Archive logs by year


Water supply

Tomasz Bergel, Kazimierz KudlikChemical and bacteriological efficiency of DynaSand Filters in the water treatment plant supplying municipal water to Nowy Sacz. p.3-11

The aim of the study was to assess the removal efficiencies obtained with self-cleaning contact filters of DynaSand type for some physicochemical and bacteriological water pollutants. The filters are operated in the Water Treatment Plamt Swiniarsko, which supplies municipal water to the city of Nowy Sacz. The water being subjected to filtration is a mixture of surface and infiltrative waters. The value of the water quality parameters obtained with the DynaSand filters were compared to those achieved with the rapid pressure filters that were in the use before the modernization of the water treatment plant. Analysis of the result makes it clear that since the substitution of the self-cleaning DynaSand filters for the rapid pressure filters, both physicochemical and biological pollutants have been removed with the efficiency required. This means that the users have been supplied with water of desired quality. Although the period under study was characterized by the occurrence of extreme meteorological conditions (floods), the modernized filtration system not only guaranteed a reduction in water turbidity to the average value of 0.3 NTU, a decrease in color intensity to at least 5 gPT/m3, an the removal of iron compounds to the average value of 0.01 gFe/m3 but also provided simultaneous retention of more than 97% of coliform bacteria, and more than 99% of fecal streptococci Enterococcus faecalis or anaerobic spore-forming bacteria of the species Clostridium perfringens.
Key words: surface flow, filtration, DynaSand.
References: 1. A.L. Kowal, M. Swiderska-Broz. Oczyszczanie wody. Podstawy teoretyczne I technologiczne, procesy I urzadzenia. Wydawnictwo Naukowe PWN, Warszawa 2007. (in Polish)
2. K. Wilmanski, D. Kuziara. Modernizacja technologii oczyszania wody z rzeki gorskiej na przykladzie wodociagu w Wadowicach. Ochrona Srodowiska 2007, vol.29, nr 3, ss. 41-44. (in Polish)
3. W. Sawiniak, M.Klos Zastosowanie filtrow DynaSand do odzelaziania I odmanganiania wod podzemnych-doswiadczenia eksploatacyjne. Ochrona Srodowiska 2005, vol. 27, nr 3, ss. 55-56. (in Polish)
4. M. Klos. Modernizacja systemow koaguacji I filtracji w ukladach uzdatniania wod powierzchniowych. Technologia Wody 2009, nr 2, ss. 50-51. (in Polish)
5. W. Bicz, M. Koniecza, A. Zilbert. Oczyszczanie wody na filtrach DynaSand. Ochrona Srodowiska 1999, vol. 21, nr 4, ss. 33-36. (in Polish)
6. K. Kudlik. Optymalizacja procesu filtracji I ego wplyw na jakosc wody dostarczanej odbiorcom w Nowym Saczu. Praca magisterska, Uniwersytet Rolniczy w Krakowie, Krakow 2010 (praca neipublicowana). (in Polish)
7. T. Bergel, J. Pawelek, Z. Rulka. Metnosc wody dostarczanej przez systemy wodociagowe wojewodztwa malopolskiego. Ochrona Srodowiska 2009, vol. 31, nr 4, ss. 61-64. (in Polish)
8. Rozporzadzenie Ministra Zdrowia z 19 listopada 2002 r. w sprawie wymagan dotyczacych jakosci wody przeznaczonej do spozycia przez ludzi. Dz. U. nr 203, poz. 1718. (in Polish)
9. B. Toczylowska. Skutecznosc usuwania zamiesin w zlozah filrow DynaSand I DYNAMIK. Ochrona Srodowiska 2005, vol. 27, nr 3, ss. 51-54. (in Polish)
10. M. Michalkiewicz, B. Madrecka. Problematyka bakteriologicznego skazenia wod. Technolgia Wody 2009, nr 2, ss. 14-19. (in Polish)
11. M. Lebkowska. Wystepowanie bakterii antybiotykoopornych w wodzie przeznacznej do spozycia przez ludzi. Ochrona Srodowiska 2009, vol. 31, nr 2, ss. 11-15. (in Polish)
12. Rozporzadzenie Ministra Zdrowia z 29 marca 2007 r. w sprawie jakosci wody przeznaczonej do spozycia przez ludzi. Dr. U. nr 61, poz. 417. (in Polish)
13. Rozporzadzenie Ministra Zdrowia z 20 kwetina 2010 r. zmieniajace rozporzadzenie w sprawie jakosci wody przeznaczonej do spozycia przez ludzi. Dr. U. nr 72, poz. 466. (in Polish)

Water disposal

Tavastsherna K.S.Use of gravity sand filtration system at treatment facilities. Problems and solutions.p.12-24

Nowadays on the background of aggravating ecological situation method of gravity filtration is one of the main technological processes of waste waters treatment and aftertreatment created to decrease pollutant indicators in flows, which passed a stage of biological treatment, and achieve regulated standards for the discharge of sewage waters. Method of gravity filtration lies in water passing through the porous medium (filter loading) which retains residual suspended pollutants. In modern practice different methods of filtration organization, such as on the basis of single-chamber and two-chamber devices of different designs are used. Article presents that the main difference between these two methods is the ways of backwash implementation. It significantly affects on results of filter loading treatment that is in its turn has an impact on working cycle and clarified flows quality. Features of constructions and facilities are examined; advantages, disadvantages and frames of applicability are analyzed. Analysis of objects which are already operated with the use of gravity filtration in different parts of the world shows that there is a steady trend of reconstruction of the old drainage systems on the base of single-chamber devices with their subsequent replacement for two-chamber devices. Developing such reconstruction projects, it is necessary to take a lot of factors into account, for example, creation and provision of an adequate backwashing system which, however, is based on already existing system or on its complete absence; selection of proper configuration of backwashing supply canal; possibility of accommodating the whole complex of equipment in the existing depth and shape of the filter reservoir; analysis of the optimality of the filter medium.
Key words: gravity filtration, single-chamber drainage device, two-chamber drainage device, backwashing, filter loading.
References: 1. Beverly, Richard P., Granular Filter Media, Fluid/Particle Separation Journal, (March, 1993) (in English)
2. “Standard for Filtering Media, B100-96,” American Water Works Association (in English)
3. Thomas L. Yohe, John Heichel, Bernard Stromberg, Jr., Thomas M. Getting, Leonard Zukus, Christopher Ball. Optimizing Dual Media Filtration for Particulate Removal (in English)
4. Amirthirajah, A., McNeily, N., Page, G., and McLeod, J. Optimum Backwash of Dual Media Filters and GAC Filter-Adsorbers With Air Scour, American Water Works Research Foundation,1991 (in English)
5. Kleiner, M., Snoeyink, V., Horsely M., Mayhugh, J. and Cummings, C. Comparison of Filter Backwash Using Air Scour and Surface Wash at Decatur Illinois, Report, August 1989. (in English)
6. Beverly, P., and Morando, T. Filtration Training Manual, F. B. Leopold Co., Inc., 1997 (in English)

Ospanov K.T., Kuldeeva Je.M., Tamabaev O.P.Assessment of the modern state of aeration station wastewater sludge treatment in Almaty, Republic of Kazakhstan p.26-34

The article presents the modern working state of aeration station treatment plants in Almaty designed for treatment and disposal of wastewater sludge. The average results of wastewater analysis of Almaty aeration station are presented and it is showed that there are only sludge beds that are used for sludge treatment. The article also demonstrates composite indexes of sludge composition at Almaty aeration station and analysis data of sampling points adjacent to the territory of sludge beds of Almaty aeration station. It is presented that wastewater sludge of Kazakhstan which is stored at sludge beds turns them into cause of bacteriological and toxicological hazard. Moreover, useful components containing in sludge are irretrievably lost. The results of case investigation and analysis show that the problem is getting worse year by year and needs an urgent solution.
Key words: waste water, primary sludge, surplus activated sludge, treatment, sludge bed, fertilizer.
References: 1. Tehnologicheskij reglament raboty ochistnyh sooruzhenij stancii Ajeracii g. Almaty [Process regulation of Almaty aeration station wastewater treatment plants work], 2005. (in Russian)
2. Ospanov K.T., Zhasybaev A. Analiz sovremennogo sostojanija obrabotki osadkov stochnyh vod gorodov Respublikanskogo naznachenij [Analysis of modern state of sludge treatment of waste waters of cities of republican purpose], Vestnik KazNTU № 5(99),journ., Almaty, 2013. (in Russian)
3. RND 01.01.03-94 Pravila ohrany poverhnostnyh vod Respubliki Kazahstan [Guidance on conservation of surface waters of the Republic of Kazakhstan], Almaty, 1994. (in Russian)
4. Myrzahmetov M.M., Ospanov K.T., Halhabaj B. Rezul'taty issledovanij vlijanija ilovyh ploshhadok stancii ajeracii g.Almaty na prilegajushhie territorii [Investigation results on Alamty aeration station sludge beds impact on neighbouring areas], Vestnik KazNTU № 5(99),journ., Almaty, 2013. (in Russian)
5. GOST R «Ohrana prirody. Pochvy. Trebovanija k svojstvam osadkov stochnyh vod pri ispol'zovanii ih v kachestve udobrenija» [Enviroment protection. Soil protection. Requirements to properties of wastewater sludge as a fertilizer]. (in Russian)
6. SanPiN «Gigienicheskie trebovanija k ispol'zovaniju stochnyh vod i ih osadkov dlja oroshenija i udobrenija» [Hygienic requirements to the use of wastewater and its sludge for irrigation and fertilization]. (in Russian)
7. Direktiva Soveta ES 86/278/ EES ot 12 ijunja 1986 ob ohrane okruzhajushhej sredy i, v chastnosti, pochv pri ispol'zovanii osadka stochnyh vod v sel'skom hozjajstve [Council Directive 86/278/ EEC of 12 June 1986 on the protection of the environment, and in particular of the soil, when sewage sludge is used in agriculture], http:// (in Russian)

Drozd G.Ja.Technical details of deposit sewage sludge disposal p.35-50

The article presents analysis of modern and perspective distribution of sewage sludge disposal methods in European countries. It is showed that there is only one of examined sewage sludge disposal method is implied in Ukraine – sewage sludge deposition. Data on complex investigations of physical-chemical and mineralogical compositions of deposit municipal sewage sludge is presented. Experimental and experimental-industrial researches which results are provided in the article show the possibility of sewage sludge disposal drawing into economic circulation with the use of new methods and technologies that will allow to partially solve the problem of environmental safety. New technologies of sludge disposal in construction and road-building industry are proposed. Proposed methods and technologies allow disposing up to 200 kg of dried sewage sludge in 1 cubic meter of asphalt concrete with producing material which physical and mechanical performance meets regulatory requirements or in ceramic products with disposal of up to 50% of sewage sludge and with producing prescribed properties of ceramic crocks. Article also presents that it is necessary to solve a number of procedural and institutional problems for wide practical use of proposed methods of sewage sludge disposal.
Key words: disposal, deposit sewage sludge, technology, asphalt concrete, building ceramics.
References: 1. Vishnjakova O. Chto delat' s ilami? [What to do with silts?], Prirodno-resursnye vedomosti, newspaper, 02/06/2003. (in Russian)
2. Blagoveshhenskaja Z., Gracheva N., Mochandovich L., Grishina T. Utilizacija osadka gorodskih stochnyh vod [Municipal sewage sludge disposal], Himizacija sel'skogo hozjajstva,journ., 1989, № 10, pp. 73 – 76. (in Russian)
3. Cinman R.E., Shpil'fogel' P.V., Vishnev V.G., Semenova T.A. Utilizacija osadkov stochnyh vod [Sewage sludge disposal], abstract of report of scientific conference “Processes of oil refining and petrochemistry”, chapter ІІ, M., 1989, p. 164. (in Russian)
4. Vermikul'tura i ee jeffektivnost' [Vermiculture and its effectiveness], Gorodnij N.M., Kovalev V.B., Mel'nik I.A., Povhan M.F., Ogolenko N.A.; Kiev; Ukr. NIITNII, 1990, p. 4. (in Russian)
5. Shalanda A.V. Utilizacija osadkov stochnyh vod ochistnyh sooruzhenij posredstvom kompostirovanija [Waste water treatment plant sludge disposal by means of composting], Kommercheskaja biotehnologija, online magazine. (in Russian)
6. Bystrakov Ju.I., Kolosov A.V. Jekonomika i jekologija [Economy and ecology], M., Agropromizdat, publ., 1988, p. 204. (in Russian)
7. Drozd G.Ja. Bizirka I.I. Vovlechenie deponirovannyh osadkov stochnyh vod v hozjajstvennyj oborot VST [Drawing of deposit sewage sludge disposal into economic circulation], Water supply and sanitary techniques,journ., №4, Moscow, 2013, pp.11-18 (in Russian)
8. Evilevich A.Z., Evilevich N.A. O klassifikacii i terminologii dlja osadkov stochnyh vod [On classification and terminology for sewage sludge], Water supply and sanitary techniques,journ., 1980, №3, pp.17-18. (in Russian)
9. Orlov D.S. Himija pochv [Soil chemistry], M., Izdatel'stvo MGU,publ., 1992, p. 400. (in Russian)
10. Kudrin S.A. Srednij himicheskij sostav osnovnih tipov pochv evropejskoj chasti SSSR po valovym analizam [Average chemical composition of main soil types in the European part of the USSR on gross analyses], Eurasian Soil Science,journ., 1963, №5, pp. 17-19. (in Russian)
11. Kravcov A.I., Bakaldina A.P. Geologija [Geology], M., Nedra, 1989, p. 342. (in Russian)
12. Kononskij A.I. Fizicheskaja i kolloidnaja himija [Physical and colloid chemistry], K., «Vysshaja shkola», publ., 1989, p. 311. (in Russian)
13. Aleksandrova L.N. Organicheskoe veshhestvo pochvy v processe ego transformacii [Органическое вещество почвы в процессе его трансформации], L., Nauka, publ., 1980, p. 280. (in Russian)
14. Drozd G.Ja., Chura V.V, Deformacionnye i prochnostnye harakteristiki lezhalyh osadkov stochnyh vod s pozicij ispol'zovanija ih kak iskusstvennyh gruntov [Deformation and strength parameters of the stale sewage sludge from the positions of using them as artificial soil], Collection of scientific works of Lugansk national agrarian University ,№67(90), series «Technical sciences», Lugansk, LNAU, 2006, pp. 3-18. (in Russian)
15. SNiP 2.02.01 – 83. Osnovaija zdanij i sooruzhenij.Normy proektirovanija [Foundation of buildings and constructions. Design standards], M., Strojizdat, 1985, p. 51. (in Russian)
16. Mihajlov V.I., Krivonosova N.T. Tehnologija proizvodstva keramicheskih izdelij na osnove othodov promyshlennosti [Technology of production of ceramic products on the basis of industrial wastes], K., Budіvel'nik,publ., 1983, p. 80. (in Russian)
17. L.B.Gezencvej i dr. Dorozhnyj asfal'tobeton [Road asphalt concrete], M., Transport, 1985, p. 350. (in Russian)
18. Drozd G., Breus R.., Bizirka I. Deponirovannye osadki gorodskih stochnyh vod. Koncepcija utilizacii [Deposit municipal sewage sludge], LAP LAMBERT Academic Publishing / Germanija, 2013, p.153. (in Russian)
19. Drozd G., Bizirka I. Asfal'tobeton na osnove poroshka iz osadka stochnyh vod. Sostav. Svojstva. Primenenie [Road asphalt concrete based on sewage sludge powder], LAP LAMBERT Academic Publishing / Germanija, 2013, p. 177. (in Russian)

Jurchenko V.A., Brigada E.V.The kinetic characteristics of concrete microbiological corrosion in the sewage networks p.51-61

According to statistics 75 % of accidents at ferroconcrete water disposal pipelines are caused by biogenic sulfuric corrosion. Till nowadays insufficient information about features of autotrophic bacteria life activity, absence of methods of their operative concentration control have not allowed developing effective ways of suppression of chemosynthesis in these object. The aim of this work is identification of quantitative indexes and mathematical modeling of thiobacilli association development on sewage pipeline upstructure part and process of concrete biogenic corrosion at these objects. On the basis of complex process study presented in the article necessary kinetic constants are defined; mathematical models of extremely acidophilic thiobacilli association development and process of concrete biogenic corrosion are developed. Mathematical model unit “Aerobic chemosynthesis of thiobacilli (oxidation of reducible sulfur compounds to sulfuric acid)” includes substrate diffusion process (H2S) from condensate moisture in biofilm and its consumption, whereas mathematical model unit “Microbiological sulfuric acid corrosion of concrete” includes mathematical description of diffusion of sulphuric acid formed by thiobacilli in concrete and its interaction with concrete hydrates.
Key words: sewage pipelines, biogenic sulfuric acid corrosion, mathematic modeling, kinetic constants, diffusion coefficient, biogenic acids diffusion behind corrosion.
References: 1. Drozd G.Ja., Zotov N.I., Maslak V.N. Kanalizacionnye truboprovody: nadezhnost', diagnostika, sanacija [Sewage pipelines: reliability, diagnostics, sanation], Donetsk, Institute of industrial economics of NAS of Ukraine, 2003, p. 260. (in Russian)
2. Goncharenko D.F. Jekspluatacija, remont i vosstanovlenie setej vodootvedenii: Monografija [Operation, repair and recovery of water disposal networks], Kharkov, Konsum, publ., 2008, p. 400. (in Russian)
3. Rozental' N.K. Korrozija i zashhita betonnyh i zhelezobetonnyh konstrukcij sooruzhenij ochistki stochnyh vod [Corrosion and protection of concrete and ferroconcrete waste water treatment plant constructions], Beton i zhelezobeton. Oborudovanie, materialy, tehnologija,journ., 2011, № 1, pp. 96-103. (in Russian)
4. Stein D. Rehabilition and Maintenance of Drains and Sewers/ Univ.-Prof. Dr.-lng. habil. Ruhc-University Bochum (RUB), Faculty of Civil Engineering. – Germany. - 2001. - 804 р. (in English)
5. Basista M. Weglewski W. Micromechanical modelling of sulphate corrosion in concrete: influence of ettringite forming reaction. M.,: Belgrade, Theoret. Appl. Mech., 2008. Vol. 35. №. 1-3. Р. 29-52. (in Russian)
6. Vasil'ev V.M., Pankova G.A., Stolbihin Ju.V. Razrushenie kanalizacionnyh tonnelej i sooruzhenij na nih vsledstvie mikrobiologicheskoj korrozii [The destruction of the sewer tunnels and structures on them due to microbiological corrosion], Water supply and sanitary techniques,journ., 2013, № 9, pp.67-76. (in Russian)
7. Zvjagincev D.G. Metody pochvennoj mikrobiologii i biohimii [Methods of solid microbiology and biochemistry], M.: Izd-vo MGU,publ., 1989, p. 224. (in Russian)
8. Karavajko G.I. Metody vydelenija, ucheta i izuchenija mikroorganizmov / Biogeotehnologija metallov [Methods of selection, accountiong and study of mictoorganisms/Metals biotechnology], M., Center of international projects of State Committee on Science and Technology, 1989, pp. 51-93. (in Russian)
9. Popov L.N. Laboratornye ispytanija stroitel'nyh materialov i izdelij [Laboratory tests of building materials and products], M., Vysshaja shkola,publ., 1984, p. 116. (in Russian)
10. Jurchenko V.A. Razvitie nauchno-tehnologicheskih osnov jekspluatacii sooruzhenij kanalizacii v uslovijah biohimicheskogo okislenija neorganicheskih soedinenij [Development of scientific and technological bases of the sewerage system facilities operatuion in terms of biochemical oxidation of inorganic compounds], abstact of thesis by doctor of engineering 05.23.04, Jurchenko Valentina Aleksandrovna, "UkrVODGEO", Kharkov, 2007, p. 426. (in Russian)
11. Berezin I.V. Osnovy fizicheskoj himii fermentativnogo kataliza [Fundamentals of physical chemistry of enzyme catalysis], M., Vysshaja shkola,publ., 1977, p. 280. (in Russian)
12. Rekomendacii po ocenke stepeni korrozionnogo vozdejstvija slaboagressivnyh kislyh sred na beton [Recommendations on assessment of the degree of corrosion effects of slightly aggressive acid medium on the concrete] M., Concrete and Reinforced Concrete Research Institute, 1986, p. 14. (in Russian)
13. Brigada O.V. Monіtoring pokaznikіv ekspluacії vodovіdvіdnih sporud z zalіzobetonu [Monitoring of the operational performance of reinforced concrete water intake structures], abstract of thesis by canidiate of engineering, 05.23.04, Kharkiv national University of construction and architecture , Kharkov, 2013, p. 24. (in Russian)
14. Dolgovechnost' zhelezobetona v agressivnyh sredah [Durability of concrete in corrosion environment], joint publication of USSR, CSR, GFR, S.N.Alekseev, F.M.Ivanov, S.Modry, P.Shissl', M., Stroijzdat, publ., 1990, p. 320. (in Russian)
15. Gercriken S.D., Dehtjar I.Ja. Diffuzija v metallah i splavah v tverdoj faze [Diffusion in metals and alloys in the solid phase], M., Gos. izd-vo fiz-mat. literatury,publ., 1960, p. 564. (in Russian)

Goncharenko D.F., Bulgakov Ju.V., Starkova O.V.Organizational and technological solutions of the Karkov sewage collectors repair and recovery p.62-70

The article provides the analysis of the Kharkov sewerage system. The major issues of sewage collector’s protection from corrosion are examined; it is showed that the main part in selection of materials for tunnel collector’s constructions recovery, apart from other technical and economic characteristics, is assigned to their corrosion resistance. Reliable water disposal is provided by performance of various technical and organizational measures. The most important measure is timely capital repairs and worn out sewage networks recovery. Methods of collectors recovery are considered; underground method of recovery of sewer pipeline in diameter of 1500 mm with the use of polyethylene short pipes in diameter of 1200 mm, implemented at repair of Juzhnaja street in Kharkov, is suggested.
References: 1. Goncharenko D.F. Jekspluatacija, remont i vosstanovlenie setej vodootvedenija. Monografija [Operation, repair and recovery of sewage networks. Monograp], Kharkov, Konsum,publ., 2008, p. 400. (in Russian)
2. Andrejuk E. I., Bilaj V. I., Koval' Je. Z. i dr. Mikrobnaja korrozija i ee vozbuditeli [Microbial corrosion and its activators], K., Nauk. dumka,publ., 1980, p. 287. (in Russian)
3. Karavajko G.I., Zherebjat'eva T.V. Bakterial'naja korrozija betonov [Bacterial crossion of concrete], report of USSR Academy of Science, 1989, vol. 306, № 2, pp. 477–481. (in Russian)
4. Korin'ko I.V. Biogennaja korrozija konstruktivnyh materialov kanalizacionnyh kollektorov [Biogenic corrosion of structural materials of sewage collectors], Kommunal’noe hozjajstvo gorodov, journ., 1997, issue 11, pp. 96–100. (in Russian)
5. Rozhanskaja A.M. Mikrobnaja korrozija zhelezobetonnyh stroitel'nyh konstrukci [Microbal corrosion of ferroconcrete building structures], abstract of thesis of candidate of biological science, Kiev, Institute of Microbiology and Virology, Academy of Sciences of the USSR , 1990, p. 16. (in Russian)
6. Goncharenko D.F., Voblyh V.A., Kis' V.N., Atamanchuk V.N. Nesushhaja sposobnost' napornyh betonnyh trub, zashhishhennyh ot korrozii polijetilenovym rukavom [Bearing capacity of pressure concrete pipes protected against corrosion by polyethylene sleeve], Nauk. Visnyk budivnyctva,journ., Kharkiv HDTUBA, HOTV ABU, 2005, issue 32, pp. 46−48. (in Russian)
7. Stein D. Instandhaltung von Kanalisationen. Berlin: Ernst, 1998. 940р. (in German)


Golub N.B., Hvorostina A.V., Levtun I.I.Manure utilization with microalgae chlorella vulgaris for biodiesel production p.71-79

For higher output of microalgae biomass, the scheme of production line for cultivation of Chlorella vulgaris with the use of poultry manure extract as a nutrient medium is proposed. The content of nitrogen in the manure as mineral salts, organic substances, and low-molecular organic substances, contributes to an increase in biomass of microalgae. Using mixotrophic medium allows reducing the period of illumination without changing the growth rate of the biomass. Found that the greatest increase in biomass growth observed in the frequency of the illumination: 4 hours light to 4 hours darkness. In the preparation of the extract the hydrogen ion concentration increases due to the hydrolysis of urea that may cause death of the microalgae. Therefore, before supplying the extract to photoreactor, medium is neutralized with an alkali. To ensure even illumination of culture, mixing and heating the medium with a mixture of air with CO2 is proposed. For separation of the biomass from the culture medium is proposed to use a high frequency sonication (50-60 kHz).
Key words: microalgae, CHLORELLA VULGARIS, manure, technological scheme, illumination, mixture, high frequency sonication, biodiesel.
References: 1. Muzafarov А.М., Taubaev Т.Т. Cultivation and use of microalgae. Tashkent: Fan, 1984. - P. 185. (in Russian)
2. Kulishenko Y.L., Melnik I.А., Novikov О.Н. Use of chlorella in agriculture // Daily Agricultural Review, 06.2009, (in Russian)
3. Gribovskaia I.V., Kalacheva G.S., Tirranen L.S., Kolmakova А.А., Baianova Yu.I. Usage of urine in food Chlorella vulgaris// J.Siberian Federal University. Biology, 2011.-N3.-P.243-256. (in English)
4. Golub N.B. Cultivation of microalgae using waste // East European Journal of Advanced Technologies, 2013, №6 in print (in Ukranian)
5. Xin Li Growth and nutrient removal properties of a freshwater microalga Scenedesmus sp. LX1 under different kinds of nitrogen sources/Li Xin, Hu Hong-ying, Gan Ke, Yang Jia // Ecological Engineering. - 2010. – V.36. - N4. - P. 379-381. (in English)
6. Heredia-Arroyo Т. Mixotrophic cultivation of Chlorella vulgaris and its potential application for the oil accumulation from non-sugar materials / Tamarys Heredia-Arroyo, Wei Wei, Roger Ruan, Bo Hu // Biomass and Bioenergy. – 2011. - V. 35. N 5. – P. 2245–2253. (in English)
7. Penglin Li. In Situ Biodiesel Production from Fast-Growing and High Oil Content Chlorella pyrenoidosa in Rice Straw Hydrolysate / Li Penglin, Miao Xiaoling, Li Rongxiu, Zhong Jianjiang // Journal of Biomedicine and Biotechnology. – 2011, V. Article ID 141207, 8 p. (in English)
8. Wei Yiong Double CO2 fixation in photosynthesis-fermentation model enhances algal lipid synthesis for biodiesel production / Yiong Wei, Gao Chunfang, Yan Dong, Wu Chao, Wu Origyu // Bioresource technology, 2010.-v.101.-P.2287-2293. (in English)
9. Golub N.B. Voyevoda L.V. Using algae for energy obtain // Integrated technologies and energy efficiency.-2012.-№4.-P.18-21(in Ukranian)
10. Meher L.C., Vidya Sagar D., Naik S.N. Technical aspects of biodiesel production by transesterification – a review // Renew. Sustain.Energy Rev..-2006.-V.10.-N3.-P.248-268 (in English)
11. Eurostandard CSN EN 14214, 2012 Liquid petroleum products - Fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) for use in diesel engines and heating applications - Requirements and test methods. (in English)


N. A. Chernikov, K. M. Djuba Analysis of the new normative documents regarding water disposal . p. 3-12

Updating of normative documents brings to decreasing of their practical value. Exclusion of uniform calculation methods from documents prevents from realization of expert estimations of designed and current systems. Thus, the role and responsibility of manufacturers of equipment and materials for water disposal systems significantly increase.
Key words: water disposal, normative documents, updating, projecting, expertise.
References: 1. SP 32.13330.2012. «Kanalizacija. Naruzhnye seti i sooruzhenija [Sewerage. Public utilities. Updated edition of SNiP 2.04.03-85], M., Ministry of Regional Development, 2012. (in Russian)
2. SNiP 2.04.03-85*. «Kanalizacija. Naruzhnye seti i sooruzhenija» [Sewerage. Public utilities], M., SUE CPP, 1996. (in Russian)
3. Otchet v oblasti ustojchivogo razvitija. (godovoj otchet)[Report in the sphere of sustainable development. Annual report], SUE Vodokanal Sankt-Peterburga, 2010, p. 142. (in Russian)
4. «Voda - Nasha professija. Godovoj otchet 2011 g.» [ Water is our profession. Annual report], SUE «Mosvodokanal», 2011, p. 196. (in Russian)
5. Chernikov N. A., Begunov P. P., Djuba K. M. Eshhe raz k voprosu o zakonodatelnoj baze v oblasti vodosnabzhenija i vodootvedenija [Once again to the issue on the legislative base in the field of water supply and water disposal] Water and ecology:problems and solutions,journ., 2/3 2012, pp. 6-12. (in Russian)
6. Ivanov V. G., Chernikov N. A., Djuba K. M. Ispolzuja vse rychagi [Pull out all the stops], Voda Magazine,journ., № 8 (60), August 2012, SPb, «Izdatelskij dom «Jekomedia»,publ., 2012, pp. 42-48. (in Russian)
7. SP 31.13330.2012. «Vodosnabzhenie. Naruzhnye seti i sooruzhenija. Aktualizirovannaja redakcija SNiP 2.04.02-84*» [Water supply. Public utilities. Updated edition of SNiP 2.04.02-84] M., Ministry of Regional Development, 2012. (in Russian)
8. SNiP 2.04.02-84*. «Vodosnabzhenie. Naruzhnye seti i sooruzhenija» [Water supply. Public utilities], M., SUE CPP, 2004. (in Russian)
9. Basharu T. Osobennosti gidravlicheskogo rascheta bytovyh setej vodootvedenija s uchetom izmenenija rashoda stochnyh vod [Features of hydraulic analysis of in-home water disposal networks regarding changes in sewage water flow] , Ph.D. thesis in Engineering Science, 05.23.04, SPb., 1999, p. 138. (in Russian)
10. Chernikov H.A., Basharu T. K voprosu o gidravlicheskom raschete bytovyh setej vodootvedenija [To the issue on hydraulic analysis of in-home water disposal system], 53th scientific and technical conference with participation of students, young specialists and researches, program and abstracts of reports of PSTU, Saint-Petersburg, 1993. (in Russian)
11. Chernikov H.A., Basharu T. Opredelenie racionalnogo raschetnogo diapazona stochnyh vod pri proektirovanii bytovyh samotechnyh setej vodootvedenija [Definition of rational design range of wastewaters when designing gravity flow network] PSTU, 1999. (in Russian)
12. N. I. Lihachev, I. I. Larin, S. A. Haskin and others.; under the general editorship of V. N. Samohin, Kanalizacija naselennyh mest i promyshlennyh predprijatij [Sewerage of settlements and industrial enterprises] 2nd edition, revised and enlarged , M., Strojizdat, publ.,1981, p. 639. (in Russian)
13. SP 32.13330.2012. «Vnutrennij vodoprovod i kanalizacija zdanij. Aktualizirovannaja redakcija SNiP 2.04.01-85* [Domestic water supply and plumbing systems. Updated edition of SNiP 2.04.01-85], M., Ministry of Regional Development, 2012. (in Russian)
14. SNiP 2.04.01-85*. «Vnutrennij vodoprovod i kanalizacija zdanij» [Domestic water supply and plumbing systems], M., SUE CPP, 2003. (in Russian)
15. Federal law of the Russian Federation of December 7, 2011 № 416-FZ "On water supply and water disposal", Rossiyskaya Gazeta", Federal issue № 5654, 10.12.2011. (in Russian)

Cvetkova L.I., Kopina G.I., Makarova S.V., Zajceva S.V., Kabrgel O.I.Ecological approach to regulation of human impact on water ecosystems. p. 13-22

The article analyzes approaches to regulation of pollutants content in surface waters which are used as water supply resources and waste water receivers as well. These approaches are active in Russia and the EU. It is presented that Russian sanitary and hygienic standards do not provide ecological well-being of water ecosystems which degrade and lose their resource value that causes problems in all spheres of water use. For providing ecological safety of surface waters it is necessary to find an ecosystem approach and develop regional standards on ecological Limiting Harmful Index according to recommendations adopted in the EU.
Key words: water ecosystems, MAC, hygienic standards, ecological limit load, ecological regulation.
References: 1. The RF Law “On environment protection” № 7-ФЗ on 10.01. 2002, Rossiyskaya Gazeta, № 6, 12.01.2002, p. 39. (in Russian)
2.Cherkinskij S.N. Sanitarnye uslovija spuska stochnyh vod v vodoemy [Sanitary conditions of sewage discharge into water bodies], M., Strojizdat, publ., 1971, p. 208. (in Russian)
3. SanPiN Sanitary rules and regulations. 2.1.5. Water disposal in populated places. Sanitary protection of water objects. Hygiene requirements for surface water protection, M., Russian Federation Oversight Committee for Sanitation and Epidemiology, Ministry of health, 2000, p. 14. (in Russian)
4. Nechaev A. P. Normirovanie uslovij otvedenija stochnyh vod v poverhnostnye vodnye obekty [Regulation of conditions of waste waters discharge into surface water bodies], Water supply and sanitary techn.,journ., 1999, № 1, pp. 1–5. (in Russian)
5. Council directive 79/923/EEC of 30 October 1979 on the quality required of shellfish waters, 1979. P. 5–11. (in Russian)
6. Elena Neverova-Dziopak. Ecologiczne aspekty ochrony w?d powierzchniowych / Rzesz?w, 2007, p. 103. (in Polish)
7. Jekologija [Ecology], student book by Cvetkova L.I. et alias, SPb, Novyj zhurnal, publ., 2012, p. 451. (in Russian)
8. Alimov A. F. et alias. Zakonomernosti funkcionirovanija i strategija upravlenija jekosistemami jestuarija r. Nevy [Regularities of functioning and management strategy of ecosystems of the estuary of the Neva River], Jekologicheskoe sostojanie vodotokov r. Nevy [The ecological status of watercourses R. Neva], SPb., 1996, pp. 187–204. (in Russian)
9. Braginskij L. P. Kompleksnye kriterii ustojchivosti vodnyh jekologicheskih sistem k dejstviju toksicheskih veshhestv [Integrated sustainability criteria for aquatic environmental systems to the the action of toxic substances], abstracts of reports of the All-Union conference “Assessment and classification of surface water quality for water use” , 3–4 Oct. 1979, Kharkov, 1979, pp. 3–7. (in Russian)
10. Neverova-Dziopak E. Teoreticheskoe, metodicheskoe i inzhenernoe obespechenie ohrany poverhnostnyh vod ot antropogennogo jevtrofirovanija [Theoretical, methodological and engineering support of surface waters protection from anthropogenic eutrophication], doctoral dissertation SPbSUASE, SPb., 2003. (in Russian)
11. Izrajel' Ju. A. Jekologija i kontrol' sostojanija prirodnoj sredy [Ecology and control of nature environment], L., Gidrometeoizdat,publ., 1979, p. 375. (in Russian)

Monograph «Processes of wastewater suspensions separation. Structures» by Ponomarev V. G.. p. 23

Water supply

Ju. A. Feofanov, I. V. Hirshieva Coagulation process intensification of colored waters of low turbidity by weighting agents adding. p. 24-30

The article present the investigation results on estimation of optimal parameters of colored waters coagulation with the use of quartz sand, iron powder and magnetite as weighting agents. The kinetics of coagulated suspension sedimentation at coagulation with adding different additives, effective doses, weighting agents fraction and their mixing conditions are defined. Use of weighting agents at water treatment allows significant acceleration of coagulant flocks sedimentation, increasing efficiency of water impurities coagulation process, reduction of precipitation time and, consequently, considerable decreasing of settling plants capacity.
Key words: water treatment, treatment of colored water of low turbidity, intensification of water coagulation process, coagulant flocks weighting agents.
References: 1. SP 31.13330.2012 Vodosnabzhenie. Naruzhnye seti i sooruzhenija. [Water supply. Public utilitie], revised edition of SNiP 2.04.20-84, M., 2012. (in Russian)
2. Vodosnabzhenie Sankt-Peterburga [Water suppy of Saint-Petersburg], under the general editorship of F.V. Karmazinov, Saint-Peterburg, Izd-vo «Novyj zhurnal»,publ., 2003, p. 687. (in Russian)
3. Vodosnabzhenie i vodootvedenie v Sankt-Peterburge [Water supply and water disposal in Saint-Petersburg], group of authors, SPb., Novyj zhurnal,publ., 2008, p. 464. (in Russian)
4. Tehnicheskij spravochnik po obrabotke vody [Technical reference book on water treatment] in 2 vol., translated from French, SPb., Novyj zhurnal, publ., 2007, p. 1696. (in Russian)
5. Booker N. A. Sewage clarification with magnetite particles / Booker N. A., Keir D., Priestley A. J., Ritchie C. B., Sudarmana D. L., Woods M. A. // Water Science and Technology. – 1991. Vol. 23. – P. 1703-1712. (in English)
6. Feofanov Ju. A. Rezul'taty issledovanij po primeneniju dobavok-utjazhelitelej dlja intensifikacii processa koaguljacii [Investigation results on use of weighting agents for coagulation process intensification], Ju. A. Feofanov, I. V. Hirshieva, Vestnik grazhdanskikh ingenerov,journ., 2013, № 3 (38), pp. 129-134. (in Russian)
7. Hirshieva I. V. Intensifikacija processa koaguljacii malomutnyh cvetnyh vod s vvedeniem dobavok-utjazhelitelej [ Coagulation process intensification of colored waters of low turbidity by weighting agents adding], Modern problems of science and education, journ., 2014, № 2; URL: (in Russian)

N. I. Baranchikova, S. P. Epifanov, V. I.ZorkalcevNoncanonical task of flow distribution with set pressure and withdrawals in units. p. 31-38

The task of flow distribution in arbitrary hydraulic system, which required variables are pressure and withdrawal in separate units, is observed. At that, in some units pressure and withdrawal are set simultaneously. Conditions of solving such problem are presented. The original method of finding solutions for such problem and numerical example are presented.
Key words: water supply, pipeline system, flow distribution, piezometric head.
References: 1. Abramov N.N. Teorija i metodika rascheta sistem podachi i raspredelenija vody [Theory and methodology of engineering of water supply and distribution systems] M., Strojizdat,publ., 1972. (in Russian)
2. Merenkov A.P., Sennova E.V., Sumarokov S.V. et alias. Matematicheskoe modelirovanie i optimizacija sistem teplo-, vodo-, nefte- i gazosnabzhenija [Mathematical modeling and optimization of systems of heat, water and oil- and gas supply], Novosibirsk, Nauka,publ., 1992. (in Russian)
3. Epifanov S.P., Zorkal'cev V.I. Prilozhenie teorii dvojstvennosti k modeljam potokoraspredelenija [Application of duality theory to models of flow distribution] Computational Technologies, journ., 2009, vol. 14, № 1. (in Russian)
4. Somov M.A., Zhurba M.G. Vodosnabzhenie. Tom 1. Sistemy zabora, podachi i raspredelenija vody [Water supply. Volume 1. Systems of water intake, supply and distribution], student book for universities, M., Izdatel'stvo ASV,publ., 2010. (in Russian)
5. Suharev M.G. Utochnennaja formalizacija zadach analiza gidravlicheskih cepej [Refined formalization of hydraulic circuits analysis problems] Izv. RAN,publ., Jenergetika,journ., 2004, № 3. (in Russian)
6. Suharev M.G. O vybore metoda pri raschete na JeVM techenij po setjam [On selection of the method when analyzing flows through networks by using computers] Kibernetika,journ., 1969, №6. (in Russian)
7. Epifanov S.P., Zorkal'cev V.I. Zadacha potokoraspredelenija v neklassicheskoj postanovke [Problem of flow distribution in nonclassical formulation], Sibirskii Zhurnal Industrial'noi Matematiki, Oct.-Dec., 2010, vol. XIII, № 4(44). (in Russian)
8. Evstigneev V. A., Kas'janov V. N. Tolkovyj slovar' po teorii grafov v informatike i programmirovanii [ Explanatory dictionary on graph theory in Informatics and programming] Novosibirsk, Nauka,publ., 1999. (in Russian)
9. Epifanov S.P., Zorkal'cev V.I. Zadacha potokoraspredelenija s nefiksirovannymi uzlovymi otborami [Problem of flow distribution with non-fixed unit withdrawals] Water supply and sanitary techn,,journ., 2012, № 9. (in Russian)
10. Mihajlovskij E.A. Sistemnye issledovanija v jenergetiki [System investigations in energy sector], Irkutsk, ESI SB RAS, 2010, p. 367. (in Russian)

Zh.K. Kasymbekov, N.P. Ni, B.S. Botantaeva Testing of the water-pipe centrifugal vent valve-pressure damper in laboratory conditions. p.39-44

It is found that placement of centrifugal vent valve in the top point of the pipe bend fully avoids water hammer especially when air content is up to 16% of the water flow. At this, degree of water separation is 80…85% and reasonable operating parameters meet this working condition. Use of centrifugal vent valve -pressure damper in the top point of the pipe bend avoids water hammer in the descending branch by means of air output from pipelines.
Key words: plumbing, vent valve, centrifugal action, pressure damper, test.
References: 1. Kasymbekov Zh.K., Botantaeva B.S.Issledovanie uslovii obrazovanija skoplenij vozduha na izgibe napornogo vodovoda v vertikal'noj ploskosti [Investigation of conditions of air locks formation at the power conduit bend in vertical plane], Materialy V Miedzynarodowej naukowj konfereneji «Wschodnia spolka – 2009»,Volume 7, Techniczne nauki, Przemysl (Poland), Nauka i studia,2009, pp.27-31. (in Russian)
2. Patent RK № 20422. Vozduhootdelitel'-naporogasitel [Vent valve-pressure damper] Ni N.P., Rybincev Ju.P. at alias, Astana, 2007. (in Russian)
3. Dikarevskij V. S. Issledovanie gidravlicheskih udarov v truboprovodah s uchetom poter' jenergii [Investigation of water hammers in pipelines taking into account the energy losses], collection of works of Petersburg State Transport University, issue 321, SPb, 1971. (in Russian)
4. Chislov V. I. Zashhita vodovodov nasosnyh stancij ot gidravlicheskih udarov s pomoshh'ju gasitelej [Protection of pumping stations water conduits from water hammers with the use of dampers], synopsis of thesis by candidate of techn. science, Kharkov, 1974. (in Russian)

Water disposal

Serebrjakov D.V.Why do not package plants for waste water treatment work? . p.45-56

The article presents a common practice of low-capacity WWTP construction of domestic and surface run-off. Specific features of such plants operation are described; barriers to achieving the normative quality of treatment are listed. The most common varieties of complete factory-assembled treatment facilities: plants with membrane bioreactor, rotary biological contactor, SBR technologies, and with “classical” treatment plants with aerotanks are observed. The main pros and cons of these technological schemes from the point of view of their application for local treatment of small volume of waste water are presented. The enlarged technical and economic comparison of these technologies is given.
References: 1. V. Lazarova and P. Dauthuille. Reliability of Operation and Environmental Footprint of MBR Technology for Wastewater Treatment. "World water", Vol 32, Issue 1 (2009) (in English)
2. B.G. Mishukov, T.P. Pavlova, B.G. Izakson, V.S. Kejsh, E.A. Solov'eva. Biomembrannaja tehnologija ochistki stochnyh vod [Biomembrane technology of waste water treatment], Water and ecology,journ., №1/2011. (in Russian)
3. M.I. Alekseev, A.M. Kurganov. Organizacija otvedenija poverhnostnogo stoka s urbanizirovannyh territorij [Organization of surface runoff disposal from urbanised areas], M-SPb, 2000. (in Russian)
4. A.A.Svitcov. Vvedenie v membrannye tehnologii [Introduction to membrane technology], M., 2007. (in Russian)
5. Je.S. Razumovskij, G.L. Medrish, V.A. Kazarjan. Ochistka i obezzarazhivanie stochnyh vod malyh naselennyh punktov [Treatment and disinfection of sewage of small settlements], M., 1978. (in Russian)
6. N.A. Lukinyh, B.L. Lipman, V.P. Krishtup. Metody doochistki stochnyh vod [Aftertreatment of waste waters], M., 1978. (in Russian)
7. E.I. Goncharuk, A.I. Davidenko. Malogabaritnye ochistnye sooruzhenija kanalizacii [Compact sewage treatment plants], Kiev, 1974. (in Russian)
8. M.N. Tereshhuk. Osobennosti proektirovanija sooruzhenij biologicheskoj ochistki v uslovijah vysokih i nizkih temperature [Features of designing and construction of biological treatment plants in the conditions of high and low temperatures], Water and ecology, journ., №3, 2010. (in Russian)
9. M.N. Tereshhuk. Novye perspektivy SBR-tehnologii ochistki stochnyh vod [New perspectives SBR technologies of wastewater treatment], Voda i jekologija,journ., №1, 2011. (in Russian)
10. Hence M., Armojes P., Lja-Kur-Jansen J., Arvan Je. Ochistka stochnyh vod. Biologicheskie i himicheskie process [Waste water treatment. Biological and chemical processes], M., Mir,publ., 2004. (in Russian)
11. Morozova K. M. Principy rascheta sistem biologicheskoj ochistki stochnyh vod [Principles of analysis of biological sewage treatment systems], Water supply and sanitary techn.,journ., 2009, № 1. (in Russian)
12. Ju.I. Shtonda, A.L.Zubko. Intensifikacija ochistki stochnyh vod na malogabaritnyh ochistnyh sooruzhenijah Kryma [Intensification of sewage treatment in compact wastewater treatment plants of Crimea], Water supply and sanitary techn.,journ., 2010, № 9. (in Russian)

Kell L.S.Industrial tests of biological phosphorus removal method with zones of “ ripening” in Saint-Petersburg at the WWTP of the city of Sestroretsk. p.57-65

The main biogenic element which causes anthropogenic eutrophication of natural water ecosystems is phosphorus. Idustrial tests of biological phosphorus removal method with zones of “ ripening” at the WWTP of the city of Sestroretsk are carried out. It is presented that biological phosphorus removal method with zones of “ripening” allows effective decreasing of total phosphorus in domestic waste waters at their biological treatment to values lower than recommended by Helcom.
Key words: biological phosphorus removal method, acidification, activate sludge, anaerobic zone.
References: 1. Odum Ju. Osnovy jekologii [Bases of ecology], Moscow, Mir, publ., 1975, p. 740. (in Russian)
2. Bazhenov V. I., Denisov A. A. Proektirovanie sovremennyh kompleksov biologicheskoj ochistki stochnyh vod [Design of modern complexes of biological sewage treatment], Ecology and industry of Russia, journ., 2009, N2. (in Russian)
3. Danilovich D.A., Kozlov M.N., Mojzhes O.V., Shotina K.V., Ershov B.A. Rezultaty raboty krupnomasshtabnyh sooruzhenij biologicheskoj ochistki ot soedinenij azota i fosfora [ The results of large-scale structures of biological treatment from nitrogen and phosphorus], collection of article and publications of Mosvodokanal, M., 2008, pp. 101-119. (in Russian)
4. Degremont. Tehnicheskij spravochnik po obrabotke vody [Technical handbook on water treatment], Novyj zhurnal,journ., 2007., vol. 1, p. 427. (in Russian)
5. Kell L. S. Vnedrenie tehnologii biologicheskoj defosfotacii UCTK. Mezhdunarodnaja nauchno-prakticheskaja konferencija. Perspektivnye razrabotki nauki i tehniki [Introduction of biological phosphorus removal technology UCTK. International research/practice conference. Advanced development of science and technology], 2011, pp. 9-16. (in Russian)

Drozd G.Ja., Pashutina E.N., Davydov S.N.Biotechnological issues of wastewater sludge utilization. p.66-77

The problem of wastewater sludge utilization is examined. It is presented that the quality of sludge predetermines the way of its utilization. Techonology of vermicomposting (vermicultivation) is more preferable for agricultural use of waste water sludge. In this case the concentration of some toxicants (from the list of heavy metals) is reduced to 48%. Produced fertilizer- biohumus is a popular product of wastewater sludge utilization.
Key words: wastewater sludge, vermicomposting, technology, heavy metals, biohumus.
References: 1. Suchkova N. G. Analiz sostojanija problemy rekultivacii ilovyh ploshhadok ochistnyh sooruzhenij gorodov i perspektivy dlja Harkovskogo regiona [The analysis of problems of recultivation of sludge beds of municipal treatment facilities and prospects for the Kharkiv region] collection of reports of ETEWS, 2007, Yalta, pp. 279-284. (in Russian)
2. Drozd G.Ja. Differencirovannyj podhod k utilizacii osadkov stochnyh vod [Differentiated approach to wastewater sludge utilization]; G.Ja. Drozd, R.V. Breus, S.I. Davydov, E.N. Pashutina, V.N. Maslak, N.K. Skljarov Sotrudnichestvo dlja reshenija problemy othodov [Cooperation for waste problem solution], materials of the 6th International conference , Kharkov, 8-9 Apr., 2009 Independent Agency of ecological information,publ., K., 2009, pp. 245-246. (in Russian)
3. Goldfarb L.L. Opyt utilizacii osadkov gorodskih stochnyh vod v kachestve udobrenija [Experience of municipal waste water sludge utilization as a fertilizer], M., 1983, p. 60. (in Russian)
4. Drozd G. Ja., Zotov N. I., Maslak V. N. Tehniko-jekologicheskie zapiski po probleme utilizacii osadkov gorodskih i promyshlennyh stochnyh vod [ Technical-ecological notes on the problem of sludge utilization of urban and industrial wastewaters], Donetsk, Institute of the Economy of Industry of the NAS of Ukraine, 2001, p. 340. (in Russian)
5. The law of Ukraine «On waste", №187/98-VR on 5.03.1998. (in Ukrainian)
6. T. Pajonk Zakonodatelstvo Evropejskogo Sojuza v oblasti utilizacii osadkov [The European Union legislation in the field of waste water utilization], Water supply and sanitary techn., 2003, №1, pp. 37-41. (in Russian)
7. Dogel V.A. Zoologija bespozvonochnyh [Invertebrate zoology], M., Vysshaja shkola, publ., 1975, p. 559. (in Russian)
8. Medvedev V.V. Monitoring pochv Ukrainy. Koncepcija, predvaritelnye rezultaty, zadachi [Monitoring of the soils of Ukraine. The concept, preliminary result, tasks], Kharkov, PF «Antikva»,publ., 2002, p. 428. (in Russian)
9. Agroekologija [Agroecology] , textbook, O.F. Smaglyj, A.T. Kardashov, P.V. Lytvak at alias, K., Vyshha osvity,publ., 2006, p. 671. (in Ukrainian)
10. Hatanaka K., Ishioka I, Furuiehi E. Cultivation of Eisenia foetida using dairy Waste Sludge cake / Satchell J.E.(ed.) // Earthworm Ecology from Darwin to Wermiculture. – London–New Jork, 1983, p. 323–329. (in English)
11. Hartenstein R., Leaf A.L., Neuhauser E.F., Bickelhaupt D. Composition of the Earthworm Eisenia foetida and Assimilation of 15 Elements from sludge during growtn. // Comp. Biochem. Physiol., 1980, v. 66, p. 187–192. (in English)
12. Pat. №103349 Ukraine, Sposob povyshenija produktivnosti selskohozjajstvennyh kultur [A method of agricultural crops productivity increase], Davydov S.I., Vinjukov A.A.; applicant and patent holder - Рlant Production Institute nd. a. V. Ya. Yuryev of NAAS, № a 2011 08044; applied 10.09.2012; publised. 10.10.2013, application № 19. (in Russian)


Samojlenko N. N., Ermakovich I. A.Effect of pharmaceuticals and their derivatives on the environment. p. 78-87

The article observes the main ways of pharmaceuticals entry into environment and their effect on water body biota. The basic groups of medicines which were detected in surface and waste waters, according to the latest investigations carried out in advanced research laboratories of the USA and Europe, are listed. Approaches to decrease pharmaceuticals entry into environment and necessity to include the most dangerous of them into the surface water monitoring system are examined.
Key words: pharmaceuticals, surface waters, waste waters, biota, monitoring.
References: 1. K. Kummerer, Pharmaceuticals in the Environment, Annu. Rev. Environ. Resour №35, 2010, 57–75.
2. The State Service Ukraine on Medicinal Products. The mode of access: \www/ URL: //
3. Kummerer K, A. Al-Ahmad , V. Mersch-Sundermann, Biodegradability of some antibiotics, elimination of the genotoxicity and affection of wastewater bacteria in a simple test, Chemosphere №40, 2000, 701-710.
4. Lekarstvennye sredstva. Malaja medicinskaja jenciklopedija [Medicines. Small medical encyclopedia], M., Medicinskaja jenciklopedija, 1991—1996. (in Russian)
5. Kristin McClellan, Rolf U. Halden, Pharmaceuticals and personal care products in archived U. S. biosolids from the 2001 EPA national sewage sludge survey, Water Research № 44, 2010, 658-668.
6.David Bendz, Nicklas A. Paxeus, Timothy R. Ginn, Frank J. Loge, Occurrence and fate of pharmaceutically active compounds in the environment, a case study: Hoje River in Sweden, Journal of Hazardous Materials, №122 ,2005, 195-204
7. Alistair B. A. Boxall, The environmental side effects of medication, EMBO reports VOL. 5, № 12, 2004, 1110-1116.
8. HELCOM, 2010. Hazardous substances in the Baltic Sea – An integrated thematic assessment of hazardous substances in the Baltic Sea. Balt. Sea Environ. Proc. No. 120B.
9. European Medicines Agency, Guideline on the Environmental Risk Assessment of Medicinal Products for Human Use (EMEA/CHMP/SWP/4447/00), June 2006.
10. Halling-Sorensen B. Inhibition of Aerobic Growth and Nitrification of Bacteria in Sewage Sludge by Antibacterial Agents, Arch. Environ. Contam. Toxicol №40, 2001, 451-460.
11. Marie E. Delorenzo, Jessica Fleming, Individual and Mixture Effects of Selected Pharmaceuticals and Personal Care Products on the Marine Phytoplankton Species Dunaliella tertiolecta, Environ. Arch. Contam. Toxicol, № 54, 2008, 203-210.
12. Ju.V. Akimenko, K.Sh. Kazeev, S.I. Kolesnikov, M.S. Mazanko, Jekologicheskie posledstvija zagrjaznenija pochv antibiotikami [The environmental effects of soil pollution with antibiotics], News of Samara scientific center of RAS, journ., vol. 15, № 3 (4), 2013, pp. 1196-1199. (in Russian)
13. Discussion Paper on Pharmaceutical Disposal to Sewer Systems, Emerging Contaminants Workgroup of the Santa Clara Basin Watershed Management Initiative, February 2005.
14. Pharmaceuticals in the environment. Results of an EEA workshop. EEA Technical report № 1, 2010, 34 pp.
15. Abolfazl Saleh, Estelle Larsson, Yadollah Yamini, Jan Ake Jonsson, Hollow fiber liquid phase microextraction as a preconcentration and clean-up step after pressurized hot water extraction for the determination of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in sewage sludge. J. Chromatogr. A., 2011, 1218, 1331-1339.
16. Ester Sagrista, Estelle Larsson, Maryam Ezoddin, Manuela Hidalgo, Victoria Salvado, Jan Ake Jonsson. Determination of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in sewage sludge by direct hollow fiber supported liquid membrane extraction and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. J. Chromatogr. A., 2010, 1217, 6153-6158.
17. Niklas Larsson, Estelle Petersson, Marika Rylander, Jan Ake Jonsson. Continuous flow hollow fiber liquid-phase microextration and monitoring of NSAID pharmaceuticals in a sewage treatment plant effluent. Anal. Methods, 2009, 1, 59-67.
18. Makuch A., Medrzycka K., Plaza E., The effect of sulphonamides on activated dehydrogenase activity, 1-10.
19. Ruden et al. Towards Sustainable Pharmaceuticals in a Healthy Society 2010, Mistra-Pharma Research Report 2010.
20. Zgorska A., Arendraczyk A., Grabinska-Sota E, Toxicity assessment of hospital wastewater by the use of a biotest battery, Archives of environmental protection.Т 3 (37), 2011, 55 – 61.
21. Barrie M. Peake, Rhiannon Braund. Environmental Aspects of the Disposal of Pharmaceuticals in New Zealand Chemistry in New Zealand, April 2009, 58-63.
22. Falas P., Andersen H.R., Ledin A., la Cour Jansen J.2012. Occurrence and reduction of pharmaceuticals in the water phase at Swedish wastewater treatment plants. Water Science and Technology 66(4), 783-791.
23. Dana W. Kolpin, Mary Skopec, Michael T. Meyer, Edward T. Furlong, Steven D. Zaugg, Urban contribution of pharmaceuticals and other organic wastewater contaminants to streams during differing flow conditions, Science of the Total Environment, № 328, 2004, 119-130.
24. Kouadio L. D., Traore S. K., Bekro Yves-Alain, Contamination des Eaux de Surface par les Produits Pharmaceutiques en Zones Urbaines de Cote D’ivoire: Cas du District D’abidjan, European Journal of Scientific Research, № 1, 2009, 140-151.
25. Muthanna, T. M., Plosz B. G., The impact of hospital sewage discharge on the assessment of environmental risk posed by priority pharmaceuticals: Hydrodynamic modeling and measurements, International Conference on Urban Drainage, Edinburgh, Scotland, UK, 2008, 1-10.

Galperin R.I., Avezova A.On the matter of extreme hydrological characteristics assessment. p. 88-99

The article presents the analysis results of the multi-year progress of the maximum and minimum water flow rate of rivers in the Northern part of Kazakhstan. General temporary trends for the territory are not detected. Conclusions on inappropriate calculation period restriction for characterization of a current situation are made. It proves the inevitability of truncated distribution application in certain cases to assess maximum water flow rate and water level.
Key words: river water flow rate, annual flow, repeatability, frequency curve, low river.
References: 1. Vodnye resursy Rossii i ih ispolzovanie [Russian water resources and their use], SPb., State hydrological Institute, 2008, p. 600. (in Russian)
2. Bedrickij A.N., Hamitov R.Z., Shiklomanov I.A., Zelcer I.S. Vodnye resursy Rossii i ih ispolzovanie v novyh socialno-jekonomicheskih uslovijah s uchetom vozmozhnyh izmenenij klimata [Water resources of Russia and their use in new socio-economic conditions with regard to possible climate change] abstracts of reports of the 6th All-Russian hydrological congress, plenary meeting, SPb, Gidrometeoizdat, publ., 2004, pp. 3-10. (in Russian)
3. Frolov A.V. Vklad gidrometeorologicheskoj nauki v razvitie vodohozjajstvennogo kompleksa strany [Contribution of hydro-meteorological science in development of water sector of the country] 7th All-Russian hydrological congress, 19-21 Nov. 2013, abstracts of plenary reports, SPb, Rosgidromet,publ., 2013, pp. 1-5. (in Russian)
4. Dostaj Zh.D., Galperin R.I., Davletgaliev S.K., Alimkulov S.A. Prirodnye vidy Kazahstana: resursy, rezhim, kachestvo i prognoz [ Nature species of Kazakhstan: resources, regime, quality and prediction] Voprosy geografii i geojekologii, journ., 2012, № 4, pp. 18-24. (in Russian)
5. Dugina I.O. i dr. Vydajushheesja navodnenie na r.Amur v 2013 godu i ego osobennosti [Outstanding flood on the river Amur in 2013 and its features], All-Russian hydrological congress, 19-21 Nov. 2013, abstracts of plenary reports, SPb, Rosgidromet,publ., 2013, pp. 22-25. (in Russian)
6. Resursy rechnogo stoka Kazahstana. Kn.1. Vozobnovljaemye resursy poverhnostnyh vod Zapadnogo, Severnogo, Centralnogo i Vostochnogo Kazahstana [Resources of the river flow of Kazakhstan. Book 1. Renewable surface water resources of the Western, Northern, Central and Eastern Kazakhstan], Almaty, 2012, p. 684. (in Russian)
7. Galperin R.I. Vysokie polovodja v severnoj polovine Kazahstana [High floods in the Northern part of Kazakhstan], Voprosy geografii i geojekologii, journ., 2013, № 3, pp .3-10. (in Russian)
8. Kendal M.Dzh., Stjuart A. Teorija raspredelenij [Distribution theory], M.: Nauka, 1966, p. 587. (in Russian)
9. Galperin R.I. Ispolzovanie usechennyh krivyh raspredelenija dlja rascheta maksimalnyh urovnej vody v rekah [Use of distribution truncated curve for assessment of maximum water level in rivers], The KazNU Journal, Geogr., 1999, № 8-9, pp.109-111. (in Russian)
10. Galperin R.I. Njuansy statisticheskoj interpretacii gidrologicheskih rjadov [The nuances of the statistical interpretation of hydrological series], materials of the International research/practice conference “Problems of hydrometeorology and ecology”, Almaty, Kazakh scientific-research hydrometeorological Institute, 2001, pp.103-105. (in Russian)
11. Galperin R.I., Avezova A. K metodike ocenki jekstremalnyh gidrologicheskih harakteristik [The method of estimation of extreme hydrological characteristics], Voprosy geografii i geojekologii,journ., 2009, № 3-4, pp. 26-33. (in Russian)
12. Blohinov E.G. Raspredelenie verojatnostej velichin rechnogo stoka [The probability distribution of the river flow rate], M., «Nauka»,publ., 1974, p. 169. (in Russian)
13. Bolgov M.V, Borshh S.V., Haziahmetov R.M. Opasnye gidrologicheskie javlenija: metody analiza, rascheta i prognozirovanija. Smjagchenie negativnyh posledstvij [Dangerous hydrological phenomena: methods of analysis, calculation and forecasting. Mitigation ], 7th All-Russian hydrological congress, 19-21 Nov. 2013, abstracts of plenary reports, SPb, Rosgidromet,publ., 2013, pp. 6-21. (in Russian)
14. Sokolovskij D.L. Rechnoj stok [River flow], L., Gidrometeoizdat, publ., 1968, p. 539. (in Russian)
15. Galperin R.I. Vysokie urovni vody na rekah ravninnogo Kazahstana [High water levels on the rivers of the plains of Kazakhstan] Almaty, Al-Farabi Kazakh National University, 1994, p. 172. (in Russian)
16. Najdenov V I, Kozhevnikova I.A.. Pochemu tak chasto proishodjat navodnenija? [Why are so many floods?] Priroda,journ., 2003, № 9. (in Russian)
17. Opredelenie osnovnyh raschetnyh harakteristik. SP 33-101-2003 [The definition of the basic design characteristics. SP 33-101-2003] M., Gosstroj Rossii,publ., 2004, p. 73. (in Russian)

Monograph «Bioreactors with fixed and mobile loads for water treatment» by Ju.A. Feofanov comes out. p. 100


We accepted in Scopus!Congratulations to Chief Editor. p. 3

Water supply

Kim A. N., Grun N. A., Romanova Ju. V.Improvementof tap water sorption tertiary treatment. p. 4-20

For several reasons consumers in Saint-Petersburg often do not get tap water which meets the requirements of normative documents of the Russian Federation. This circumstance causes the necessity of the tertiary treatment of tap water while birch activated carbons and activated carbons from coconut husk are widely used in the tertiary treatment. Currently one of the trends in sorption technique is modification of sorption materials including activated carbon which allows increasing their sorption capacity and giving them new properties. As such modifier fullerenes, recently discovered molecular compounds belonging to the class of allotropic forms of carbon, are used. The article presents the method of activated carbon modification by fullerenes; results of comparative laboratory bench tests of modified and original activated carbon of various brands (birch and coconut) during tertiary treatment in the real mode of tap water polluted as a result of transportation on local pipelines which are in poor technical condition are presented; the method of regeneration of spent activated carbons using sodium hypochlorite is explained. Also during the work a number of different bacteriological studies are carried out. It is presented that activated carbon modified by fullerenes has antibacterial properties, which is an important characteristic of this material, due to the fact that the original activated carbon is a rich nutrient environment for microorganisms, which, in its turn, leads to secondary pollution of the treated water and prevents long-term use of such carbons in the tertiary treatment.
Key words: activated carbon, modification by fullerenes, filtration plant, iron concentration, oxidation, colority, regeneration of coal.
References: 1. Berezkin V.I., Viktorovskij I.V., Vul' A.Ja., Golubev L.V., Petrova V.N., Horoshko L.O. Fullerenovye mikrokristally kak adsorbenty organicheskih soedinenij [Fullerene microcrystals as adsorbents of organic compounds], Fizika i tehnika poluprovodnikov,journ., 2003, vol. 37, issue 7 (in Russian).
2. Grun N.A., Kim A.N. Issledovanie aktivirovannogo uglja, modificirovannogo fullerenami, primenjaemogo dlja kondicionirovanija vodoprovodnoj vody [The study of activated carbon, modified byfullerenes used for tap water conditioning] Vestnik grazhdanskih inzhenerov - SPbGASU,journ., 2010-2(23), pp.146-150 (in Russian).
3. Grun N.A., Kim A.N. Laboratornye issledovanija aktivirovannogo uglja marki BAU-A, modificirovannogo fullerenami, primenjaemogo dlja kondicionirovanija vodoprovodnoj vody [Laboratory studies of BAU-a activated charcoal modified by fullerenes used for tap water conditioning], materials of the 67th scientific conference of professors, teachers, scientific workers, engineers and post graduate students of SPbGASU, SPb, 2010, pp. 42–46 (in Russian).
4. Grun N.A., Ovsjannikova N.D., Nikolaeva A.I. Osobennosti opredelenija pokazatelej kachestva vody pri doochistke aktivirovannym uglem, modificirovannym fullerenami [Peculiarities of determination of water quality parameters during treatment with activated carbon, modified by fullerenes], materials of the 63th scientific conference of students of SPbGASU, SPb, 2010, pp. 37-39 (in Russian).
5. Davydov V.Ja., Kalashnikova E.V. Termodinamicheskie harakteristiki adsorbcii organicheskih soedinenij na molekuljarnyh kristallah fullerena S60 [Thermodynamic characteristics of adsorption of organic compounds at the molecular crystals of S60 fullerene], ZhFH, 2000, vol. 74, №4 (in Russian).
6. Eleckij A.V., Smirnov B.M. Fullereny i struktura ugleroda [Fullerenes and carbon structure], UFN, 1995, № 9 (in Russian).
7. Kerl R.F., Smoli R.Je. Fullereny [Fullerenes], V mire nauki, journ., 1991, № 12 (in Russian).
8. Kim A.N., Grun N.A. Problemy kondicionirovanija vodoprovodnoj vody, puti ih reshenija [Problems of tap water conditioning. Solutions], collection of materials of the 4th international seminar “Methods of increasing of municipal engineering infrastructure resource” HGTUSA, Kharkov, 2010 (in Russian).
9. Kim A.N., Grun N.A., Murashev S.V. Doobrabotka vodoprovodnoj vody na fil'trah s sorbcionnoj zagruzkoj, modificirovannoj fullerenami [Tertiary treatment of tap water on filters with sorption loading modified by fullerenes ] SPb, materials of conference dedicated to memory of academician of RAN and RAASN Jakovlev S.V., 2010, p. 80 (in Russian).
10. Kiselev A.V. Mezhmolekuljarnye vzaimodejstvija v adsorbcii i hromatografii [Intermolecular interactions in adsorption and chromatography], M., Vysshaja shkola,publ., 1986, p. 360 (in Russian).
11. Nikonova V.Ju. Poluchenie, svojstva i primenenie modificirovannyh fullerenami adsorbentov [Production, properties and application of adsorbents modified by fullerenes], Ph.D. thesis in Engineering Science 02.00.21, Samonin Vjacheslav Viktorovich, SPb., 2008, p. 119 (in Russian).
12. Samonin V.V., Marakulina E.A. Adsorbcionnye svojstva fullerensoderzhashhih materialov [Adsorption properties of fullerene-containing materials], ZhFH, 2002, vol.76, № 5, pp. 888-892 (in Russian).
13. Samonin V.V., Nikonova V.Ju., Kim A.N., Grun N.A. Modificirovanie aktivnyh uglej fullerenami i ih issledovanie v processah kondicionirovanija vodoprovodnoj vody v rezhime sorbcija-regeneracija [The modification of the active carbon fullerenes and their study in the process of water conditioning in the mode “sorption-regeneration”] Izvestija SPbGTU,journ., №8(34), SPbGTU(TI), 2010 (in Russian).
14. Samonin V.V., Nikonova V.Ju., Podvjaznikov M.L. Sorbcionnye svojstva modificirovannyh fullerenami aktivnyh uglej po otnosheniju k kationam medi, serebra i svinca v vodnyh rastvorah [Sorption properties of active carbons modified by fullerenes with respect to cations of copper, silver and lead in aqueous solutions], ZhFH, 2008, vol. 82, № 8, pp. 1542-1546 (in Russian).
15. Samonin V.V., Nikonova V.Ju., Spiridonova E.A. Vlijanie modificirujushhih fullerenovyh dobavok na baktericidnye svojstva aktivirovannyh uglej [The impact of modifing fullerene additives on the bactericidal properties of activated carbons], Al'ternativnaja jenergetika i jekologija, journ., 2006, №2, pp. 59 – 62 (in Russian).
16. Samonin V.V., Nikonova V.Ju., Spiridonova E.A., Podvjaznikov M.L. Vlijanie obrabotki razlichnymi rastvoriteljami na poglotitel'nye svojstva fullerenov i fullerensoderzhashhih materialov [The treatment effect of various solvents on the absorption properties of fullerenes and fullerene-containing materials], Himicheskaja promyshlennost',journ., 2006, vol. 83, № 6, pp. 277-284 (in Russian).
17. Samonin V.V., Podvjaznikov M.L., Nikonova V.Ju., Spiridonova E.A., Shevkina A.Ju. Sorbirujushhie materialy, izdelija, ustrojstva i processy upravljaemoj adsorbcii [Sorbing materials, products, devices and processes managed adsorption], Saint-Petersburg, ”Nauka”,publ., 2009, p. 271 (in Russian).
18. Camonin V.V., Slucker E.M. Adsorbcionnye svojstva fullerenovyh sash [The adsorption properties of fullerene soots], ZhFH, 2003, vol. 77, №7, pp. 792-795 (in Russian).
19. SanPiN Pit'evaja voda. Gigienicheskie trebovanija k kachestvu vody centralizovannyh sistem pit'evogo vodosnabzhenija. Kontrol' kachestva. Gigienicheskie trebovanija k obespecheniju bezopasnosti sistem gorjachego vodosnabzhenija [The drinking water. Hygienic requirements to water quality of centralized drinking water supply systems. The quality control. Hygienic requirements to safety of hot water systems], M., 2002, p. 76 (in Russian).
21. Sidorov L.N. i dr. Fullereny [Fullerenes], M., Jekzamen, publ., 2005, p. 687 (in Russian).
22. Skvorcevich E.G., Romanov R.V. Biologicheskie jeffekty fullerenov [Biological effects of fullerenes], Voprosy biologicheskoj medicinskoj i farmacevticheskoj himii, journ., 2002, №1 (in Russian).

B.I. Laptev, G.N. Sidorenko, N.P. Gorlenko, Ju.S. Sarkisov, L.V. Antoshkin, Kulchenko A.K.Modern electro-physical investigation methods of water structure and aqueous solutions. p. 21-32

It is presented that assessment of electric capacity dynamics, conductivity as well as resonance characteristic of water and aqueous solutions in the frequency range from 1 to 3000 kHz can be used for characteristics of physical properties and structures of drinking, mineral waters and other liquids at diverse effects.
With the use of dielectrometry, resonance methods and impedance, changes can be regarded both as the mobility of the dipoles and as dynamics of structure changes which contain these dipoles – clusters, hydrate formation of ions and, possibly, dynamics of interaction between clusters and hydrate formations.
Key words: water structure, the structure of aqueous solutions, electric capacity, conduction, hydration of ions.
References: 1. Ahadov Ja. Ju. Dijelektricheskie svojstva binarnyh rastvorov [Dielectric properties of binary solutions], M., Nauka,publ., 1977, p. 400 (in Russian).
2. Bagockij V.S. Osnovy jelektrohimii [Basics of electrochemistry], M., Himija, publ., 1988, p. 400 (in Russian).
3. Baranov A.V, Petrov V.I., Fedorov A.V.i dr. Vlijanie mikroprimesej NaCl na dinamiku klasteroobrazovanija v zhidkoj vode: spektroskopija nizkochastotnogo kombinacionnogo rassejanija [The effect of NaCl trace components on the dynamics of cluster formation in liquid water: spectroscopy of low-frequency Raman scattering ], Pisma v ZhJeTF, journ., 1993, vol. 57, №.6, pp. 356 – 359 (in Russian).
4. Barbotina N.N. Jelektroprovodnost i dijelektricheskie harakteristiki vodnyh rastvorov rjada jelektrolitov v shirokom intervale koncentracij [The conductivity and dielectric characteristics of aqueous solutions of certain electrolytes in a wide range of concentrations], candidate of chemical science dissertation], M, 2003, p. 183 (in Russian).
5. Varnavskij I.N., Berdyshev G.D., Volga V.A. and others. Voda i zdorove [Water and health], Kiev, 1998, p. 230 (in Russian).
6. Goncharuk, V.V., Smirnov, V.N., Syroeshkin, A.V. i dr. Klastery i gigantskie geterofaznye klastery vody [Clusters and giant heterophase clusters of water], Himija i tehnologija vody, journ., 2007, vol. 29, № 1, pp. 3 – 17 (in Russian).
7. Goncharuk, V.V., Orehova E.A., Maljarenko V.V. Vlijanie temperatury na klastery vody [The effect of temperature on the water clusters], Himija i tehnologija vody, journ., 2008, vol. 30, N 2, pp. 150 – 158 (in Russian).
8. Zubova K.V., Zubov A.V., Zubov V.A. Klasternaja struktura zhidkih spirtov, vody i n-geksana [The cluster structure of liquid alcohols, water and n-hexane], Journal of Applied Spectroscopy”(JAS), 2005, vol. 72, № 3, pp. 305– 312 (in Russian).
9. Laptev B.I., Sidorenko G.N., Gorlenko N.P. and others. Processy strukturoobrazovanija v vode i v vodnyh rastvorah [Processes of structure formation in water and aqueous solutions], Water and ecology: problems and solutions, journ., 2012, № 2/3, pp. 26 –34 (in Russian).
10. Laptev B.I., Sidorenko G.N., Gorlenko N.P. and others. Vlijanie nagrevanija i koncentracii rastvorov na processy strukturoobrazovanija v vode i v vodnyh rastvorah [Effect of heating and solution concentration on structuration processes in water and aqueous solutions], Water and ecology: problems and solutions, journ., 2012, № 4, pp. 43 –50 (in Russian).
11. Levickij E. F., Laptev B. I., Sidorenko G. N. and others. Ispolzovanie metoda dijelektrometrii dlja ocenki struktury pitevyh i mineralnyh vod [The method of dielectrometry for assessment of structures of drinking and mineral waters], Fizioterapevt, journ., 2013, № 5, pp. 3-8 (in Russian).
12. Ljudvig V. Voda kak nositel informacii [Water as a data medium], Biologicheskaja medicina, journ., № 2, 2003. , pp. 4– 8 (in Russian).
13. Smirnov, P.R. Struktura vody i vodnyh rastvorov jelektrolitov v uslovijah, otlichnyh ot normalnyh [The structure of water and aqueous solutions of electrolytes in nonnormal conditions], abstract of doctorial thesis, M. , 2007, p. 27 (in Russian).
14. Uspenskaja E. V. Izuchenie struktury vody na supramolekuljarnom urovne dlja razrabotki novyh metodov standartizacii i kontrolja kachestva mineralnyh vod i zhidkih lekarstvennyh form [The study of the structure of water at the supramolecular level for the development of new methods of standardization and quality control of mineral waters and liquid dosage forms], abstracts of thesis of candidate of chemical science, M, 2007, p. 27 (in Russian).

Water disposal

Danilovich D.A.Results of the work of the Russian biggest nutrients removal block at Lyubertsy treatment plant designed using modern technologies—р.33 - 51

Development, adjustment and operating experience of nutrients removal block at Lyubertsy treatment plant (JSC “Mosvodokanal”) which daily intakes about 2 mil/m3 of waste waters are described in details. As a background of this block development, the 2-nd block at Novo-Lyubertsy treatment plant working on a two-stage technology of nitrification-denitrification which was built previously (in 1997) is described. The block of nutrients removal was designed in 1997-1998; its capacity is 500 thousand m3/day; it was started in 2006; it is operated by UCT technology. The detailed description of the block aeration tanks design is given; information on used equipment is presented. The important technological feature of the nutrients removal block is the absence of personal primary settlers since the block is discharging for all biological treatment plants. The start of the block was preceded by a number of technologies adoptions of nitrogen and phosphorus removal received by specialists of Moscvodokanal from 1999 to 2005. The brief description of objects of total capacity of 470 thousand m3/day completed in that period is presented. The detailed results of the nutrients removal block work in 2009-2013 are presented. During that period block provided implementation of project targets. On average for 5 years the effect of total nitrogen removal has made 75%, total phosphorus (by reagent-free technology) - 78%. The reasons of the adverse phosphorus removal in certain periods are analyzed; methods of increasing the depth of phosphorus removal to 0.2 mg/L. (by phosphorus phosphate) are described. The special attention is paid to insufficiently satisfactory work experience of the Austrian aeration system (blowers and aeration systems). Currently the work of these block systems is provided by Russian equipment. Recommendations on use of nitrogen and phosphorus biological removal technology in municipal waste waters are presented.
Key words: waste water treatment, removal of nitrogen and phosphorus, aeration system, Moscvodokanal, Lyubertsy treatment plant.
References: 1. Zagorskij V.A., Danilovich D.A., Dajneko F.A., Belov N.A., Berezin S.E., Bazhenov V.I., Jepov A.N. Rekonstrukcija ajerotenkov Ljubereckoj stancii ajeracii s vnedreniem tehnologii nitri-denitrifikacii [Reconstruction of aeration tanks of the Lyubertsy aeration station with the adoption of the technology of nitrification-denitrification], Vodosnabzhenie i sanitarnaja tehnika,journ., №11, 1999 (in Russian).
2. Zagorskij V.A., Danilovich D.A., Kozlov M.N., Mojzhes O.V., Belov N.A., Dajneko F.A., Muhin V.A. Opyt promyshlennogo vnedrenija tehnologij biologicheskogo udalenija azota i fosfora [The experience of industrial technology adoption of biological removal of nitrogen and phosphorus], Vodosnabzhenie i sanitarnaja tehnika,journ., №12, 2001 (in Russian).
3. Zagorskij V.A., Danilovich D.A., Kozlov M.N., Mojzhes O.V., Dajneko F.A. Sravnitelnyj analiz opyta promyshlennogo primenenija razlichnyh tehnologij udalenija fosfora iz gorodskih stochnyh vod [Comparative analysis of experience of industrial applications of various technologies for phosphorus removal from municipal wastewater], Vodosnabzhenie i sanitarnaja tehnika, journ., №5, 2004 (in Russian).
4. Hramenkov S.V., Danilovich D.A., Kozlov M.N., Strelcov S.A., Belov A.N., Mojzhes O.V., Vajsfeld B.A., Isaev O.N. Povyshenie kachestva ochishhennyh stochnyh vod na Kurjanovskih i Ljubereckih ochistnyh sooruzhenijah [Quality improvement of treated wastewater on Maryanovsky and Lyubertsy wastewater treatment facilities], Vodosnabzhenie i sanitarnaja tehnika, journ., 2006. №11, part 1 (in Russian).
5. Kevbrina M. V., Gavrilin A. M., Kozlov I. M. Novaja organizacija processa prefermentacii dlja udalenija biogennyh jelementov iz stochnyh vod [The new organization of the process of prefermentation for nutrient removal from wastewater], Vodosnabzhenie i sanitarnaja tehnika, journ., №10, 2012 (in Russian).
6. Kozlov M. N., Kazakova E. A., Harkina O. V., Dorofeev A. G., Nikolaev A. V. Novyj faktor upravlenija sooruzhenijami biologicheskogo udalenija fosfatov iz stochnoj vody [A new factor of the management structures of biological phosphate removal from wastewater] Vodosnabzhenie i sanitarnaja tehnika,journ., №3, 2011(in Russian).

I.I. IvanenkoAssessment of nitrogen and phosphorus removal from sludge treatment unit with deep biological nutrient removal at the WWTP of the city of Pushkin. p. 51-62

The article presents the laboratory studies data and conducted experimental monitoring on studying drain water quality and sludge dewatering shop centrate at the city of Pushkin domestic wastewaters treatment plant with introduced scheme of deep nutrient removal. The study resulted in obtaining data on nitrogen and phosphorus amount in return flows from the sludge treatment unit and shop of dewatering of mixture of raw sludge and surplus activated sludge. The results of the experiments concluded that when using traditional gravity method of raw sludge and surplus activated sludge compaction it is better to remove surplus activated sludge from the end of aerobic zone of aerotank biological unit system where it has the greatest amount of dissolved and bound (in the form of nitrates) oxygen for inhibition of biological phosphorus removal in the tank of secondary settling basin. Separate compaction of activated sludge and raw sludge reduces the weight of phosphorus in the water almost in two times. Also separate compaction allows decreasing the average humidity of the mixture up to 96 % in comparison with 96,5 – 97 % at joint compaction and dramatically reducing phosphorus removal from the sludge densifiers with 22-34 mg/l to 13-14 mg/L. Activated sludge compaction with the addition of flocculant does not bring significant results and can be used only in a particularly challenging environment. Data on amount of pollutions returned to the head of the treatment plant are obtained as a percentage of contaminant mass in the incoming waste waters by suspended solids, nutrients, organic contaminants which can be used for new treatment plants project development and reconstruction of existing ones and in any forward-looking balance calculations.
Key words: WWTP, nitrogen, phosphorus, return waters, sludge densifiers, drain water, compaction scheme, centrate, contamination return.
References: 1. Karmazinov F.V. and otehrs. «Otvedenie i ochistka stochnyh vod S-Peterburga», [Disposal and treatment of wastewaters of Saint-Petersburg”], Novyj zhurnal,publ., 2002 (in Russian).
2. Vsja pravda o poroshkah kotorye my ispolzuem [The full truth of detergents we use], (in Russian).
3. P. Rantanen «Biological phosphorus removal study at the Suomenoja research station», Vatten 50, Lund, 1994 (in English).
4. M. Hence, P. Armojes and others. Ochistka stochnyh vod [Waste water treatment], MIR,publ., M., 2004, p. 480 (in Russian).
5. Otchet na temu: «Opredelenie parametrov raboty ajerotenkov, uplotnitelej i centrifug pri glubokom udalenii azota i fosfora iz stochnyh vod KOS g. Pushkina» [Determination of working conditions of aerotanks, compactor and centrifuges with deep removal of nitrogen and phosphorus from wastewater of the WWTP, Pushkin], SPb, CJSC «Vodoproekt – Giprokommunvodokanal SPb», 2002-2003 (in Russian).
6. O.M. Merkel «Sovershenstvovanie metodov udalenija fosfora iz bytovyh stochnyh vod» [Improving of method of phosphorus removal from domestic waste waters], synopsis of the Ph.D. thesis in Engineering Science , Novosibirsk, 2003 (in Russian).
7. N.A. Zaletova «Ochistka gorodskih stochnyh vod ot biogennyh veshhestv (soedinenij azota i fosfora) [Municipal wastewaters treatment from nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorus compounds], synopsis of doctorial thesis, Moscow, 1999 (in Russian).
8. ATV 131 Raschet odnostupenchatyh ajerotenkov i vtorichnyh otstojnikov dlja privedennogo chisla zhitelej 5000 i bolee. Pravila. Stochnye vody – othody [The calculation of the single-stage aeration tanks and secondary clarifiers for the number of inhabitants of 5,000 or more. Rules. Waste waters - wastes], GFR, 2000 (in Russian).
9. Tehnicheskij spravochnik po obrabotke vody Degremon [Technical reference on water treatment Degremon], in 2 vol., translated under edition of Gerasimova N.G., Novyj mir, publ., 2007 (in Russian).
10. Ju.A. Nikolaev, Vanjushina A.Ja., Kolbasov G.A. Vydelenie fosfora iz biomassy aktivnogo ila v processe ego obrabotki [Phosphorus emission from activated sludge biomass in process of its treatment], materials of the Ecwatech conference, Moscow, 2010 (in Russian).

Drozd G.Ja., Hvortova M.Ju.Improvement of biological resistance of concrete sewer pipes by physicochemical method.. p. 63-69

The investigation of the impact of the concrete primary-secondary protection technology on formation and development of non-steady process of concrete sewer pipes biocorrosion which operation takes place in the context of reproduction on the background of the porous structure of concrete microorganisms-biodestructors on scheme of chain reaction within the aerobic - liquid nutrient medium with indirect accounting of variable pH is carried out. Obtained results allow influencing directly on concrete pipes protective means production technology with minimally rational wall thickness in the presence of the reinforcement cage (in particular, the use of fluating technology). It is experimentally proved that chemical treatment of particularly dense concrete by method of fluating contributes to the improvement of their biological and corrosion resistance.
Key words: sewer pipes, concrete, corrosion, fluating, microorganisms.
References: 1. Drozd G.Ja. Korrozionnye razrushenija, prognozirovanie stepeni agressivnosti jekspluatacionnoj sredy i obespechenie nadjozhnosti kanalizacionnyh kollektorov na stadii proektirovanija [Corrosion damage, forecasting of operational environment degree of aggressivity and assurance of sewage collectors reliability at the design stage] Voda i jekologija. Problemy i reshenija, journ., Saint-Peterburg, № 1, 2013 (53), pp. 40-59 (in Russian).
2. Dmitrieva E.Ju. Mikroorganizmy – biodestruktory podzemnyh kanalizacionnyh sooruzhenij [The microorganisms-acting as the agents of biodegradation in underground sewage facilities], Voda i jekologija. Problemy i reshenija, journ., 2013, №1, pp. 20-39 (in Russian).
3. DSTU B B.2.6 - 145:2010. Zahyst betonnyh i zalizobetonnyh konstrukcij vid korozii. Zagalni tehnichni vymogy (GOST 31384:2008; NEQ) [Protection of concrete and reinforced concrete structures from corrosion. General technical requirements (GOST 31384:2008; NEQ)], Kyiv, Minenergobud Ukrainy, 2010, p. 52 (in Ukrainian).
4. Cho К-S., Mori T. 1995. A newly isolated fungus participates in the corrosion of concrete sewer pipes. Water Science and Technology, 31, pp. 263-271 (in English).
5. Nica D., Davis J.L., Kirby L., Zuo G., Roberts D.J. Isolation and characterization of microorganisms involved in the biodeterioration of concrete in sewers. International Biodeterioration & Biodegradation, 2000, pp. 46, 61-68 (in English).
6. Gu Ji-Dong, Fordb T.E., Berkec N. S, Mitchell R. Biodeterioration of concrete by the fungus Fusarium. International Biodeterioration & Biodegradation, 1998, pp. 41, 101-109.1 (in English).
7. Shtark Y.. Vyht B. Dolgovechnost betona [Longevity of concrete] translated from German, edited by Kryvenko P.V., Kyev, Oranta,publ., 2004, pp. 249-253 (in Russian).
8. Gusev B.V., Fajvusovych A.S., Stepanova V.F., Rozental N.K. Matematycheskye modely processov korrozyy betona [Mathematical models of the concrete corrosion processes] M., YYC «Tymr», publ., 1996, p. 104 (in Russian).
9. V.Y. Babushkyn. Zashhyta stroytelnыh konstrukcyj ot korrozyy starenyja y yznosa [Protection of building structures against corrosion, ageing and wear], Harkov, Vyshha shkola, publ., p. 167 (in Russian).
10. Instrukcija po zashhite zhelezobetona i kamennoj kladki lakokrasochnymi i gidrofobizirujushhimi pokrytijami [Instructions for the protection of concrete and stonework by paint and hydrophobizating coatings], M., Gosizdatelstvo literatury po stroitelstvu, arhitekture i stroitelnym materialam,publ., 1960, p. 60 (in Russian).
11. Andrejuk E.,Bilaj V., Koval Je., Kozlova I. Mikrobnaja korrozija i ee vozbuditeli [Microbial corrosion and its agents], Kiev, Naukova dumka,publ., 1980, p. 288 (in Russian).


Semenov I.E.Water from the air. p. 70-80

Nowadays humanity has to admit that there is an acute lack of fresh water in the Earth. This lack becomes one of the main factors which hinder development of civilization in many parts of the world.
The article presents the investigation results on obstacles that occur on the way of creation and implementation of such prospective methods of water production as fresh water production from the atmosphere air. The birth of the idea of the generator and description of implementation and researches carried out in different periods are presented. It is shown that the main problem of condensing generator efficient work is the active heating of the condensing surface and necessity to cool it. The author’s test data by which unit capacity for Moscow city conditions makes about 0,56 l/h from the square meter of condensing surface is presented. Prospectivity and high efficiency of the method is displayed.
Key words: fresh water, condensation, relative humidity, condensation temperature, atmosphere, solar collector.
References: 1. Zaharov I.A. Jekologicheskaja genetika i problemy biosfery [Ecological genetics and biosphere problems], L., Znanie,publ., 1984. (in Russian)
2. Kuznecova V.N. Jekologija Rossii: Hrestomatija [Ecology of Russia: reading book], M., AOMDS, publ., 1995. (in Russian)
3. Nebel B. Nauka ot okruzhajushhej srede: Kak ustroen mir [Environmental science: how does the world arranged], in 2 vol., transl. from Eng., M., Mir, 1993. (in Russian)
4. Patent RF №20564479 «Ustanovka dlja kondensacii presnoj vody iz atmosfernogo vozduha» [Unit for fresh water condensation from the atmosphere air] (in Russian)
5. Patent RF №2131001 «Ustanovka dlja poluchenija presnoj vody iz atmosfernogo vozduha» [Unit for fresh water production from the atmosphere air] (in Russian)
6. United States Patent № 6,116,034 «SISTEM FOR FRESH WATER FROM ATMOSPHERIC. AIR/ Sep/ 2000. (in English)
7. Patent of Russia №2256036 «Avtonomnaja ustanovka dlja kondensacii presnoj vody iz atmosfernogo vozduha» [Self-contained unit for fresh water condensation from the atmosphere air] (in Russian)
8. Semenov I.E. Avtonomnaja ustanovka dlja kondensacii presnoj vody iz atmosfernogo vozduha [Self-contained unit for fresh water condensation from the atmosphere air], Water supply and sanitary technique,journ., 2007, №12 (in Russian).



Ju.A. Feofanov, I.V. Hirshieva The special features of coagulation of colored waters of low turbidity using weighting agents p.3-9

The article presents the research results on optimal conditions definition of coagulation of colored waters of low turbidity using previously formed sludge, quartz sand and iron powder as weighting agents. The aims of conducted researches were definition of different additives use efficiency at the Neva river water coagulation, identification of the optimal dose of weighting agents using flocculant and water temperature effect on its treatment efficiency. The researchers showed that using weighting agents of higher density such as quartz sand and iron powder at the Neva river coagulation caused the quality improvement of treated water and significant time reduction of formed flock deposition. Using flocculants at water coagulation allowed reducing the dose of weighting agents without sacrificing the quality of treated water.
The coagulation treatment of the Neva river water presented a high efficiency of weighting agents’ application at low temperatures of treated water.
Key words: water treatment, treatment of colored water of low turbidity, intensification of water coagulation process, coagulant flocks weighting agents.
References: 1. SP 31.13330.2012 Vodosnabzhenie. Naruzhnye seti i sooruzhenija. [Water supply. Public utilitie], revised edition of SNiP 2.04.20-84, M., 2012. (in Russian)
2. Vodosnabzhenie Sankt-Peterburga [Water suppy of Saint-Petersburg], under the general editorship of F.V. Karmazinov, Saint-Peterburg, Izd-vo «Novyj zhurnal»,publ., 2003, p. 687. (in Russian)
3. Tehnicheskij spravochnik po obrabotke vody [Technical reference book on water treatment] in 2 vol., translated from French, SPb., Novyj zhurnal, publ., 2007, p. 1696. (in Russian)
4. Booker N. A. Sewage clarification with magnetite particles / Booker N. A., Keir D., Priestley A. J., Ritchie C. B., Sudarmana D. L., Woods M. A. // Water Science and Technology. – 1991. Vol. 23. – P. 1703-1712. (in English)
5. Feofanov Ju. A. Rezul'taty issledovanij po primeneniju dobavok-utjazhelitelej dlja intensifikacii processa koaguljacii [Investigation results on use of weighting agents for coagulation process intensification], Ju. A. Feofanov, I. V. Hirshieva, Vestnik grazhdanskikh ingenerov,journ., 2013, № 3 (38), pp. 129-134. (in Russian)
6. Hirshieva I. V. Intensifikacija processa koaguljacii malomutnyh cvetnyh vod s vvedeniem dobavok-utjazhelitelej [ Coagulation process intensification of colored waters of low turbidity by weighting agents adding], Modern problems of science and education, journ., 2014, № 2; URL: (in Russian)
7. Ju. A. Feofanov, I. V. Hirshieva. Povyshenie jeffektivnosti processa koaguljacii malomutnyh cvetnyh vod putem vvedenija dobavok-utjazhelitelej [Coagulation process intensification of colored waters of low turbidity by weighting agents adding. p. 24-30], Water and ecology: problems and solutions, journ., 2014, № 2, pp. 24-30 (in Russian)

Garashhenko V.I., Astrelin I.M., Garashhenko A.V.The research of active parameters of water environment magnetic cleaning process p.10-24

The researches present the negative effect of iron bearing impurities containing in industrial waters of thermal power plants for heat and power units work. It is proved that at 1,5-3 mm of depositions on heat generating surface of the heat power plant equipment fuel loss makes 15-25% when 70-90% of iron bearing impurities which deposit on heating surfaces have magnetic properties that supposes using reagentless, ecologically friendly magnetic method of industrial waters treatment by magnetic filters with ferromagnetic granular filter bed. The research results of active parameters effect such as the length of filer bed (L), intensity of the external magnetic field (H), filtering rate (V) on magnetic cleaning process efficiency (?) are presented. The following substances were used as filter beds: ferrite bed, ferromagnetic bed and new offered ferrite-ferromagnetic filter bed which contains composition of ferrite and ferromagnetic substance granules. Proportion of these granules is defined by coefficient ?=mк/mf (mк – mass of bearing steel balls, mf – mass of ferrite granules). Such filter bed can be used for efficient treatment of both high- and low-concentrated water environments. On the base of test results the influence curves of iron containing impurities, treatment efficiency and logarithmic coefficient of treatment from active parameters of magnetic cleaning process (L, V, H) are designed. The curves of relative iron concentration and differential curves of aqua dispersion magnetite slurry treatment from active parameters of magnetic cleaning process for different ?-coefficient values are designed. The recommendation on rational values selection of treatment process active parameters is given. The gained results are applied at production and implementation of magnetic filter for drainage condensate treatment from iron containing impurities at one of the thermal power plants of Ukraine. The industrial tests results of this filter which show that the efficiency of drainage condensate treatment makes 67-70% and 87-90% in the magnetic fraction are presented. The recommended scheme of magnetic filter inclusion in the processing line of the thermal power plant is presented; recommendations on selection of rational place of magnetic filter inclusion in the processing scheme of the plant are given.
Key words: magnetic cleaning, ferromagnetic filter bed, magnetic filtration.
References: 1. Guzhulev Je.P., Shalaj V.V., Gricenko V.I., Taran M.A. Vodopodgotovka i vodno-himicheskie rezhimy v teplojenergetike: Ucheb. Posobie [Water treatment and water-chemistry conditions in thermal engineering: study guide], Omsk, OmGTU, 2005, p. 384 (in Russian).
2. Kostrikin Ju.M., Meshherskij N.A., Korovina O.V. Vodopodgotovka i vodnyj rezhim jenergoob#ektov nizkogo i srednego davlenija [Water treatment and water regimes of energy facilities of low and medium pressure] M., Jenergoatomizdat,publ., 1990, p. 251 (in Russian).
3. L.A. Kul'skij, Je.B. Strahov, A.M. Voloshinova Ochistka vod atomnyh jelektrostancij [Nuclear power plant water treatment], K., Naukova dumka,publ., 1979, p. 208 (in Russian).
4. Garashhenko V.I., Garashhenko O.V., Luk’janchuk O.P. Energoefektyvna tehnologija magnitnogo ochyshhennja vodnyh system vid dyspersnyh feromagnitnyh zabrudnen' [Energy efficient technology of magnetic water purification systems from dispersed ferromagnetic impurities] Innovative technologies: XIV international scientific-practical conference, 2011, abstracts, Odessa , 2011 (in Ukrainian).
5. Garashhenko V.I., Astrelin I.M., Garashhenko O.V. Magnito-fil'tracijni vlastyvosti kompozycijnoi' granul'ovanoi' zagruzky magnitnyh fil'triv [Magneto-filtration properties of composite granular magnetic filters bed], Journal “Water&Water Purification Technologies. Scientific and Technical News, 2011, №2, pp. 11-17 (in Ukrainian).
6. Garashhenko V.I., Garashhenko A.V., Luk’janchuk A.P. Osazhdenie dispersnoj fazy primesej zhidkih sred v namagnichennoj ferrito-ferromagnitnoj zagruzke [Deposition of the dispersed phase in liquid environments admixtures in a magnetized ferrite-ferromagnetic bed], Zhurnal fizicheskoj himii, journ., M., 2012, №4, vol. 86, pp. 685-688 (in Russian).
7. Martynova O.I. Voprosy ochistki kondensata i obrabotki dobavochnoj vody na krupnyh TJeS [Issues of condensate purification and make-up water treatment at large heat and power plants], M,., Jenergija, publ., 1973, p. 73 (in Russian).
8. A.V. Sanduljak, L.N. Lazarenko, V.I. Garashhenko and others. Opredelenie magnitnyh form soedinenij zheleza v vodah jelektrostancij [Determination of the magnetic form of iron compounds in the waters of power stations], Jenergetika, publ., 1979, № 9, pp. 46-50 (in Russian).
9. V.I. Garashhenko, I.G. Skrypnyk, O.P. Luk’janchuk, O.V. Garashhenko Magnito-sorbcijni vlastyvosti granul'ovanyh fil'trujuchyh nasadok [Magnetic-sorption properties of granular filter nozzles], Newsletter of the National University of Water Management and Nature Resources Use, 2008, № 3, pp. 184-191 (in Ukrainian).
10. N.P. Lapotyshkina, V.S. Sinicyn, G.M. Musarova Magnitnoe obezzhelezivanie turbinnogo kondensata v sheme kondensatoochistki blochnyh TJeS [Magnetic iron removal of turbine condensate in the condensate purification scheme of block-type thermal power plant], Water-chemistry conditions and and corrosion of heat and power equipment, 1975, № 5, pp.34-43 (in Russian).
11. O.I. Martynova, A.S. Kopylov //O primenenii jelektromagnitnyh fil'trov dlja udalenija iz vody ferromagnitnyh primesej [The use of electromagnetic filters for removal of water ferromagnetic admixtures], Thermal engineering, journ., 1972, № 3, pp. 67-69 (in Russian).
12. Utility model patent of Ukraine №71149, IPC V01D 35/06. Fil'trujuchyj napovnjuvach dlja magnitnogo ochyshhennja [Filter filler for magnetic filtration], Garashhenko O.V., certificate .№13, 10.07.2012 (in Ukrainian).
13. Sanduljak A.V. Magnito-fil'tracionnaja ochistka zhidkostej i gazov [Magnetic filtration purification of liquids and gases], M., Himija,publ., 1988, p. 132 (in Russian).
14. Garashhenko V.І., Bomba A.Ja., Garashhenko O.V. Otchet o nauchno-issledovatel'skoj rabote «Doslіdzhennja ta teoretiko-eksperimental'ne obґruntuvannja osnovnih parametrіv procesu magnіtnogo osadzhennja feromagnіtnih domіshok v polіgradієntnih fіl'trujuchih zagruzkah» №0112U001591 [Report on the research work “Research and theoretical and experimental substantiation of the basic process parameters of the magnetic deposition of ferromagnetic impurities in the field gradient filter bed], Rovno, 2013, p.82 (in Ukrainian).
15. Garashhenko V.I., Garashhenko O.V. Manufacture patent of Ukraine №104938, IPC V01D35/06 Magnitnyj fil'tr-osadzhuvach [Magnetic filter- precipitator], certificate №6, 25.03.2014 (in Ukrainian).

Water disposal

Probirskij M.D., Rublevskaja O.N.The problems of disposal and treatment of surface runoff of Saint-Petersburg p.25-39

The article considers the issues connected with the negative effect of untreated surface runoff discharge on water bodies and the issue solutions in such a large city as Saint-Petersburg. The main source data for treatment technology selection is quality and degree of surface runoff pollution density as well as its quantity characteristics. The study of precipitation irregularity by the rain gauge network setup in different city districts simultaneously with the development of automated system and specification of surface runoff volume calculation methodology, study of the surface runoff pollution density and runoff treatment methods are the guidelines conducted by the city professionals for the full problems solution of surface runoff disposal and treatment up to the 2030 year. The article also presents the first major surface runoff treatment plants in Saint-Petersburg which are on different stages now, which are operation, construction, start-up work and designing. On the each stage different technological schemes are implemented; different equipment is installed. On the base of the data analysis of operation and start up work the development of the best scheme and the selection of the best equipment for the replication at other city objects are carried out. The article presents the results of the tests of different filtering modules for the technological solution selection of treatment of surface runoff incoming to separate rain gauges. It also represents the use experience of storm-blocks for runoff retention at the treatment plant of the new air harbor of Saint-Petersburg.
Key words: direct wastewater discharge, surface flow, surface water volume calculation, precipitation gauge, surface flow treatment plants.
References: 1. Metodika raschjota objomov organizovannogo i neorganizovannogo dozhdevogo, talogo i drenazhnogo stoka v sistemy kommunal'noj kanalizacii [The method of calculation of organized and unorganized volume of rain, snowmelt and drainage runoff of water sewage systems], Spb, Jekologija i pravo, publ., 2000 (in Russian).
2. Rekomendacii po raschetu sistem sbora, otvedenija i ochistki poverhnostnogo stoka s selitebnyh territorij, ploshhadok predprijatij i opredeleniju uslovij vypuska ego v vodnye obekty [Recommendations on engineering of systems of collection, disposal and treatment of surface runoff from residential areas, areas of enterprise and determination of the conditions of runoff release to water bodies ], Federal Agency for Construction, Housing and Public Utilities, FGUP «NII VODGEO»,publ., 2013 (in Russian).
3. Pravila pol'zovanija sistemami kommunal'noj kanalizacii», utverzhdjonnye Sankt-Peterburgskim Komitetom po jenergetiki i inzhenernomu obespecheniju [The rules of municipal sewerage system use approved by St. Petersburg Committee for energy and engineering support], №11 on 01.06.2000 (in Russian).
4. Prikaz Federal'nogo agentstva po rybolovstvu ot 18 janvarja 2010 goda №20 «Ob utverzhdenii normativov kachestva vody vodnyh obektov rybo-hozjajstvennogo naznachenija» [The order of Federal Agency for fishery from January 18, 2010 №20 "On approval of water quality standards for water bodies for fishery purposes"] (in Russian).
5. SanPiN «Gigienicheskie trebovanija k ohrane poverhnostnyh vod» [Hygienic requirements to the protection of surface waters] (in Russian).
6. Postanovlenie Pravitel'stva Rossijskoj Federacii ot 29 ijulja 2013 goda №644 «Ob utverzhdenii Pravil holodnogo vodosnabzhenija i vodootvedenija» [On adoption of regulations of cold water supply and disposal] (in Russian).
7. Rasporjazhenie Pravitel'stva Sankt-Peterburga ot 8 nojabrja 2012 goda №148 «Ob ustanovlenii normativov vodootvedenija po sostavu stochnyh vod v sistemy kommunal'noj kanalizacii Sankt-Peterburga» [The order of the Saint-Petersburg government on 8th of November 2012 №2012 “On regulation of water disposal standards by waste water composition in the municipal sewerage system of Saint-Petersburg], (in Russian).
8. Kim A. N., Mihajlov N.N., Sooruzhenija ochistki poverhnostnogo stoka s territorii nezhiloj zony «Pulkovo-3» [The treatment plants of surface runoff from the non-residential area of Pulkovo-3], «Inzhenernye sistemy», journ., AVOK Severo-Zapad,publ., 2006, № 1(21) (in Russian).
9. Kim A. N., Modernizacija ochistnyh sooruzhenij poverhnostnyh stokov predprijatija [Modernization of surface wastewater treatment plants], Water and ecology: problems and solutions,journ., № 4, 2013 (in Russian).
10. Ivanenko I.I., Issledovanija kachestva i kolichestva poverhnostnogo i drenazhnogo stoka dlja stroitel'stva ochistnyh sooruzhenij poverhnostnogo stroka v pos. Osinovaja roshha [Qualitative and quantitative research of surface runoff and drainage effluent for construction of surface runoff treatment facilities at community of Osinovaya Roscha], Water and ecology: problems and solutions,journ., № 2, 2013 (in Russian).
11. Menshutin Ju.A., Vereshhagina L.M., Kerin A.S., Logunova A.Ju., Fomicheva E.V., Poverhnostnyj stok: novyj metodicheskij document [Surface runoff: new guidance document], Industrial Ecology,journ., № 8, 2014 (in Russian).

Vardanjan M.A.The treatment of oil containing waters in the bulk filter on the layer of expanded perlite p.40-48

The typical features of oil containing water flows are composition impermanence and concentration of polluting oil products as well as presence of solid clay suspended substances in water on which oil products selectively sorb. Traditionally treatment from oil products is a technology with consistent use of different physico-chemical processes which final process is a two-stage filtration through granular materials. However, efficient and rational methods of filter beds regeneration are not developed and, particularly, such beds as heat-treated antrafilt and activated carbon. Used material is unloaded with difficulty that causes extra problems with its hand unloading.
To find an acceptable substitution of heat-treated antrafilt and activated carbon powder, fibrous and granular materials able to remove oil products from wastewaters were investigated.
The article presents the results of author’s long-termed researches on study of expanded perlite potential for use in the pressure bulk filter in the process of oil containing wastewaters treatment. The laboratory studies on filter-sorbing properties of expanded perlite with a view to deep fine treatment of oil containing waters are carried out. The effect of fractional composition of expanded perlite, concentrations and oil products phase state in water, temperature, hydrodynamic conditions as well as sorbent contact time with feedwater on the degree of extraction of oil products is identified. The application field of different fractions of this material are defined: for a rough mechanical treatment up to concentration of 2 mg/l – mixture of coarse fraction of 5-15 mm when for a fine sorption treatment up to 0,3 mg/l – mixture of fine fraction of 2-5 mm. In the dynamic conditions the oil capacity of expanded perlite fraction mixture of 2-5 and 5-15 mm is defined. It respectively makes 0,40 и 0,39g/g while some part of oil products has been absorbed by the material irreversibly. On the base of the investigations the source data of oil containing wastewaters treatment technologies development where the layer of expanded perlite of relevant fraction will be used as a bed for industrial filters of coarse and fine treatment is defined.
Key words: oil containing waters, pressure bulk filter, expanded perlite, dynamic oil capacity, residual concentration.
References: 1. Akopjan A.S. Perlity Armenii i jekonomicheskij jeffekt ih primenenija v narodnom hozjajstve [Perlites of Armenia and the economic effect of their application in national economy], Erevan, Ajastan,publ., 1970, p. 126 (in Russian).
2. Brodskij E.S., Savchuk S.A. Opredelenie nefteproduktov v ob#ektah okruzhajushhej sredy [The definition of oil products in the environment], Journal of Analytical Chemistry, 1998, №12, p. 2 (in Russian).
3. Vardanjan M.A., Varderesjan G.C., Sirakanjan M.A. and others. Vybor mestnyh fil'trujushhe-sorbcionnyh materialov dlja ochistki stochnyh vod ot nefteproduktov: Tezisy dokladov IV Mezhdunarodnogo kongressa «Voda: Jekologija i Tehnologija» 30 maja – 2 ijunja 2000 g [Selection of local filtering sorption materials for the purification of waste water from oil: abstracts of reports of the IV International congress “Water: Ecology and technology”, 30 of May – 2 of Jine 2000], Moscow, 2000, p. 481 (in Russian).
4. Varderesjan G.C., Vardanjan M.A., Sirakanjan M.A., Tagmazjan K.C. Razrabotka tehnologii dlja ochistki stochnyh vod GRJeS ot nefteproduktov sorbcionnym metodom: Sb. mat. godichnoj nauch. konf. GIUA 27 – 28 oktjabrja 1998 g [Development of technologies for state district power plant wastewater treatment from oil by sorption method: collection of works of the annual scientific conference of State Engineering University of Armenia], Erevan, 1998, p. 37 (in Russian).
5. Zhuzhikov V.A. Fil'trovanie [Filtering], M., Himija,publ., 1971, p. 440 (in Russian).
6. Krupa A.A. Fiziko-himicheskie osnovy poluchenija poristyh materialov iz vulkanicheskih stekol [Physico-chemical basis for porous materials of volcanic glasses ], Kiev, Vishha shkola, publ., 1978, p. 136 (in Russian).
7. Lur'e Ju.Ju., Rybnikova A.I. Himicheskij analiz proizvodstvennyh stochnyh vod [Chemical analysis of industrial waste waters], M., Himija, publ., 1974, p. 334 (in Russian).
8. Perlity: Sbornik statej [Perlites:collection of articles] executive editors V.V. Nasedkin, V.P. Petrov, M., Nauka,publ., 1981, p. 296 (in Russian).
9. Tarasevich Ju.I. Prirodnye sorbenty v processah ochistki vody [Natural sorbents in processes of water treatment], Kiev, Naukova dumka,publ., 1981, p. 207 (in Russian).

Andzhej Raganovich, Elena Neverova-DziopakThe critical technical state of concrete collectors p.49-58

The article presents methods of the statistical-stochastic modeling of technical state of concrete collectors with diameters of DN 600/1100-900/1350 mm located in the basin of the Hachinger Bach river, Germany. The investigated collectors serve for domestic waste waters disposal from the territory of the Bavarian municipality Unterhaching. The critical technical state is defined by the theoretical boundary between the area of appropriate sewerage collectors which require conservation and the area of collectors which require renovation. The identification of this boundary allows defining the scale of required renovation that is an essential aspect of rational use of each sewerage infrastructure. The statistical stage of the researches is based on the Weibull distribution while the final form of the critical curve is defined on the base of the mathematical modeling by the Monte-Carlo method.
Key words: sewerage network, concrete collectors, technical state, statistical-stochastic forecasting.
References: 1. ATV-M 149, Zustandserfassung, -klassifizierung und –bewertung von Entw?sserungssystemen au?erhalb von Geb?uden, 1999.
2. Cottin C., D?hler S.: Risikoanalyse – Modellierung, Beurteilung und Management von Risiken mit Praxisbeispielen, 2. Auflage, Springer Fachmedien Wiesbaden 2009, 2013.
3. Hengartner W., Theodorescu R.: Einf?hrung in Monte-Carlo-Methode, Carl Hanser Verlag, M?nchen-Wien 1978.
4. M?ller-Gronbach T., Novak E., Ritter K.: Monte Carlo – Algorithmen, Springer-Verlag, Berlin Heidelberg 2012.
5. Leisch F.: Computerintensive Methoden, LMU M?nchen, WS 2010/2011, 8 Zufallszahlen.

Goncharenko D.F., Olejnik D.Ju., Bondarenko D.A.The selection of design and technology solutions for inspection shafts construction at existing deep-laid water disposal networks p.59-68

The article is dedicated to issues of selection of technologies of corrosion protection and pressure of the groundwater of concrete inspection shafts during their erection on deep-laid automatic flow tanks.
Technology solutions of repair and restoration of concrete structures of inspection shafts using panel, ceramic brick and other common and modern building materials are observed.
The investigation results on technology solutions and materials for inspection shafts construction on existing deep-laid water disposal networks are presented. The laboratory researches allowed making solutions on applicability of concrete for these purposes containing complex chemical additives as well as technologies with the use of polyethylene sheets.
It is found out that the final version of the anticorrosion coat appliance of concrete inspection shafts can be selected in accordance with the specific conditions of construction operations and technical-economic values of observed coat version.
Key words: water disposal, inspection shaft, reinforced concrete, corrosion, polyethylene.
References: 1. Goncharenko D.F., I.V. Korin'ko, G.O. Sankov Stan oblycjuvannja shahtnyh stvoliv kanalizacijnyh kolektoriv i sposoby i'h remontu [The condition of the lining of the shafts sewers and their repair], Budivnyctvo Ukrai'ny, journ., Kyiv, 1997, issue 12, pp. 10-12 (in Ukrainian).
2. Goncharenko D.F., Y.V. Koryn'ko, D.A. Bondarenko Tehnologyja remonta y vosstanovlenyja shahtnыh stvolov na setjah vodootvedenyja glubokogo zalozhenyja [Technology of repair and restoration of mine shafts of deep-laid water disposal networks], Water supply and sanitary techniques,journ., Moscow, 2012, issue 6, pp. 51-55 (in Russian).
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6. Goncharenko D.F. Jekspluatacija, remont i vosstanovlenie setej vodootvedenija [Maintenance, repair and restoration of networks], Kharkov, Konsum, publ., 2008, p. 400 (in Russian).
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9. Babushkin V.I., Kondrashhenko O.V., Kostjuk T.O., Proshhin O.Ju. Kompozycija pronyknoi' dii' dlja vidnovljuvannja zrujnovanogo betonu [Composition of penetrating action for recovery of damaged concrete], Patent of Ukraine, UA № 73395, publ. 15.07.2005, bulletin №7 (in Ukrainian).
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A.A. Fejzullaev, Ch.S. Alyev, M. Bonyny, O. Vaselly, R.Dzh. Bagyrly, F.F.MahmudovaThe ecological assessment of radon concentration in thermal waters of the Talysh in Azerbaijan p.69-80

The article presents the results of the first estimated assessments of the radon level in thermal waters of the Talysh region. The investigation of the 9 natural water outputs in the 7 thermal sources allowed determining of radon values changes in the very wide ranges – from 3,73 up to 93,3 Bq/L. which are typical to groundwater. They are defined as slightly radon. The dependence of radon content on gas composition/ gas saturation of water is noted: relatively low content of radon is typical for nitric water, the highest – for acidulous water, intermediate value – for methane water. The rated depth of aquifer does not exceed 2,4 km. According to sanitary-hygienic standards radon content of thermal water of the Talysh, except the watersource Buludul in the Yardymli District, is not dangerous to human health when taking bath and using as a drinking water. In the water of the Buludul radon content exceeds the maximum allowable concentration in more than 1,5 times adopted for a drinking water.
Key words: radon, thermal waters, concentration, danger, human health, Talysh.
References: 1. Askerov A.G. 1954. Mineral'nye istochniki Azerbajdzhanskoj SSR [Mineral water sources of the Azerbaijan Soviet Socialist Republic]. Izd-vo AGU, publ., Baku, p. 330 (in Russian).
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7. Nuralieva U., Bahtin M., Zhakenova A., Altaeva N. 2011. Radiacionnaja obstanovka skvazhinnyh vod nekotoryh regionov Kazahstana [Radiation environment of wellbore water in some regions of Kazakhstan], Newsletter of Kazakh National Medical University, 17 October (in Russian).
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