. Opyt primenenija analizatora obshhego organicheskogo ugleroda TOC-VCPH v praktike analiticheskogo kontrolja [Experience of TOC-VCPH(TOC-analyzer) use in practice of analytical control], collection of report abstracts of XVI science-and-practice seminar «MaterialyXV nauchno-prakticheskogo seminara "Issues of water quality analytical control"», Saint-Peterburg, 17-22 Septm.,2012, pp. 49-51 (in Russian).


Kruchinina N. Е., N. Timashev. A., Ivantsova N. A., Alekseeva M. А. NEW Coagulant-flocculants in waste water treatment

The chair of industrial chemistry ofD.Mendeleyev University of Chemical Technology of Russia the method of producing alumosiliciousflocculant-coagulant by nepheline concentrate opening using 10% sulphur acid was patented. In this case aluminum and ferric salts as well as active silicic acid pass into solution in significant concentrations. Thus, produced alumosiliciousflocculant-coagulant has additive properties of coagulant and flocculant. The article presents investigation results on application of different coagulants andflocculantsfor treatment of the real and model waste waters. It is found that use of alumosiliciousflocculant-coagulant allows effectively purifying waste waters which differ in composition (maximum degree of treatment is 99%).
Key words: treatment, coagulant, alumosilicious flocculant-coagulant, waste waters.
References: 1. A. I. Rodionov, V. N. Klushin, V. G. Sister Technological processes of environment security (Text), Kaluga, Izdatelstvo N. F. Bochkarevoi,publ., 2007, p. 800, ISBN 978-5-89552-248-6 (in Russian).
2. A. D. Smirnov and others. Aluminum-containing coagulants for surface waters treatment, Ecology and industry of Russiajourn., 2005,№ 8, pp. 4-7 (in Russian).
3. Vetoshkin, A. G. Theoretical bases of environment protection (Text), Moscow, Vysshajashkola,publ., 2008, p. 397, ISBN 978-5-06-005764-5 (in Russian).
4. Patent 2225838 Russian Federation, IPC C01F7/56. Method of production of alumosilicious coagulant, Kruchinina N. E., TurnierV. N., LisjukB. S., Kim V.; patent holder LLC «Nauka, jekologija, tehnika», № 2002131688/15, applied 26.11.2002, publ. 20.03.2004 (in Russian).
5. Kruchinina N. E. and others. Water treatment from clay suspensions, Vestnik IrGSCHA, 2012, №48, pp. 88-92 (in Russian).
6. Matveeva E. V. and others. Application of flocculant-coagulant in processes of electroflocational waste water treatment from oil products, Himicheskajapromyshlennost segodnjajourn., 2005, № 7, pp. 44-49 (in Russian).
7. Kruchinina N. E. Alumosilicious flocculant-coagulant as an alternative to traditional;coagulants in processes of water purification and water treatment, Industrial ecology,journ., 2006, № 2, p. 46 (in Russian).
8. M. G. Gordienkoand others. Optimization of the process of alumosilicious flocculant-coagulant solid forms production for application in waste water treatment, Safety in technosphere, journ. 2012, №4, pp. 21-25 (in Russian).

N. В. GolubIncrease of energy carrier output in wastewater

The possibility of granular sludge formation using brewer's grains as granulation centers was investigated. When using granular sludge the rate of substrate utilization and energy production increases. The concentration of methane in biogas is 75-80 %, of hydrogen is 50-55 %. By using successively two fermenters the degree of treatment according to COD is 55-65 % in the first one and 65-70 % in the second one in the case of methane production and 74-80 % in the case of hydrogen production. Granulation of sludge alters microorganisms' metabolism toward the hydrogen production.
Key words: wastewater treatment, biogas, hydrogen, granulated sludge, fermenter.
References: 1. Kolesnikov V. P., Vil'son E. V. Sovremennoe razvitie tehnologicheskih processov ochistki stochnyh vod v kombinirovannyh sooruzhenijah [Modern development of wastewater treatment work processes in combined plants], edited by academician of housing and utilities services of the RFV. K. Gordeeva-Gavrikov, Rostov-on-Don «Izd-vo «Jug»,publ., 2005, p. 212 (in Russian).
2. (in Russian)
3. (in Russian).
4. (in Russian).
5. Kondrat'evna E. N., Gogotov I. N. Molekuljarnyj vodorod v metabolizme mikroorganizmov [Molecular hydrogen in microorganisms' metabolism] M., Nauka, publ.,1981, p. 340 (in Russian).
6. Bekker M. E., Liepin'sh G. K., Rajpulis E. P. Biotehnologija [Biotechology], M., Agropromizdat, publ., 1990, p. 334 (in Russian).
7. llgi Karapinar Kapdan Fikret Kargi Bio-hydrogen production from waste materials //Enzyme and Microbial Technology. — 2006. — vol. 38. — P. 569-582 (in Russian).
8. Ginkel S. V., Oh S. E., Logan В. Е. Biohydrogen production from food processing and domestic wastewaters// Int J Hydrogen Energy. — 2005. — v. 30. — P. 1535-1542 (in English).
9. L. W. Hulshoff Pol, S. I. de Castro Lopes, G. Lettinga and P. N. L. Lens Anaerobic sludge granulation //Water Research, 2004. — № 6. — С1376-1390 (in English).
10. L. W. Hulshoff Pol. Ph. D.Thesis The phenomenon of granulation of anaerobic sludge//Agricultural University Wageningen, The Netherlands, 1989. — 129 p (in English).
11. Pol L. W. Hulshoff, W. J. De Zeeuw, С. Т. M. Velzeboer, G. Lettinga Granulation in UASB reactors//Water Sci Technol — 1983 — № 15 (8/9). — P.291-304 (in English).
12. T. Vajser, V. Hell'mann, M. Chebotareva Ochistka stochnyh vod pivovarennyh predprijatij [Breweries wastewater treatment], Pivo i napitki, journ., 2001, № 1, pp. 30-31 (in Russian).
13. Hromatorgaf laboratornyj LHM-8MD: tehnicheskoe opisanie instrukcijapojekspluatacii [Laboratory chromatograph LHM-8MD: technical description, manual], pilot plant «Hromatograf», Moscow, 1992, p. 50 (in Russian).
14. Lur'e A. A. Analiticheskaja himija promyshlennyh stochnyh vod [Analytical chemistry of industrial waste waters], M., Himija, publ., 1978, p. 440 (in Russian).
15. LiuY., Xu H. L, Yang S. R, Tay J. H. Mechanisms and models for anaerobic granulation in upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor//Water Res. — 2003. — № 37. —P. 661-673 (in English).
16. Loewenthal R. E., Dold P. L, MaraisGv. R. Hypothesis for pelletisation in the upflow anaerobic sludge bed reactor. Sam-Soon PALNS, Water SA. — 1987. —13(2).— P. 69-80 (in English).
17. M. С M. Van Loosdrecht, A. J. B. Zehnder Energetics of bacterial adhesion // Experientia — 1990. — № 46, pp. 817- 822 (in English).
18. D. Verrier, B. Mortier, H. С Dubourguier, G. Albagnac Adhesion of anaerobic bacteria to inert supports and development of methanogenic biofilms//Oxford: Pergamon Press, 1988. — p. 61-70 (in English).
19. J. Thaveesri, D. Daffonchio, B. Liessens, P. Vandermeren, W. Verstraete Granulation and sludge bed stability in upflow anaerobic sludge bed reactors in relation to surface thermodynamics//Appl Environ Microbiol — 1995. — № 61 (10). — P. 3681-3686 (in English).
20. J. H. Tay, H. L. Xu, К. С Teo Molecular mechanism of granulation. I: H+ translocation-dehydration theory//J Environ Eng — 2000. — 126. — P. 403-410 (in English).
21. Golub N. В., Shhurs'ka K. O., Trocenko M. V. Oderzhannjavodnju zavykorystannja vidhodiv pyvovarnyh zavodiv [Hydrogen production by breweries waste using], Novyny energetykyjourn., 2013, № 2, pp. 24-33 (in Ukranian).
22. Kengen S. W. Goorissen H. P., Verhaart M. R., Stams A. J., Niel E. W., Claassen P.A., Soetaert W., Vandamme E. J Biological hydrogen production by anaerobic microorganisms//Biofuels., 2009.— v. 8. — P.197-221 (in English).

А. N. Kim, М. В. Zaharevich, S. Ja. GrushkoModernization of surface wastewater treatment plants

The article presents information on modernization of the surface wastewater treatment plants (SWTP) flowing to the river Volkovkafrom the territory ofCJSC «Derevoobrabatyvajushhij zavod № 1». When modernizing the SWTP the system of treatment from the territory ofnonresidential zone «Pulkovo-3» was proposed and implemented at the SWTP with capacity of 5000 m3 per day. Technology of tertiary treatmentprovides two-stage filtering sequentially: at clarifying-sorption filter of the 1st stage where peat filter elements are used as a loading and at sorption filter of the 2nd stage where the sorbent «N0V0S0RB» is used as a filtering loading.
Key words: surface wastewater, modernization, patent № 82456, peat filter elements, N0V0S0BR
References: 1. Kim A. N., MihajlovN. N. Construction of surface flow treatment from territory of nonresidential area «Pulkovo-3», Engineering systems, journ., 2006, №1 (21), pp. 60-63(in Russian). 2. Patent № 82452. System of surface flow treatment, N. N. Mihajlov, A. N. Kim, A. A. Bozhkov, application № 12, 27.04.2009 (in Russian).

Тего Luukkonen, Sergei BulavaWastewater disinfection by peracetic acid: background information and experimental results

Nowadays there is a great choice of methods of waste water treatment. Physical and chemical methods such as chlorine (gaseous or hypochlorite), chlorine dioxide, ozonation and UVdisinfection (U V) are widely used. Despite that applying methods are quite efficient against pathogens, there are still some disadvantages. Peracetic acid (PAA) is a quite new method of waste water treatment. The article presents the comparison of the new and current methods. Carried out in Finland results of investigations on waste water after tertiary treatments are shown, comparison of currently applied sodium hypochlorite dose and Peracetic acid is presented. Data on pilot testing at waste water treatment plants of Russia and Finland which helped to clarify the efficiency of the treatment process with use of PAA as a disinfectant is presented.
Key words: disinfection, chlorine, UV, ozonation, disadvantages, energy capacity, Peracetic acid, PAA, Escherichia coli, Coliform bacteria, specific coliphages.
References: 1. Antonelli, M., Rossi, S., Mezzanotte, V. & Nurizzo, С. 2006, «Secondary effluent disinfection: РАА long term efficiency», Environmental Science and Technology, vol.40, no. 15, pp. 4771-4775.
2. Baldry, M. G. С 1983, «The bactericidal, fungicidal and sporicidal properties of hydrogen peroxide and peracetic acid», Journal of Applied Bacteriology, vol. 54, no. 3,pp. 417-423.
3. Baldry, M. G. С & French, M.S. 1989a, «Activity of peracetic acid against sewage indicator organisms», Water Science and Technology, vol. 21, no. 12 pt 5, pp. 1747-1749.
4. Baldry, M. G. С & French, M.S. 1989b, «Disinfection of sewage effluent with peracetic acid», Water Science and Technology, vol. 21, no. 3, pp. 203-206.
5. Basfar, A. A. & Abdel Rehim, F. 2002, «Disinfection of wastewater from a Riyadh Wastewater Treatment Plant with ionizing radiation», Radiation Physics and Chemistry,vol. 65, no. 4-5, pp. 527-532.
6. Crebelli, R., Conti, L, Monarca, S., Feretti, D., Zerbini, I., Zani, C, Veschetti, E., Cutilli, D. &Ottaviani, M. 2005, «Genotoxicity of the disinfection by-products resulting from peracetic acid- or hypochlorite-disinfected sewage wastewater», Water research, vol. 39, no. 6, pp. 1105-1113.
7. Dell'Erba, A., Falsanisi, D., Liberti, L, Notarnicola, M. & Santoro, D. 2007, «Disinfection by-products formation during wastewater disinfection with peracetic acid»,Desalination, vol. 215, no. 1-3, pp. 177-186.
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Proskurnin О.А.Wastewaters composition regulation by environmental risk assessing

The article presents problem of the wastewaters discharge regulation from the position of the environmental risk management caused by water bodies' pollution. The task solution algorithm of permissible level evaluation of waste water composition and demonstrational examples of calculation are pre¬sented. The aim of this article is to offer a mechanism of estimation of threshold limit value of chemical substances in waste waters by using environmental risk assessing caused by waste waters penetration in water objects. The article presents the simplest case: one waste water discharge in watercourse without self-purification of water in water object.
Key words: wastewaters, water body, environmental risk, permissible level.
References: 1. The Water Code of Ukrain. K., «Injure», publ.,2004, p. 138 (in Russian).
2. The Water Code of Russian Federation, (in Russian).
3. Instrukcija о porjadke razrabotki i utverzhdenija predel'no-dopustimyh sbrosov (PDS) veshhestv v vodnye obekty s vozvratnymi vodami [Manual on order of development and approval of maximum permissible discharge (MPD) in water bodies with return flows], Kharkov, USRIEP, 1994, p. 79 (in Russian).
4. Metodika razrabotki normativovdopustimyh sbrosov veshhestv i mikroorganizmovv vodnye ob'ekty dlja vodopol'zovatelej [Methodology of PDS standards development in water bodies for water use], (in Russian).
5. Lisichenko G. V., Hmel' G. A., Barbashev S. V. Metodologija ocenivanija jekologich-eskih riskov [Methodology of environmental risks assessing], Odessa, Astroprint,publ., 2011, p. 368 (in Russian).
6. Khigt F. Uncertainty and Profit, Boston: Houghton Miffin Co, 1921, pp. 210-235 (in English).
7. Bronshtejn I. N. Spravochnik po matematike dlja inzhenerov i uchashhihsja vtuzov [Guidebook on mathematics for engineers and students], M., Nauka,publ., 1986, p.544 (in Russian).
8. Otcheto NIR«Razrabotkanorm PDS normirovannyh veshhestv so stochnymi vodami KRP "PPVKH g.Alushty"v vodnye ob'ekty» [Report on research work: «Standards development of MPD of normalized substances with wastewaters of wastewater management production enterprise of the city of Alushta to water bodies»], Ukrainian Scientific Research Institute of Ecological Problems , Kharkov, 2009, p. 63 (in Russian).
9. Obobshhennyj perechen' predel'no dopustimyh koncentracij (PDKi orientirovochno bezopasnyh urovnej vozdejstvija (OBUV) vrednyh veshhestv dlja vody rybohozjajstven- nyhvodoemov [General list of maximum permissible concentration (MPC) and tentative safe exposure level (TSEL) for waters of fishery reservoirs], Ministry of fishery of the USSR, M., Kolos,publ., 1993, p. 44 (in Russian).

G. S. Shamsudin, Т. I. IbragimovaGeoecological problems and solutions of the natural waters of the southern Dagestan (the Samur river)

Geoecological problems of the natural waters pollution of the Samur river basin, origin of these processes and ways to improve the Samur river basin geoecological situation are analyzed.
Key words: natural waters, geoecology, the Samur river basin, minerals, anthropogenic reasons, alluvial deposit, water exchange, mineralization, deposit.
References: 1. Bunin G.G. Rudonosnost' i osnovnye cherty metallogenii Gornogo Dagestana [Ore-bearing and main features of metallogenyof the Mountain Dagestan], Makhachkala, 1961 (in Russian).
2. Geceu V.V. Rechnye vody Dagestana [River waters of Dagestan], Makhachkala «Dagknigoizdat»,publ., 1982 (in Russian).
3. Gjul' K.K., Vlasova S.V., Kisin I.M., Terterov A.A. Reki Dagestanskoj ASSR [Rivers of the Dagestan Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic], Makhachkala , Dagizdat.,publ., 1961, p. 368 (in Russian).
4. Kovalevskij V.S., Levi L.Z., Semenova — Erofeeva S.M. Izuchenie vzaimosvjazi poverhnostnyh i podzemnyh vod na osnove analiza ih rezhima [Study on interrelation between surface and underground waters on basis of their regime analysis], Izd-vo «Nauka»,publ., «Vodnye resursy», №2, 1976, pp. 93-100 (in Russian).
5. Kolchedannye mestorozhdenija Bol'shogo Kavkaza [ Massive sulfide deposits of the Greater Caucasus], Ministry of geology of the USSR, Syktyvkar State University, edited by V.S. Smirnov, Nedra ,publ., M., 1973 (in Russian).
6. Kurbanov M.K. «Resursy podzemnyh vod Dagestana i popytka ih jekologo-jekonomicheskoj ocenki na poroge XXI veka» [Dagestan groundwater resources and attempt of their ecological and economic evaluation on the threshold of XXI century], from the book «Dostizhenija i sovremennye problemy razvitija nauki v Dagestane» [Achievements and up-to-date problems of science development in Dagestan], Makhachkala, 1999 (in Russian).
7. Listengarten V.A. Formirovanie resursov podzemnyh vod alljuvial'no-proljuviarnyh ravnin [Formation of alluvial-pluvial plains groundwater resources], Baku: JeLM,publ., 1987, p. 168 (in Russian).
8. Posobie po proektirovaniju sooruzhenij dlja zabora podzemnyh vod (kSNiP 2.04,02-84) [Guidebook for groundwater intake facilities design (to SNiP 2.04,02-84) M.,1989 (in Russian).
9. Listengarten V.A., SulejmanovT.T. Otchet о gidrogeologicheskih uslovijah severnoj chasti Samur-Vel'velichajskogo mestorozhdenija podzemnyh vod (v predelah Dagestana) [Report on hydrogeological conditions of the nother part of the Samur-Vel'velichajskoe groundwater deposit (within Dagestan)], Makhachkala, funds of Dagestan geological expedition (in Russian).
10. Minkin E.L. Vzaimosvjaz' podzemnyh i poverhnostnyh vod i eeznachenie pri reshenii nekotoryh gidrogeologicheskih i vodohozjajstvennyh zadach [Interrelation between ground and surface waters and its significance in solving some hydrogeological and hydroeconomical problems], M., Strojizdat, publ., 1973 (in Russian).
11. Samedov Sh.G. Otchet о predvaritel'noj razvedke presnyh podzemnyh vod dlja vodosnabzhenija naselennyh punktov Magaramkentskogo i Sulejman-Stal'skogo rajonovDASSRv 1989-1991 gg. [ Report on preliminary exploration of fresh ground waters for water supply of Magaramkentsky and Suleyman-Stalsky Districts of the Dagestan Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic in 1989-1992], Makhachkala, 1992 (in Russian).
12. ShevchenkoG.V., KotljarovJu.M.Shema kompleksnogo ispol'zovanija i ohrany vodnyh resursov bassejna r.Samur [Scheme of complex use and protection of the Samur river basin water resources], CJSC Sovintervod,publ., Moscow, 2000 (in Russian).

Ivanenko I.I.In the memory of N. N. Lapshev