Archive logs by year


Water supply

Krasnova T.A., Timoshhuk I.V., Shulzhenko Ju.S.Development of the drinking water afterpurification technology from organic substances treated by ozonation. p.3-9

The research of adsorption of formaldehyde and acetaldehyde from water mixture on activated carbons of following types: AG-3 (coal based), ABG (wood based) and KsAU (drupaceous coal) which differ in nature, structure and specific surface is carried out. The main patterns, features and mechanisms of organic substances adsorption on active carbons are defined; kinetic and dynamic sorption process specifications which are necessary for engineering calculations are identified. It is presented that according to Giles’ classification formaldehyde adsorption isotherms refer to L-type, acetaldehyde adsorption isotherms – to S-type. The basis adsorption features using the theory of monomolecular adsorption (equation of Freundlich and Langmuir), theory of volume filling of micropores (Dubinin-Radushkevich equation) and Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) theory of polymolecular adsorption which are necessary for engineering calculations of industrial adsorption plants are defined. The mechanism of mass transfer at adsorption of mixture of formaldehyde and acetaldehyde on different brands of activated carbon is presented. The coefficients of external mass transfer which are necessary for engineering calculations of adsorption column are calculated. The optimization method of parameters and modes of continuous absorption cleaning process based on the fundamental equation of external diffusion adsorption dynamics which is selected by the form of adsorption isotherm using adsorption constants of the Dubinin-Radushkevich equation and kinetic dependence is suggested. The fit of experimentally and theoretically calculated curves proves the validity of suggested approach to adsorption dynamics modeling and gives the opportunity to define the dynamic characteristics of adsorption without extra tests. The basic features of adsorption dynamics such as length of working layer, length of unused layer, protective action coefficient, which allowed defining column operating times, amount of treated water regarding the throughput rate, fixed layer depth and column size are defined.
On the base of complex research of organic substances adsorption process (equilibrium, kinetics and dynamics) and optimization of treatment mode and adsorption column parameters using mathematical modeling the technology solution for drinking water aftertreatment from formaldehyde and acetaldehyde formed on the stage of ozonation in the process of water treatment is developed.
Key words: adsorption, active carbons, drinking water, formaldehyde, acetaldehyde.
References: 1. Belikov, S.E. Vodopodgotovka: Spravochnik [Water treatment. Guidebook], edited by S.E. Belikov, M., Akva-Term, publ., 2007, p. 240 (in Russian).
2. Grushko, Ja.M. Vrednye organicheskie soedinenija v promyshlennyh stochnyh vodah: Spravochnik [Harmful organic compounds of indutrial waste waters. Guidebook], L., Himija,publ., 2002, p. 216 (in Russian).
3. Kelcev, N.V. Osnovy adsorbcionnoj tehniki: monografija [Bases of adsorption technique: monograph], 2nd edition, revised and enlarged, M., Himija,publ., 1984, p. 592 (in Russian).
4. Adsorbcija iz rastvorov na poverhnosti tverdyh tel [Adsorption from solutions on solid surfaces ], translated from English; edited by G.Parfit, K.Rochester, M., Mir,publ., 1986, p. 488 (in Russian).
5. Koganovskij, A.M. Adsorbcija organicheskih veshhestv iz vody [Absorption of organic substances from water], N.A. Klimenko, T.M. Levchenko, I.G. Roda. L., Himija,publ., 1990 p. 256 (in Russian).
6. Koganovskij, A.M. Ochistka i ispolzovanie stochnyh vod v promyshlennom vodosnabzhenii [Treatment and use of waste waters in industrial water supply], A.M. Koganovskij, N.A. Klimenko, T.M. Levchenko, R.M. Marutovskij, I.G. Roda, M., Himija, publ., 1983, p. 288 (in Russian).
7. Fedotkin, I.M. Ob opredelenii kojefficienta vneshnego massoobmena pri adsorbcii iz rastvorov [Evaluation of external mass exchange coefficient at adsorption from solutions], I.M. Fedotkin, A.M. Koganovskij, I.G. Roda, R.M. Marutovskij, Russian Journal of Physical Chemistry, 1974, vol. 48, № 2, pp. 473-475 (in Russian).
8. Krasnova, T.A. Kinetics of formaldehyde adsorption by activated carbon/ T.A.Krasnova, M.P.Kirsanov, N.A. Samoilova, I.V. Chekannikova// Ecological Congress International journal. – USA – Kansas. – Spring. - 2001. – V. 4. - №3. - p. 5-8 (in English).
9. Krasnova, T.A. Razrabotka adsorbcionnyh processov podgotovki vody dlja pishhevyh proizvodstv v promyshlenno razvityh regionah: monografija [Development of adsorption processes of water treatment for food production in industrialized regions: a monograph], T.A.Krasnova, I.V.Timoshhuk, Kemerovo, KemIFST, publ., 2014, p. 212 (in Russian).

Hamidullina E.A., Timofeeva S.S., Davydkina O.A.Risk assessment of complex effect of water chlorination by-products on human health. p.10-18

The aim of presented work is the risk assessment of effect of volatile halogenorganic compounds contained in drinking water by the reason of using chlorine for water treatment on human health. The indicator of these compounds content is chloroform, which is dominant in trihalomethane content and which was included in the list of substances controlled in drinking water of the central domestic water supply system in the system of social-hygienic monitoring in Irkutsk Region in 2013. The calculation of multienvironmental cancer risk of chloroform effect including oral, inhalation and percutaneous routes of entry of substances into the human organism is performed. The calculation of the individual cancer risk is carried out using data of affecting concentrations, exposure value and cancerogenic potential factors value. It is presented that the relative contribution to the formation of the total individual risk of chloroform content in drinking water of adsorbed cutaneous dose, ingestion intake and inhalation exposure is defined by the ratio of 1: 0,6 : 2000. Thus, the greatest risk is caused by inhalation. It is found out that even if chloroform concentrations in water is below the allowable level the significant number of additional cases of oncology diseases is expected. According to the calculations up to 1212 additional (to underlying) cases of tumorogenesis may occur to the population of the city of Irkutsk throughout the life due to the effect of inhaling vaporizing chloroform. The presented regularity is observed in the values of population annual carcinogenic risk. The performed calculations indicate the necessity to make optimal management decisions on refraining from using free chlorine for water disinfection.
Key words: volatile halogenorganic compounds, chloroform, drinking water, cancer risk, risk assessment.
References: 1. Rukovodstvo po obespecheniju kachestva pitevoj vody. Rekomendacii. Vsemirnaja organizacija zdravoohranenija [Guidance for drinking-water quality. Recommendations], The world health organization, Geneva, 2004, vol.1 (in Russian).
2. Kirichenko V.E., M.G. Pervova, K.I. Pashkevich Galogenorganicheskie soedinenija v pitevoj vode i metody ih opredelenija [Organohalogen compounds in drinking water and methods of their determination], Rossijskij himicheskij zhurnal,journ., 2002, № 4, pp. 18-27 (in Russian).
3. Moskvin A.V. Novyj spravochnik himika i tehnologa. Radioaktivnye veshhestva. Vrednye veshhestva. Gigienicheskie normativy [A new reference book of chemist and technologist. Radioactive substances. Harmful substances. Hygienic standards.], SPb, ANO NPO "Professional",publ., 2011, p. 1142 (in Russian).
4. Iksanova T.I., A. G. Malysheva and others. Gigienicheskaja ocenka kompleksnogo dejstvija hloroforma pitevoj vody [Hygienic evaluation of combined effect of chloroform in drinking water], Gigiena i Sanitariia, 2006, № 2, pp. 18-27 (in Russian).
5. Resolution of the Chief State Medical Officer of Russian Federation on 30.04.2003 № 78 (as amended on 16.09.2013) “On introduction of GN (hygienic standards)» (along with GN Threshold limit value (TLV) of chemical substances in water of water bodies of drinking and domestic water supply. Hygienic standards), approved by Chief State Medical Officer of Russian Federation on 27.04.2003). Registered in Ministry of justice of Russia 19.05.2003 № 4550), introduced on 30.04.2003, M., Rossiyskaya Gazeta, N 119/1, 2003 (in Russia).
6. Resolution of the Chief State Medical Officer of Russian Federation on 19.03.2002 № 12 (as amended on 28.06.2010) “On introduction of health and hygiene rules and standards "Drinking water. Hygienic requirements to water quality, packaged in a container. The quality control. SanPiN". Introduced on 10.09.2010. M., Rossiyskaya Gazeta, № 93, 28.05.2002 (in Russian).
7. Dmitrenko E.A. Gigienicheskaja ocenka kancerogennogo i toksicheskogo riskov kompleksnogo vozdejstvija hloroforma [Hygienic evaluation of carcinogenic and toxic risks of integrated effect of chloroform], Gigiena naselennyh mest [Hygiene of populated areas], 2010, № 55, pp. 157-161 (in Russian).
8. Rukovodstvo po ocenke riska dlja zdorovja naselenija pri vozdejstvii himicheskih veshhestv, zagrjaznjajushhih okruzhajushhuju sredu. Rukovodstvo [The risk assessment guidance for public health at chemicals effects, polluting the environment], R, introduced on 05.03.2004, M., Federal Center of state sanitary and epidemiological supervision of the Ministry of health of the Russian Federation, 2004, p. 168 (in Russian).
9. MR (methodical recommendation) Integralnaja ocenka pitevoj vody centralizovannyh sistem vodosnabzhenija po pokazateljam himicheskoj bezvrednosti [Integral assessment of centralized drinking water supply systems on indicators of chemical safety] (in Russian).

Mokienko A.V., Petrenko N.F., Gozhenko A.I.Hygienic estimation of biocide actions of ozone at water disinfecting. p. 19-25

Analysis of the biocidal effect of ozone shows the following.
The process of inactivation of bacteria (Escherichia coli) runs into two stages - fast initial inactivation, which then becomes slower. At the fast stage (first 3 min) speed of withering bacteria away increases exponentially with increasing of ozone doses. With further increase in the dose of ozone inactivation drops sharply and almost does not depend on the ozone dose (slow stage, the exposure period of 3-7 min). it has been established that the higher the dose of ozone, the greater its antimicrobial effect is while disinfecting efficacy viewed at the following procedure for each of inactivated bacteria, decreases. Therefore, the lack of ozone is a reactivation of some amount of the damaged bacteria and aftereffects absence.
This is typical for viruses (coliphage MS2 and poliovirus). After the initial rapid and high inactivation after 60 seconds it was absent at all doses. MS2 coliphage recovery installed after the initial inactivation. The infectivity of the RNA phage f2 after the destruction of the capsid has been shown.
Experimental results show that ozone is effective inactivator of Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts in drinking water disinfection provided that the minimum level of 104 oocysts / ml, which higher than the ones identified in surface waters.
When studying the sporicidal action of ozone they have established that that the supended spores are completely inactivated under the influence of the water saturated with ozone (10 mg / l) in 8 min.
Ozone affects the structure of the protective coating of microalgae Scenedesmus sp. with the damage of photosynthetic apparatus and extracellular withdrawal of intracellular contents and its subsequent oxidation.
Thus, analysis of the literature confirms the indisputable fact: the use of ozone for disinfection of tap water is only possible if the secondary disinfection (e.g., with chlorine or chlorine dioxide) before entering of water distribution network takes place.
Key words: ozone, water, bacteria, viruses, protozoa, spores, microalgae, disinfection.
References: 1. Voda i vodno-obuslovlennye infekcii [Water and water-related infections], A.V. Mokienko, A.I. Gozhenko, N.F. Petrenko and others; Odessa: Leradruk,publ., 2008, vol.1, p. 412 (in Russian).
2. Voda i vodno – obuslovlennye infekcii [Water and water-related infections], A. V. Mokienko, A. I. Gozhenko, N. F. and others; Odessa, JSC «RA «ART – V»,publ., 2008, vol. 2, p. 288 (in Russian).
3. Rjabchenko V. A. Dejstvie ozona pri obezzarazhivanii vody [Effects of ozone in water disinfection], V. A. Rjabchenko, N. A. Rusanova / Gigiena i sanitarija, journ., 1986, №4, pp. 20 – 23 (in Russian).
4. Fetner R. H. A comparison of the bactericidal activity of ozone and chlorine against Escherichia coli at 1° / R. H. Fetner, F. S. Ingols // J. Gen. Microbiol. – 1956. – V. 15. – P. 381 – 385 (in English).
5. Finch G. R. Dose response of Escherichia coli in ozone demand-free phosphate buffer / G. R. Finch, D. W. Smith, M. F. Stiles // Water Research. – 1988. – V. 22. – P. 1563 –1570 (in English).
6. Kim C. K. Mechanism of Ozone Inactivation of Bacteriophage f2 / C. K. Kim, D. M. Gentile, O. J. Sproul // Applied and Environmental Microbiology. – 1980. – V. 39, N 1. – P. 210 – 218 (in English).
7. Rickloff J. R. An Evaluation of the Sporicidal Activity of Ozone / J. R. Rickloff // Applied and Environmental Microbiology. – 1987. – V. 53, N 4. – P. 683 – 686 (in English).
8. Effect of disinfection of drinking water with ozone or chlorine dioxide on survival of Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts // J. E. Peeters, E. A. Mazas, W. J. Masschelein [et al.] // Applied and Environmental Microbiology. – 1989. – V. 55. – P. 1519 – 1522 (in English).
9. Occurrence of Cryptosporidium oocysts in sewage effluents and selected surface waters / M. S. Madore, J. B. Rose C. P. Gerba [et al.] // J. Parasitol. – 1987. – V. 73. – P. 702 – 705 (in English).
10. Effect of oxidants on microalgal flocculation / A. Sukenik, B. Teltch, A. W. Wachs [et al.] // Water Research. – 1987. – V. 21, № 5. – P. 533 – 539 (in English).
11. Hoff J.C. Inactivation of microbial agents by chemical disinfectants / J.C. Hoff // US EPA 600/286/067. – 1986 (in English).
12. Hoff J.C. Comparison of the Biocidal Efficiency of Alternative Disinfeclants / J. C. Hoff, E.E. Geldriech // J. AWWA. – 1981. – V. 73, N 1. – P. 40 – 45 (in English).

Water disposal

Kulakov A.A.Assessment of the current state of the small municipal wastewater treatment facilities. p.26-40

The article presents the performance assessment of waste water treatment plants of small populated areas. The main technological link at the investigated objects is biological treatment in biofilters, aerotanks, package units and bioreactors. The information about technological schemes of waste water treatment and sludge treatment, content of incoming and treated waste waters, design capacity and actual water disposal volume and approved environmental regulations for output is analyzed. The survey of objects presents the high degree of their obsolescence and physical deterioration as a result of their many years service without major reconstruction. The majority of structures and equipments require repair or replacement; production and auxiliary buildings are in emergency conditions. Planned technologies do not meet modern environmental standards: the standard for nitrogen ammonia is met only by 5 %, for phosphate-phosphorus – by 3%. Current decisions on deep waste water treatment are difficult to adapt at small facilities just by their scaling. Such approach do not take into account the specific nature of small water disposal systems, economic and technological capacity and professional skills of workers of the housing services and utilities of small residential areas. In the study factors that have a negative effect on small treatment plants operation such as technological (hydraulic underload, operation disturbance, high scale of deterioration), organizational (low capacity of plants, lack of equipment required for fault-free performance, unskilled level of staff, spatial distance of facilities) and economic (high specific capital and operating costs, unprofitability of small water utilities) are detected and classified. The interaction among them is noted and ways to solve these factors are suggested. The complex of measures based on enlargement of water utilities, staff retraining and prioritization of modernization for development of small plants of the housing services and utilities is presented.
Key words: small municipal wastewater treatment facilities, modernization, operational complexity, work optimization, barrier options.
References: 1. Razumovskij, Je.S. Ochistka i obezzarazhivanie stochnyh vod malyh naselennyh punktov [Treatment and disinfection of wastewater of small settlements], Je.S. Razumovskij, G.L. Medrish, V.A. Kazarjan, M., Strojizdat,publ., 1986, p. 173 (in Russian).
2. Kulakov, A.A. Jekologicheskaja ocenka kompleksa «vodnyj ob#ekt – vypusk ochishhennyh stochnyh vod» [Ecological assessment of the complex “water object – treated waste waters output], Water supply and sanitary techniques,journ., M., Izdatelstvo VST, publ., 2013, № 5, pp. 25-30 (in Russian).
3. Dzenis, L., E.S. Gogina, A.D. Gurinovich Tehnologicheskie osnovy modernizacii malyh ochsitnyh sooruzhenij v sistemu biologicheskogo reaktora ciklicheskogo dejstvija (SBR) [The technological basis of modernization of small treatment facilities into the system of biological sequential batch reactors (SBR)], Jakovlevskie chtenija, collection of materials of the IX scientific and technical conference, M., Moscow State University of Civil Engineering, 2014, pp.188-202 (in Russian).
4. Odegaard, H. A new moving bed reactor-applications and results / H. Odegaard, B. Rusten, T. Westrum // Water Science and Technology. – 1994. – 29(10– 11), P.157-165 (in English).
5. Tsagarakis, K.P. Wastewater management in Greece experience and lessons for developing countries / K.P. Tsagarakis, D.D. Mara, A.N. Angelakis // Water Science and Technology. – 2001. – Vol 44. – №6. – P.163-172 (in English).
6. Gallego, A. Environmental performance of wastewater treatment plants for small populations / A. Gallego, A. Hospido, M.T. Moreira, G. Feijoo // Conservation and Recycling. – 2008. – №52. – P.931-940 (in English).
7. Oliveira, S.C. Performance evaluation of different wastewater treatment technologies operating in a developing country // S.C. Oliveira, M. von Sperling / Journal of Water, Sanitation and Hygiene for Development. – 2011. – № 01.1. – P.37-56 (in English).
8. Nironovich, N.I., I.Ju. Tretjak, A.N. Kopytin Problemy ochistki stochnyh vod v malyh i srednih naselennyh punktah [Problems of wastewater treatment in small towns], Voda i vodoochistnye tehnologii, journ., M., JSC «Ukrainskoe obshhestvo specialistov v oblasti ochistki vody» (Ukrainian society of specialists in the sphere of water purification ) 2013, № 1, pp. 58-60 (in Russian).
9. Kulakov, A.A. Osobennosti malyh kommunalnyh ochistnyh sooruzhenij kanalizacii i puti povyshenija ih jeffektivnosti [Features of small municipal sewage treatment facilities and ways of increasing their effectiveness], VodaMagazine,journ., M., JSC «Izdatelskij dom «JekoMedia», publ., 2013, № 10, pp. 36-42 (in Russian).

Mariusz Starzec, Jozef Dziopak, Michail I. AlexeevEffect of the sewer basin increasing to necessary useful capacity of multichamber impounding reservoir. p.41-50

The article presents the analysis of connection of new sewer basins by necessary useful capacity of impounding reservoir. Calculation modeling is carried out for two extra sewer basins with different localization in relation to the current basin. The impounding rainwater reservoir is located in the end of the sewerage network. Calculations indicate that sewer basin enlargement by means of a new construction requires increasing useful cubic capacity of the reservoir in the full range of values of the runoff intensity reduction coefficient (?). It is also found out that some of the applied methods of calculations and designing of impounding reservoirs may cause significant understatement of their capacity.
Key words: sewage systems, designing, impounding reservoir.
References: 1. Blaszczyk W., Roman M., Stamatello H.: Kanalizacja, T. 1, Arkady, Warszawa, 1974 (in Polish).
2. Blaszczyk P.: Ulepszone metody wymiarowania kanalizacji deszczowej ogolnosplawnej, Praca zbiorowa, Postep techniczny w kanalizacji, Wroclaw, 1977 (in Polish).
3. Dziopak J.: Analiza teoretyczna i modelowanie wielokomorowych zbiornikow kanalizacyjnych, Monografia 125, Wydawnictwa Politechniki Krakowskiej, Krakow, 1992 (in Polish).
4. Dziopak J., Slys D.: Modelowanie zbiornikow klasycznych i grawitacyjno-pompowych w kanalizacji, Oficyna Wydawnicza Politechniki Rzeszowskiej, Rzeszow, 2007 (in Polish).
5. Slys D.: Zrownowazone systemy odwodnienia miast, Dolnoslaskie Wydawnictwo Naukowe, Wroclaw, 2013 (in Polish).
6. Stoknicki M., Sowinski M., : Wykorzystanie opadow syntetycznych w modelowaniu odplywu ze zlewni miejskich. Zeszyty Naukowe Politechniki Rzeszowskiej, nr 283, Budownictwo i Inzynieria Srodowiska, z. 59 (2/12/I), Rzeszow, 2011 (in Polish).
7. Starzec M., Dziopak J., Aleksejev M.I.: Wplyw wybranych metod na ksztaltowanie sie hydrogramow przeplywu sciekow deszczowych. Miedzynarodowa KonferencjaInfraeko 2014. Nowoczesnemiasta. Infrastrukturaisrodowisko, Rzeszow, 2014, s. 275-286 (in Polish).


Dmitrieva E.Ju.Bacterium of the genus Legionella and microbiological safety of water bodies. p.51-62

The article presents the up-to-date information about biological properties of Legionalla, its spread scale, current methods of water bodies’ sanitation and their efficiency against pathogen. Legionellosis caused by Legionella pneumophila is an anthropogenic infection with a high level of mortality affecting people in the result of inhaling fine water aerosols infected with Legionella. Infection source can be systems of hot and cold water supply, air conditioning systems, industrial and domestic cooling systems, heating water converter plants, shower units and etc.
Key words: legionellosis, Legionnaires disease, Legionella pneumophila, biofilms, system of hot and cold water supply, water disinfection.
References: 1. WHO, 2007. Legionella and the prevention of legionellosis. Bartram J. et al.(eds.) [in English].
2. Temezhnikova N.D., Tartakovskij I.S. 2007. Legionelleznaja infekcija [Legionella infection] Medicina, publ. [in Russian].
3. Tartakovskij I.S., Gruzdeva O.A., Gabrijeljan N.I. 2010. Sovremennoe sostojanie problemy nozokomialnogo legionelleza [Current status of the problem of nosocomial legionellosis], Russian Journal of Transplantology and artificial organs, journ., vol.XII, pp. 61-71 [in Russian].
4. Gomez-Valero L., Rusniok C., Cazalet C., Buchrieser C. 2011.Comparative and functional genomics of legionella identified eukaryotic like proteins as key players in host-pathogen interactions. Front Microbiol., 2, p. 1-20 [in English].
5. Onishhenko, G. G., Lazikova G. F., Chistjakova G. G., Demina Ju. V., Nikonov B. I., Romanenko V. V., Smirnova S. S., Terenteva L. N., Malozemova T. Ju., Irizhepova O. V., Gavrilova N. A., Avvakumova N. P., Shitoeva E. V. 2008. Jepidemiologicheskie versii rassledovanija vspyshki legionelleza v g. Verhnjaja Pyshma [Epidemiological version of the investigation of an outbreak of legionellosis in the city of Verkhnyaya Pyshma], Journal of Microbiology Epidemiology and immunobiology, journ., № 2, pp.77-82 (in Russian).
6. Nhu Nguyen TM et al. 2006. Community-wide outbreak of Legionnaires disease linked
to industrial cooling towers — how far can contaminated aerosols spread? J. Infect. Dis., 193, p.102-111 (in English).
7. Casati, S., Gioria-Martinoni, A., and Gaia, V. 2009. Commercial potting soils as an alternative infection source of Legionella pneumophila and other Legionella species in Switzerland. Clin. Microbiol. Infect. 15, p. 571–575 (in English).
8. Temmerman R., Vervaeren H., Noseda B., Boon N., Verstraete W. 2006. Necrotrophic growth of Legionella pneumophila. Appl. Environ.Microbiol., 72, p. 4323-4328 (in English).
9. Guerrieri E., M. Bondi, C. Sabia, S. Niederhausern, P. Borella, P. Messi. 2008. Effect of bacterial interference on biofilm development by Legionella pneumophila. Curr Microbiol., 57, p.532–536 (in English).
10. Taylor M., Ross K., Bentham R.. 2009. Legionella, protozoa, and biofilms: interactions within complex microbial systems. Microb. Ecol., 58, p. 538–547 (in English).
11. Tison D.L., Pope D.H., Cherry W.B., Fliermans C.B. 1980. Growth of Legionella pneumophila in association with blue-green algae (Cyanobacteria). Appl. Environ. Microbiol., 39, p. 456-459 (in English).
12. Berendt R.F. 1981. Influence of blue-green algae (Cyanobacteria) on survival of Legionella pneumophila in aerosols. Infect. Immun., 32, 690-692 (in English).
13. Karpova, T. I. Dronina Ju. E., Tartakovskij I. S., Romanova Ju. M., Gincburg A.L. 2008. Prirodnye bioplenki legionell i ih rol v jepidemiologii infekcii: metody izuchenija i modelirovanija [Natural biofilms of Legionella and their role in the epidemiology of infection: methods of study and modeling], Journal of Microbiology Epidemiology and immunobiology, journ., № 2, pp.13-16.
14. Moritz M.M., Flemming H.C., Wingender J. 2010. Integration of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Legionella pneumophila in drinking water biofilms grown on domestic plumbing materials. Int.J.Hyg. Environ. Health, 213, p.190–197 (in English).
15. Dronina Ju.E., Karpova T.I., Sadretdinova O.V., Didenko L.V., Tartakovskij I.S. 2012. Osobennosti formirovanija bioplenok legionell v iskusstvennyh i prirodnyh vodnyh sistemah [Peculiarities of formation of Legionella biofilms in natural and artificial water systems], Journal of Microbiology Epidemiology and immunobiology, journ., №, 4, pp.76-80 (in Russian).
16. Wery N., V. Bru-Adan, C. Minervini, J-Ph. Delgenes, L. Garrelly, J-J.Godon. 2008. Dynamics of Legionella spp. and bacterial populations during the proliferation of L. pneumophila in a cooling tower facility. Appl. Environm. Microbiol., 74, p. 3030-3037 (in English).
17. Piao Z., Sze C.C., Barysheva O., Iida K., Yoshida S. 2006. Temperature-regulated formation of mycelial mat-like biofilms by Legionella pneumophila. Appl. Environ.Microbiol., 72, p. 1613-1622 (in English).
18. Ohno, A., N. Kato, K. Yamad, K. Yamaguchi. 2003. Factors influencing survival of Legionella pneumophila serotype 1 in hot spring water and tap water. Appl. Environ. Microbiol., 69, p.2540–2547 (in English).
19. Hubber A. and Roy C. R. 2010. Modulation of host cell function by Legionella pneumophila type IV effectors. Ann. Rev. Cell Dev. Biol., 26, p. 261–83 (in English).
20. Molofsky A.B., Swanson M.S. 2004. Differentiate to thrive: lessons from the Legionella pneumophila life cycle. Mol. Microbiol., 53, p. 29-40 (in English).
21. Rogers J., Dowsety A.B., Dennis P.J., Lee J.V., Keevil C.W. 1994. Influence of temperature and plumbing material selection on biofilm formation and growth of Legionella pneumophila in a model potable water system containing complex microbial flora. Appl. Environ. Microbiol., 60, p.1585-1592 (in English).
22. Berk, S. G., R. S. Ting, G. W. Turner, and R. J. Ashburn. 1998. Production of respirable vesicles containing live Legionella pneumophila cells by two Acanthamoeba spp. Appl. Environ. Microbiol., 64, p.279–286 (in English).
23. Kilvington S., Price J. 1990. Survival of Legionella pneumophila within cysts of Acanthamoeba polyphaga following chlorine exposure. J. Appl. Bacteriol., 68, p.519-525. (in English).
24. Fields B. S., E. B. Shotts Jr., J. C. Feeley, G. W. Gorman, W. T. Martin. 1984. Proliferation of Legionella pneumophila as an intracellular parasite of the ciliated protozoan Tetrahymena pyriformis. App. Environ.Microbiol., 47, p. 467-471 (in English).
25. Smith-Somerville H.E., V.Butz Huryn, C. Walker, A.L. Winters. 1991. Survival of Legionella pneumophila in the cold-water ciliate Tetrahymena vorax. Appl. Environ. Microbiol., 57, p.2742-2749 (in English).
26. Berk S.G., Faulkner G., Gardun E., Joy M.C., Ortiz-Jimenez M.A., Gardun R.A. 2008. Packaging of live Legionella pneumophila into pellets expelled by Tetrahymena spp. does not require bacterial replication and depends on a Dot/Icm-mediated survival mechanism. App. Environ. Microbiol., 74, p.2187-2199 (in English).
27. Kikuhara H., Ogawa M., Miyamoto H., Nikaido Y., Yoshida S. 1994. Intracellular multiplication of Legionella pneumophila in Tetrahymena thermophila. J. Uoeh. 16, p.263–275 (in English).
28. Hagele S., Kohler R., Merkert H., Schleicher M, Hacker. J, Steinert M. 2000. Dictyostelium discoideum: a new host model system for intracellular pathogens of the genus Legionella. Cell Microbiol., 2, p.165-171 (in English).
29. Richards A.M., J.E. Von Dwingelo, Ch.T. Price and Y. Abu Kwaik. 2013. Cellular microbiology and molecular ecology of Legionella–amoeba interaction. Virulence, 4, p.307–314 (in English).
30. Ohno A., Kato N., Sakamoto R., Kimura S., Yamaguchi K. 2008.Temperature-dependent parasitic relationship between Legionella pneumophila and a free-living amoeba (Acanthamoeba castellanii). Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 74, p.4585-4588 (in English).
31. Fonseca M.V., Swanson M.S., 2014. Nutrient salvaging and metabolism by the intracellular pathogen Legionella pneumophila. Cel.Infect.Microbiol., 4, p.1-14 (in English).
32. SP «Profilaktika legionelleza» [The prevention of legionellosis] (in Russian).
33. SanPiN «Gigienicheskie trebovanija k obespecheniju bezopasnosti sistem gorjachego vodosnabzhenija» [Hygienic requirements to safety of hot water systems], change to SanPiN (in Russian).
34. Onishhenko, G. G., Nikonov B. I., Gurvich V. B., Akramov R. L., Vlasov I. A., Belov E. A., Shatilo S. V., Mustafina N. V., Kaletnik V. P. 2008. Opyt organizacii promyvki i dezinfekcii sistemy centralizovannogo gorjachego vodosnabzhenija v gorode Verhnjaja Pyshma pri ee kolonizacii legionellami [The experience of flushing and disinfection of centralized hot water supply system in the city of Verkhnyaya Pyshma at its colonization with legionella ], Journal of Microbiology Epidemiology and immunobiology, journ., № 2, pp.113-116.
35. Gincburg A.L., Shandala M.G., Tartakovskij I.S., Panteleeva L.G., Karpova T.I., Demina Ju.V., Novokshenova I.V., Dronina Ju.E. 2010. Opyt primenenija v gradirnjah promyshlennogo predprijatija dezinficirujushhih sredstv dlja profilaktiki legionelleza [Experience of the use of disinfectants in cooling towers of manufacturing plants for the prevention of legionellosis], Disinfection affairs,journ., № 1, pp. 50-53 (in Russian).
36. Gerasimov, V. N. Golov E. A., Hramov M. V., Djatlov I. A. 2008. Dezinficirujushhie sredstva i osnovnye sanitarno-profilakticheskie meroprijatija po zashhite sistem ventiljacii i kondicionirovanija vozduha ot kontaminacii legionellami [Disinfectants and basic sanitation for the protection of systems of ventilation and air conditioning from Legionella contamination], Journal of Microbiology Epidemiology and immunobiology, journ., № 2, pp.120-124 (in Russian).
37. Kim B.R., Anderson J.E.,Mueller S.A., Gaines W.A., Kendall A.M. 2002. Literature review--efficacy of various disinfectants against Legionella in water systems. Water Res., 36, p.4433-4444 (in English).
38. Loret J. F., S. Robert, V. Thomas, A. J. Cooper, W. F. McCoy and Y. Levi. 2005 Comparison of disinfectants for biofilm, protozoa and Legionella control. J. Water and Health, 03.4, p.423-433 (in English).
39. Rinske M. V., B. A. Wullings, and D. van der Kooij. 2010. Detection of protozoan hosts for Legionella pneumophila in engineered water systems by using a biofilm batch test. Appl..Environ.Microbiol., 76, p. 7144–7153 (in English).
40. Saby S., Vidal A., Suty H. 2005. Resistance of Legionella to disinfection in hot water distribution systems. Water Sci. Technol., 52, p.15–28 (in English).
41. Farhat M., M. Moletta-Denat, J. Frere, S. Onillon, M.-C.Trouilhe, E. Robinea. 2012. Effects of disinfection on Legionella spp., Eukarya, and biofilms in a hot water system. App. Environ. Microbiol., 78, p. 6850-6858 (in English).
42. Thomas V, Bouchez T., V. Nicolas, S. Robert, J.F. Loret, Y. Levi. 2004. Amoebae in domestic water systems: resistance to disinfection treatments and implication in Legionella persistence. J. Appl.Microbiol.,97, p. 950 –963 (in English).
43. Alleron L. , Merlet N., Lacombe Ch., J. Fre`re 2008. Long-term survival of Legionella pneumophila in the viable but nonculturable state after monochloramine treatment. Curr Microbiol., 57, p.497–502 (in English).
44. Critchley M, Bentham R. 2009. The efficacy of biocides and other chemical additives in cooling water systems in the control of amoebae. J. Appl. Microbiol. 106, p. 784 –789 (in English).

Lebedev S.V., Kulkova M.A., Nesterov E.M., Zarina L.M.Ecological assessment of the Saint-Petersburg environment according to monitoring data of content of long-lived radionuclide (3Н, 14С) and heavy metals in the snow cover. p.63-80

Currently the main pollutants of urban areas are heavy metals and radioisotopes. The observation points in the central city districts where the highest population density is focused, the main road and rail transport hubs and industrial objects are located were selected for monitoring studies of distribution of heavy metals as well as radiocarbon in the snow cover of Saint-Petersburg. Snow samples were taken in February-April 2011, 2012 and in March 2013, 2014. For the comparison samples were also taken in a municipal town Pushkin which is relatively favorable on environmental indicators. The results of the snowchemical survey with the scale 1:100 000 and 1:200 000 allowed to justify interval boundaries of the analyzed parameters classification and design evaluation maps of distribution of heavy metals and 3Н and 14С in the central districts of Saint-Petersburg and in the municipal town Pushkin using ArcGIS technologies. The studies’ results presented the main pollution sources in the central districts of the city related to industrial zones and motorways. The radiocarbon concentration change in the snow cover of the city can be used as an indicator of carbon compounds concentration grade change in the atmosphere and, consequently, technogenic and anthropogenic urban pollution.
Key words: long-lived radioactive isotopes 14С и 3Н, heavy metals, snow cover pollution, Saint-Petersburg, GIS mapping, poly aromatic hydrocarbon.
References: 1. Gigienicheskie normativy «Predelno-dopustimye koncentracii (PDK) himicheskih veshhestv v vode vodnyh ob#ektov hozjajstvenno-pitevogo i kulturno-bytovogo naznachenija» [Hygienic regulations “Threshold limit value of a chemical substance in water of water objects for drinking and domestic puropses], GN – M., 2003 (in Russian).
2. Edvards N.T. 1983. Policiklicheskie aromaticheskie uglevodorody (PAU) v nazemnoj okruzhajushhej srede – obzor [Polycyclic poly aromatic hydrocarbon in terrestrial environment - a review], Kachestvo okruzhajushhej sredy, journ., 12.427-441 (in Russian).
3. Kulkova M.A., Lebedev S.V., Nesterov E.M., Davydochkina A.V. Radiouglerod i tritij v vodnoj sisteme Sankt-Peterburgskogo regiona [Radiocarbon and tritium in water system of region of Saint-Petersburg], “Izvestia” Herzen University Journal of Humanities and Sciences», journ., № 165, 2014, pp. 93–98 (in Russian).
4. Li S. D., Grant L. 1981. Zdorove i jekologicheskaja ocenka policiklicheskih aromaticheskih uglevodorodov [Health and ecological assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons], Izdatelstvo Patoteks,publ., Park Forest Souz, Illinojs, p. 364 (in Russian).
5. Metodicheskie rekomendacii po ocenke stepeni zagrjaznenija atmosfernogo vozduha naselennyh punktov metallami po ih soderzhaniju v snezhnom pokrove i pochve [Guidelines for the assessment of the of pollution degree of atmospheric air of populated areas by the metals according to their content in snow cover and soil], Revich B.A., Saet Ju.E., Smirnova R.S. (approved on 15th May 1990, № 5174-90), M., Institute of Mineralogy, Geochemistry and crystal chemistry of rare elements, 1990 (in Russian).
6. Temerev S. V., Indjushkin I. V .Himicheskij monitoring snezhnogo pokrova v oblasti vlijanija Barnaula [Chemical monitoring of the snow cover in the area of influence of Barnaul], The News of Altai State University,journ., 2010, № 3, vol. 1, pp. 196-203 (in Russian).
7. Rakowski, A., Kuc, T., Nakamura, T., Pazdur, A. Radiocarbon concentration in Urban Area. Geochronometria/ A.Rakowski, T.Kuc, T.Nakamura, A.Pazdur// Journal on Methods and Applications of Absolute Chronology, 2005, vol.24, pp. 63-68 (in English).
8. Suess, H.E. Radiocarbon concentration in modern wood. Science, 1955, N 122, pp. 415 (in English).
9. Zarina L., Lebedev S., Nesterov E. Ecological Geochemical Investigations of the Contents of Heavy Metals in the Snow Cover in the Saint-Petersburg Region with Application of GIS Technologies. International Journal of Chemical Engineering and Applications (IJCEA)., vol.2 Number 2, April 2011, pp. 117-120 (in English).


Theme day.Opinion

Filatov N.I., Baranov A.E., Kazanceva N.N., Belov A.E., Erohin M.A.Prospects of sea water conversion for water supply of the Crimea. p.3-13

The prospects of the Crimea water supply in terms of the lack of the Dnieper water supply from the mainland of Ukraine is estimated: the use of local surface water sources and underground waters, transfer of water from the Kuban river through the Kerch Strait. Prospectively a quick and maximally effective solution for the stable supply of the population with fresh water of standard quality is the conversion of sea water and brackish underground water. The basis of the reverse-osmosis water conversion technology of waters of the Black Sea and the Sea of Azov for supply of coastal towns and villages incurring an acute fresh water deficit, and brackish underground waters for the flatland agroindustrial complex entities is presented. Due to the relatively low salinity and boron concentration in comparison to waters of the World Ocean the construction costs for desalination units are planned to be 1.5 times lower than the worldwide average ones.
Key words: water supply, water conversion, sea water, artesian water
References: 1. Web site Web site launching 25.05.2015
2. The report of the Minister of housing and communal services of the Republic of Crimea A. Zhdanov at the enlarged meeting of the Federation Council Committee on 24-25 of March 2015 “The status, opportunities and prospects of development of water supply of the Republic of Crimea” , web site Web site launching 25.05.2015
3. Web site Web site launching 25.05.2015
4. The decree of the government of the Russian Federation of 11 August 2014 № 790 “On the Federal target program validation “Social and Economic Development of the Republic of Crimea and Sevastopol until 2020”. Web site Web site launching 25.05.2015
5. A.N. Oliferov, Z.V. Timchenko Reki i Ozera Kryma [Rivers and lakes of the Crimea], Simferopol, Dolja,publ., 2005, p. 216 (in Russian).
6. Web site Web site launching 25.05.2015
7. Defense Ministry: the Military will provide the city of Kerch, Feodosia and Sudak with fresh drinking water.Web site Web site launching 25.05.2015
8. Web site Web site launching 25.05.2015
9. Gidrogeologija SSSR [Hydrogeology of the USSR], vol. 8, edited by V.G. Tkachuk. Nedra, publ., 1971, p. 364 (in Russian).
10. Web site Web site launching 25.05.2015
11. Web site Web site launching 25.05.2015
12. Web site . Web site launching 25.05.2015
13. Forecast of CapEx by Desal Plant Type. Water Desalination Report, 2015, Issue 51, #16. 20 April 2015 (in English).
14. 14. The future of desalination. IDA desalination yearbook 2014-2015. Water Desalination Report, Issue 50, # 11. 17 March 2014 (in English).
15. A.D. Dobrovolskij, B.S. Zalogin. Morja SSSR [Seas of the USSR], publishing house of the MSU, 1982, p. 192; web site (in Russian).
16. Data base of Unified state system of information on the Global Ocean; web site
17. A.G. Pervov, A.P. Andrianov, R.V. Efremov, A.V. Desyatov, A.E. Baranov. A new solution for the Caspian Sea desalination: low-pressure membranes. Desalination. Vol. 157, No. 1-3, 2003, p.p. 377–384 (in English).
18. A.V. Desjatov, A.V. Aseev, O.A. Podymova, A.E. Baranov, A.V. Egorov, N.N. Kazanceva, I.A. Prohorov. Vlijanie temperatury na process obratnoosmoticheskogo opresnenija vody Kaspijskogo morja [The effect of temperature on the process of reverse-osmosis desalination of the Caspian sea], Journal of Membrane Science , №3 (35) 2007, pp. 28–40 (in Russian).
19. A.V.Desjatov, A.E.Baranov, E.A.Baranov, N.P.Kakurkin, N.N.Kazanceva, A.V.Aseev. Opyt ispolzovanija membrannyh tehnologij dlja ochistki i opresnenija vody [Experience in the use of membrane technology for the purification and desalination of water], M., ANO «Himija»,publ., 2008, p. 240 (in Russian).
20. Voda: jeffekty i tehnologii [Water: effects and technologies], V.V. Bagrov, A.V. Desjatov, N.N. Kazanceva, A.S. Kamrukov, N.P.Kozlov, A.A.Kornilova, B.S.Ksenofontov, A.P. Kubyshkin, I.P. Kuzhekin, N.V.Kuleshov, Ju.A. Nagel, S.G. Cherkasov; edited by A.V. Desjatova, M., LLC NIC «Inzhener», LLC «Oniko-M», publ., 2010, p. 488 (in Russian).
21. M.A. Dobrzhanskaja. K voprosu o raspredelenii bora v morjah [On problem of boron distribution in the seas], works of the Sevastopol biological research station of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, 1949, № 7. Web site Web site launching 25.05.2015 (in Russian).
22. Web site Web site launching 25.05.2015
23. Web site Web site launching 25.05.2015

Water supply

Poljakov V.L.Theoretical analysis of plane radial filtration. p.14-24

The article is dedicated to the theoretical analysis of the unconventional method of filtration that expects the use of filters of a new construction and the creation of a new method of their engineering design. The mathematical problem of the plane radial filtration in a cylindrical-shaped loading layer at constant hydraulic load and suspension supply through the external lateral surface is specified. The mass exchange between liquid and solid phases of the loading is described by a lineral equation with variable coefficients due to dependence of the processes of suspension particles settling and detachment on the filtration rate. The particular rigorous solution and general approximate solution to the presented mathematical problem are obtained. The first solution can be used if the stuck-on particles detachment does not depend on the filtration rate; the second one considers a connection with the filtration rate of both mass exchange coefficients. The comparison of two solutions shows that the approximate solution provides a minimum error in filtration performance calculation. On the base of the approximate solution the method of process parameter validation is developed. The basic equations are those in which the protective power time of loading and pressure loss access time of the maximum permissible value are easily defined by selection; and on this basis the filter cycle duration is defined too. With a detailed comparison of the plane radial filtration with the common straight-flow filtration it is proved that the filter cycle duration at the plane radial filtration due to the more even silt deposition in the loading can increase more than twice. The equations which allow choosing a technologically optimal geometry of the loading layer by selection are presented as well. The evaluation of radius and load height in which the filer cycle duration is maximal are demonstrated with an example.
Key words: radial filtration, cylindrical filter medium, suspension, concentration, head losses, filtercycle, model.
References: 1. Vojtov E.P. Doochistka biologicheski ochishhennyh gorodskih stochnyh vod na radial'nyh fil'trah [Tertiary treatment of biologically treated municipal wastewater on the radial filters], synopsis of Ph.D. thesis in Engineering Science (05.23.04), Novosibirsk, 1974, p. 27 (in Russian).
2. Bolton G.T., Hooper C.W., Mann R., Stitt T.H. Flow distribution and velocity measurement in a radial fixed bed reactor using electrical resistance tomography // Chem. Eng. Sci. – 2004. – 59. – P.1989-1997 (in English).
3. Dzjubo V.V. Radial'nye fil'try obezzhelezivanija podzemnyh vod. Inzhenernye i tehnologicheskie reshenija [Radial filters for iron removal from groundwater. Engineering and technological solutions], SANTECHNIKA magazine, 2006, № 4, pp.16-19 (in Russian).
4. Dzjubo V.V., Alferova L.I. Fil'trovanie prirodnyh vod v rezhime neravnomernyh skorostej [Filtration of natural waters in the mode of unbalanced speed], Vestnik TGASU, 2007, № 2, pp. 180-190 (in Russian).
5. Fedotkin I.M., Vorob'ev E.I., V'jun V.I. Gidrodinamicheskaja teorija fil'trovanija suspenzii [Hydrodynamic theory of suspension filtration], Kyiv, Vishha shkola. Golovnoe izd-vo,publ., 1986., p. 166 (in Russian).
6. Zhurba M.G. Ochistka vody na zernistyh fil'trah [Water purification with granular filters], Lviv, Vishha shkola, publ., publishing house at the Lviv State University 1980, p. 200 (in Russian).
7. Gross M.J., Albinger O., Jewett D.G., Logan B.E., Bales R.C., Arnold R.G. Bacterial collision efficiencies in porous media // Water Res. – 1995. – 29. – P.1151-1158 (in English).
8. Rajagopalan R., Tien C. Trajectory analysis of deep-bed filtration with the sphere-in-cell porous media model // AJChE. – 1976. – 22. – P.523-533 (in English).
9. Schijven J.G., de Bruin H.A.M., Hassanizadeh S.M., de Roda Husman A.M. Bacteriophages and clostridium spores as indicator organisms for removal of pathogens by passage through saturated dune sand // Water Res. – 2003. – 37. – P.2186-2194 (in English).
10. Senjavin M.M., Venicianov E.V., Ajukaev R.I. O matematicheskih modeljah i inzhenernyh metodah rascheta processa ochistki prirodnyh vod fil'trovaniem [On mathematical models and engineering methods of calculation of the process of natural waters purification by filtration], Water Resources Journal, 1977, № 2, pp. 157-170 (in Russian).
11. Ojha C.S.P., Graham N.J.D. Theoretical estimates of bulk specific deposit in deep bed filters // Water Res. – 1993. – 27. – P.377-387 (in English).
12. Poljakov V.L. Ob odnom strogom reshenii zadachi ploskoradial'nogo fil'trovanija suspenzii [On one rigorous solution to the problem of plane-radial filtration of the suspension], the scientific-technical collection “Problems of water supply, sanitation and hydraulics”, issue 22, 2013, pp. 124-131 (in Russian).
13. Poljakov V.L. Teoreticheskij analiz ploskoradial'nogo fil'trovanija suspenzii [Theoretical analysis of plane-radial suspension filtration], Dop.NAN Ukraїni, publ., 2013, № 12, pp. 52-59 (in Russian).
14. Poljakov V.L. Teoreticheskij analiz dlitel'nosti fil'trocikla [Theoretical analysis of the filtration cycle duration], Journal of Water Chemistry and Technology, 2009, 31, № 6, pp. 605-618 (in Russian).
15. Poljakov V.L. O racional'nom vybore konstruktivnyh parametrov cilindricheskoj zagruzki vodoochistnogo fil'tra [On the rational choice of the design parameters of the cylindrical load of water purification filter], the scientific-technical collection “Problems of water supply, sanitation and hydraulics”, issue 22, 2013, pp. 113-123 (in Russian).

Kondratyeva L.M., Lytvynenko Z.N.Effect of organic substances on biofilm formation in ferriferous underground waters. p.25-38

The article presents the effect of nitrogen-containing organic substances and humic compounds on the biofilm formation by microorganisms of natural ferriferous underground waters. The formation of slime biofilms depends on the accessibility of carbon source and presence of soluble ions of Fe+2. The preconditions of the pore volume colmatage around wells are presented on the example of cultural characteristics, adhesive capacity, light and electron microscopy of biofilm, formed by microbial complex of different aquifers. On the base of the analysis of elemental composition of young and mature biofilm it is found that ions of Fe, Mn, Ca and P have a “cementing effect” on biomass which can fill the pore volume and reduce efficiency of the bailing of underground waters.
Key words: iron-containing underground waters, biofilm, organic substances, colmatage.
References: 1. Kondrat'eva L.M. Voprosy jekologicheskoj bezopasnosti v Priamur'e: Vybor prioritetov [The issues of environmental security in the Amur region: the Choice of priorities], Bulletin of the Far Eastern Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, journ., 2005, № 5, pp. 149-161 (in Russian).
2. Kondrat'eva L.M., Rapoport V.L. Zagrjaznenie reki Amur antropogennymi i prirodnymi organicheskimi veshhestvami [Pollution of the Amur River by anthropogenic and natural organic substances], Contemporary Problems of Ecology, journ., 2008, № 3, pp. 485-496 (in Russian).
3. Shevcov M.N., Mahinov A.N., Litvinchuk A.A. Jekologicheskie prioritety pri organizacii vodoobespechenija Habarovska [Environmental priorities in the water supply of Khabarovsk], Water supply and sanitary techniques,journ., 2012, № 7, pp. 9-13 (in Russian).
4. Kulakov V.V. Geohimija podzemnyh vod Priamur'ja [Geochemistry of groundwater in the Amur region], Khabarovsk, Institute of water and ecological problems, far Eastern branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences,publ., 2011, p. 254 (in Russian).
5. Kulakov V.V., Teslja V.G., Steblevskij V.I., Domnin K.V., Herlitcius J. Opytno-promyshlennaja jekspluatacija pilotnoj ustanovki vnutriplastovoj ochistki podzemnyh vod na Tungusskom vodozabore [The pilot operation of the pilot plant in-situ groundwater treatment at the Tunguska water supply point], Water supply and sanitary techniques,journ., 2012, № 7, pp. 29-35 (in Russian).
6. Kulakov V.V., Kondrat'eva L.M. Biogeohimicheskie aspekty ochistki podzemnyh vod Priamur'ja [Biogeochemical aspects of groundwater treatment of the Amur region], Russian Journal of Pacific Geology, 2008, vol. 27, № 1, pp. 109-118 (in Russian).
7. Mencha M. N. Zhelezobakterii v sistemah pit'evogo vodosnabzhenija iz podzemnyh istochnikov [Iron bacteria in drinking water from underground sources], Water supply and sanitary techniques,journ., 2006, №7, pp. 25-32 (in Russian).
8. Bukreeva V.Ju., Grabovich M.Ju., Eprincev A.T., Dubinina G.A. Sorbcija kolloidnyh soedinenij oksidov zheleza i marganca s pomoshh'ju zhelezobakterij na peschanyh zagruzkah ochistnyh sooruzhenij vodopodemnyh stancij [Sorption of colloidal compounds of iron and manganese oxides with the aid of iron bacteria on the sandy bed of treatment facilities at pumping stations], Sorbcionnye i hromatograficheskie process, journ., 2009, issue 4, pp. 506-514 (in Russian).
9. Matilainen A., Vepsalainen M., Sillanpaa M. Natural organic matter removal by coagulation during drinking water treatment: A review //Advances in Colloid and Interface Science. 2010. V. 159. №. 15. P. 189-197 (in English).
10. Lee M., Lee K., Hyun Y., Clement T., Hamilton D. Nitrogen transformation and transport modeling in groundwater aquifers // Ecological Modelling. 2006. V. 192. P. 143–159 (in English).
11. Perminova I. V. Guminovye veshhestva - vyzov himikam XXI veka [Humic substances - a challenge to the chemists of the 21st century], Chemistry and Life – 21st Century,journ., 2008, № 1, pp. 50-55 (in Russian).
12. Van Zomeren A., Van der Weij-Zuiver E., Comans R. N. Development of an automated system for isolation and purification of humic substances//Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry. 2008. V. 391. № 6. Р. 2365-2370 (in English).
13. Moiseenko T.I., Panicheva L.P., Dinu M.I., Kremleva T.A., Fefilov N.N. Inaktivacija toksichnyh metallov v vodah sushi gumusovymi veshhestvami [Inactivation of toxic metals in inland waters by humic substances], Tomsk State University Journal, 2011, № 5, pp. 6-19 (in Russian).
14. Young K.C., Maurice P.A., Docherty K.M., Bridgham S.D. Bacterial degradation of dissolved organic matter from two northern Michigan streams// Geomicrobiology Journal. 2004. № 21. P. 521-528 (in English).
15. Esparza-Soto M., Westerhoff P. Biosorption of humic and fulvic acids to live activated sludge biomass //Water Research. 2003. V. 37. № 10. P. 2301-2310 (in English).
16. Rodrigues A.L., Pereira M.A., Janknecht P., Brito A.G., Nogueira R. Biofilms formed on humic substances: response to flow conditions and carbon concentrations// Bioresource Technology. 2010. V.101. № 18. P. 6888–6894 (in English).
17. Goode С., Allen D.G. Effect of calcium on moving-bed biofilm reactor biofilms //Water Environment Research. 2011. V. 83. № 3. P. 220-232 (in English).
18. Huber S.A., Balz A., Abert M., Pronk W. Characterisation of aquatic humic and non-humic matter with size-exclusion chromatography – organic carbon detection – organic nitrogen detection (LC-OCD-OND)//Water Research. 2011. V. 45. № 2. P. 879-885 (in English).
19. Shijan L.N., Machehina K.I., Konchakova N.V. Mehanizm obrazovanija kolloidnyh soedinenij zheleza v processe vodopodgotovki [The mechanism of formation of colloidal iron compounds in the water treatment process], Modern problems of science and education, journ., 2013, № 4, pp. 1-8 (in Russian).
20. Costerton J. W., Lewandowski Z., Caldwell D. E., Korber J. W., Lappin-Scott H. M. Microbial biofilms // Annual Review of Microbiology. 1995. № 49. P. 45-711 (in English).
21. Sutherland I.W. Biofilm exopolysaccharides: a strong and sticky framework // Microbiology. 2001. V. 147. № 1. P. 3–9 (in English).
22. Nikolaev Ju.A., Plakunov V.K. Mikrobnye bioplenki: perspektivy ispol'zovanija pri ochistke stochnyh vod [Microbial biofilms: prospects of use in wastewater treatment], Water: chemistry and ecology, journ., 2008, № 2, pp. 11-13 (in Russian).
23. Li T, Bai R., Liu J., 2008. Distribution and composition of extracellular substances in membrane-aerated biofilm. J. Biotechnol. 135:52-57 (in English).
24. Ras, M., Lefebvre, D., Derlon, N., Paul, E., Girbal-Neuhauser, E. Extracellular polymeric substances diversity of biofilms grown under contrasted environmental conditions// Water Research. 2011. 45(4). Р.1529–1538 (in English).
25. Flemming H.-C., Wingender J., Griebe T., Mayer C. Physico-chemical properties of biofilms, in L.V. Evans, Biofilms: Recent Advances in their Study and Control, CRC Press, 2000. P. 19-34 (in English).
26. Fang W., Huand J.Y., Ong S.L. Influence of phosphorus on biofilm formation in model drinking water distribution systems//Journal of Applied Microbiology. 2009. V.106. № 4. P. 1328–1335 (in English).
27. Flemming H.-C.Microbial biofouling: unsolved problems, insufficient approaches, and possible solutions.Berlin: Springer Verlag Heidelberg, 2011, p. 12 (in English).
28. Purish L.M., Asaulenko L.G., Abdulina D.R. , Vasil'ev V.N., Iutinskaja G.A. Rol' jekzopolimernogo kompleksa v formirovanii bioplenki na poverhnosti stali korrozionno-agressivnymi bakterijami [The role of exo-polymer complex in the formation of biofilm on the surface of the steel corrosive bacteria], Prikladnaja biohimija i mikrobiologija, journ., 2012, vol. 48 , № 3, pp. 294- 301 (in Russian).
29. Ye F., Peng G., Li Y. Influences of influent carbon source on extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) and physicochemical properties of activated sludge// Chemosphere, 2011. V.84. Р. 1250–1255 (in English).
30. Singh R. India Biofilms: implications in bioremediation // TRENDS in Microbiology. 2006. V.14. № 9. P. 49-64 (in English).
31. Karmalov A. I., Filimonova S. V. Analiz prichin kol'matacii i korrozii oborudovanija vodozabornyh skvazhin v uslovijah povyshennoj tehnogennoj nagruzki [Analysis of the causes of colmatation and corrosion of water wells in conditions of high anthropogenic load], Water supply and sanitary techniques, journ., 2011, № 9 (1), pp. 16-20 (in Russian).
32. Gibert О., Lefevre B., Fernandez M., Bernat X., Paraira M., Calderer M., Martinez-Lado X. Characterising biofilm development on granular activated carbon used for drinking water production//Water Research, 2013.V. 47, Issue 3, P. 1101-1110 (in English).
33. Karavanov K.P. Gidrogeologicheskie oblasti i osnovnye vodonosnye gorizonty Priamur'ja [Hydrogeological region and the main aquifers of the Amur region], Khabarovsk, Institute of water and ecological problems Feb RAS,publ., 1996, p. 78 (in Russian).
34. Namsaraev B.B, Barhutova D.D., Hahinov V.V. Polevoj praktikum po vodnoj mikrobiologii i gidrohimii [Field practical course on water microbiology and hydrochemistry], methodical manual, Ulan-Ude, publishing house of the Buryat State University, 2006, p. 68 (in Russian).
35. Jagani S., Chelikani R., Kim D.S. Effects of phenol and natural phenolic compounds on biofilm formation by Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Biofouling 2009. V. 25. P. 321-324 (in English).
36. Lemos M., Borges A., Teodosio J., Araujo P., Mergulhao F., Melo L., Simoes M. The effect of ferulic and salicylic acids on Bacillus cereus and Pseudomonas fluorescens single- and dual- species biofilms// International biodeterioration and biodegradation. 2014. № 86. P. 42-51 (in English).
37. Nikolaev Ju.A., Plakunov V.K. Bioplenka – «gorod mikrobov» ili analog mnogokletochnogo organizma? [Biofilm – "city of microbes" or an analogue of multicellular organism], Microbiology,journ., 2007, vol. 76, №2, pp. 149-63 (in Russian).
38. Kondrat'eva L.M., Litvinenko Z.N. Formirovanie bioplenok mikrobnymi kompleksami podzemnyh vod in vitro [The formation of biofilms microbial by groundwater complexes in vitro], Russian Journal of Biotechnology,journ., 2014, № 3, pp. 73-82 (in Russian).
39. Mangwani N., Kumari S., Shukla S.K., Rao T.S. Calcium-mediated modulation of Pseudomonas mendocina NR802 biofilm influences the phenanthrene degradation. Current Microbiology, 2014. V. 68 № 5. P. 648-656 (in English).
40. Eldyasti A., Nakhla G., Zhu J. Biofilm Morphology, Structure, and Detachment in Denitrifying Fluidized Bed Bioreactors (DFBBRs), Materials of the 86th Annual Water Environment Federation Technical Exhibition and Conference. Chicago, IL, USA, 2013. P. 6543-6552 (in English).
41. Fang W., Huand J.Y., Ong S.L. Influence of phosphorus on biofilm formation in model drinking water distribution systems//Journal of Applied Microbiology. 2009. V.106. № 4. P. 1328–1335 (in English).
42. Das T., Sehar S., Koop L., Wong Y.K., Ahmed S. Influence of calcium in extracellular DNA mediated bacterial aggregation and biofilm formation// Plos one. 2014. V. 9. №3. P. 1-11 (in English).

Tumin A.N., Cheban V. G.Improvement of performance characteristics of roll ultrafiltration module by means of stabilization of the shared liquid flow travel speed. p.39-48

The roll ultrafiltration module of standard design is defined by reduction of shared liquid flow travel speed lengthwise the membrane element pressure passage. Along with that the pollution particle concentration in shared liquid at its filtration in the roll ultrafiltration module constantly increases from the pressure passage input to its output. Thus, it is obvious that the maintenance of the stable travel speed of shared liquid flow along the length of the membrane element pressure passage with constant partial discharge of polluted liquid will assist in improvement of performance characteristics of the roll ultrafiltration module in time. The design of the roll ultrafiltration module which allows maintaining the relatively stable travel speed of shared liquid flow lengthwise the membrane element pressure passage.
Key words: water, ultrafiltration, roll module, membrane element.
References: 1. Sposob izgotovlenija membrannogo rulonnogo jelementa [Method of membrane roll element production]:
2. Sovremennye innovacionnye tehnologii podgotovki inzhenernyh kadrov dlja gornoj promyshlennosti i transporta 2014: materialy mezhdunarodnoj konferencii [«Teoreticheskoe issledovanie haraktera techenija vody v rulonnom ul'trafil'tracionnom module»] [Modern innovation technologies of engineer staff training for mining and transport 2014: materials of the international conference [“Theoretical study of the nature of water flow in roll ultrafiltration module”] , Tumin A.N., Dnepropetrovsk, 26 – 27 Match 2014 (in Russian).
3. Dytnerskij Ju.I. Obratnyj osmos i UF [Reversed osmosis and UV] 1978, p. 328 (in Russian).
4. Brevnov A.A. Sovershenstvovanie gidrodinamicheskih fil'trov za schet zakrutki potoka v kol'cevoj oblasti snaruzhi fil'trojelementa : Dissertacija na soiskanie nauchnoj stepeni kandidata tehnicheskih nauk [Improvement of hydrodynamic filters by means of flow swirling in the ring domain outside of the filter element: Ph.D. thesis in Engineering Science], Sumy, 2009, p. 166, SumDU, publ. (in Russian).
5. Kovalenko V.P., Z.L. Finkel'shtejn Smazochnye i gidravlicheskie masla dlja ugol'noj promyshlennosti: Spravochnik [Lubricating and hydraulic oils for the coal industry: a reference guide], M., Nedra, publ., 1991, p. 294 (in Russian).
6. Cheban V.G. Prakticheskij raschet fil'trojelementa s grusheobraznym profilem fil'trujushhej poverhnosti ochistitelja malovjazkih zhidkostej [Practical calculation of the filter element with a pear-shaped profile of filter surface of low-viscosity liquids cleaner], collection of scientific works of DonSTU, issue 31, Alchevsk, DonGTU,publ., 2010, pp.115-126 (in Russian).

Tumin A.N.Theoretical research of the sediment layer formation process and its breakdown from the ultrafiltration membrane surface. p.49-56

In operation of the ultrafiltration module its performance characteristics eventually go down. According to opinions of the majority of researches the main reason of it is the pollution particle accumulation on the surface of membrane in the ultrafiltration module. The process of the pollution particle accumulation on the surface of membrane mainly depends on a selected hydrodynamic operation mode of the ultrafiltration module (tangential and dead-end modes). It is more preferable to use a tangential mode with an optimal selection of the liquid flow rate in the module pressure passage for industrial ultrafiltration modules. Currently there is no exact theoretical justification on selection of the optimal performance parameters for the ultrafiltration module and for the unit in general. The presented work is aimed to expand the theoretical background on studying the operation features of the ultrafiltration module that will allow improving the reliability and service time of the whole ultrafiltration unit.
Key words: ultrafiltration, module, element, membrane, sediment.
References: 1. Andrianov A.P., Spicov D.V., Pervov A.G., Jurchevskij E.B. Membrannye metody ochistki poverhnostnyh vod [Membrane surface water treatment methods], Water suppy and sanitary techniques, journ., 2009, №7, pp. 29-37 (in Russian).
2. Vybor racionalnyh parametrov promyvki ustanovki membrannoj ultrafiltracii [Selection of rational parameters of flushing of membrane ultrafiltration unit]: (in Russian).
3. Brevnov A.A. Sovershenstvovanie gidrodinamicheskih filtrov za schet zakrutki potoka v kolcevoj oblasti snaruzhi filtrojelementa : Dissertacija na soiskanie nauchnoj stepeni kandidata tehnicheskih nauk [Improvement of hydrodynamic filters by means of flow swirling in the ring domain outside of the filter element: Ph.D. thesis in Engineering Science], Sumy, 2009, p. 166, SumDU, publ. (in Russian).
4. Kovalenko V.P., Z.L. Finkelshtejn Smazochnye i gidravlicheskie masla dlja ugolnoj promyshlennosti: Spravochnik [Lubricating and hydraulic oils for the coal industry: a reference guide], M., Nedra, publ., 1991, p. 294 (in Russian).
5. Cheban V.G. Prakticheskij raschet filtrojelementa s grusheobraznym profilem filtrujushhej poverhnosti ochistitelja malovjazkih zhidkostej [Practical calculation of the filter element with a pear-shaped profile of filter surface of low-viscosity liquids cleaner], collection of scientific works of DonSTU, issue 31, Alchevsk, DonGTU,publ., 2010, pp.115-126 (in Russian).
6. Pat. 64598 Ukraina, MPK6 B01D37/00. Sposib ochyshhennja ridyn vid mehanichnyh domishok u potoci [Method of fluids treatment from mechanical impurities in the stream], the applicant and patent holder Bondarenko V.P.; №2003076535; applied 14.07.03; publ. 15.07.05; bulletin № 7 (in Ukrainian).
7. Fynkelshtejn Z.L. Prymenenye y ochystka rabochyh zhydkostej dlja gornыh mashyn [Application and treatment of power fluids for mining machines], M., Nedra,publ., 1986, p. 232 (in Russian).
8. Brevnov A.A. Sovershenstvovanie gidrodinamicheskih filtrov za schet zakrutki potoka v kolcevoj oblasti snaruzhi filtrojelementa : Dissertacija na soiskanie nauchnoj stepeni kandidata tehnicheskih nauk [Improvement of hydrodynamic filters by means of flow swirling in the ring domain outside of the filter element: Ph.D. thesis in Engineering Science], Sumy, 2009, p. 166, SumDU, publ. (in Russian).
9. Farajzadeh R., Produced Water Re-Injection(PWRI), an Experimental Investigation into Internal Filtration and External Cake Build-up, {MsThesis},Delft University of Technology, 2004 (in English).
10. AlAbduwani F.A.H., Bedrikovetsky P., Farajzadeh R., VandenBroek W.M.G.T., CurrieP K., External Filter Cake Erosion: Mathematical Model and Experimental Study, SPE94635, 2005 (in English).
11. 11. Song L., Elimelech M., Theory of Concentration Polarization in Crossflow Filtration, Journal of the Chemical Society, Faraday Transactions, 91(19), p. 3389, 1995 (in English).
12. 12. A. Adli, F. Rashidi, R. Farajzadeh (2010) Modeling of Unsteady-State Cake Formation on a Fracture in Produced Water Re-Injection Process (PWRI) Iran. J. Chem. Chem. Eng. 29: 2. 143 – 50 (in English).
13. Dytnerskij Ju.I. Obratnyj osmos i UF [Reversed osmosis and UV] 1978, p. 328 (in Russian).
14. Sovremennye innovacionnye tehnologii podgotovki inzhenernyh kadrov dlja gornoj promyshlennosti i transporta 2014: materialy mezhdunarodnoj konferencii [«Teoreticheskoe issledovanie haraktera techenija vody v rulonnom ultrafiltracionnom module»] [Modern innovation technologies of engineer staff training for mining and transport 2014: materials of the international conference [“Theoretical study of the nature of water flow in roll ultrafiltration module”] , Tumin A.N., Dnepropetrovsk, 26 – 27 Match 2014 (in Russian).

Water disposal

Voronov Ju.V., Shirkova T.N.Artificial water reservoir as a drainage system element. p.57-65

The article gives a detailed examination of the use of artificial water reservoirs in drainage systems for ground protection from inundation by ground water. The three main variants of the design model of the drainage system control using water reservoirs are presented. The theory is based on the prearranged technological territory which has the appropriate hydraulic parameters. The variant where the groundwater level is higher than desired is examined in more detail. The calculation of the artificial pond is carried out on the principle of a reserve water supply per drain into the drainage system, that is, the prescribed top water level is constantly maintained in the artificial water reservoir by means of swapping by deep-well pump from water underflows. If the natural water reservoir level is higher than the ground water level of the technological area than the collector array should be provided with an external dam with drainage channels located higher than the natural water reservoir level. Also the examples of the artificial water reservoir use for the designing of the drainage system in the Imeretinsky Valley of Krasnodar Krai for holding the Olympic Games 2014 are presented. The artificial water reservoirs are designed in the South-Eastern part of the considered territory and cover the area of 23, 27 ha. On the plane the reservoirs have an elongated form and a width of 50 m to 100 m. The project provides the design and construction of the reservoirs cascade for improving the drainage capacity of the Imeretinsky Valley’s territory planned to be developed. The static water level is maintained by the activity of the runoff water system pump station located next to one of the reservoirs. The designed reservoirs profile is defined from the conditions of the maximum extraction of the sand-gravel soil volume with their subsequent use for area filling, i.e. the reservoirs are used as quarries. There is a bypass-pipe equipment among reservoirs to combine all reservoirs capacities in a unified hydraulic system. The overflow pipes are designed for an uninterrupted income of rain and drain waters, accumulating in the designed reservoirs, to the pump station intake works in case of the water level rise higher than expected at rainfall flood passage. The functionally artificial water reservoirs are located in a built-up area and are supposed to be used for recreation of citizens.
Key words: artificial water reservoir, drainage system, groundwater level, ground protection, bypass pipe.
References: 1. Babikov B. V. Gidrotehnicheskie melioracii: uchebnik [Hydrotechnical melioration: a guide-book], the 3rd edition, SPb, LTA,publ., 2002, N294 (in Russian).
2. Rozanov N.P., Bochkarev Ja.V., Lapshenkov V.S. Gidrotehnicheskie sooruzhenija [Hydraulic facility], M., Agropromizdat,publ., 1985, N432 (in Russian).
3. Vladimirov V. V., G. N.Davidjanc, O. S. Rastorguev Inzhenernaja podgotovka i blagoustrojstvo gorodskih territorij [Site preparation and landscaping of urban areas], M., Arhitektura-S, publ., 2004, p. 240 (in Russian).
4. Isachenko A. G. Landshaftovedenie i fiziko-geograficheskoe rajonirovanie [Landscape science and physiographic division], M., Vyssh. shk., publ., 1991, p. 366 (in Russian).
5. Kas'janov A. E. , G.S. Altunina Gidrotehnicheskoe obustrojstvo landshafta: ucheb. posobie [Hydraulic landscaping: a study guide], M., MGUL,publ., 2001, p. 165 (in Russian).
6. Kirejcheva L.V. Drenazhnye sistemy na oroshaemyh zemljah: proshloe, nastojashhee, budushhee [Drainage system on irrigated lands: past, present, future], M., VNIIGiM,publ., 1999, p. 202 (in Russian).
7. Kuranov N.P., Kuranov P.N. Normativnye trebovanija k sistemam inzhenernoj zashhity ot podtoplenija [Regulatory requirements for the engineering protection system from underflooding], M., OOO «Izd-vo VST», publ., 2009 (in Russian).
8. Kuranov N.P. Metodicheskie rekomendacii po ocenke urovnej bezopasnosti, riska i ushherba ot podtoplenii gradopromyshlennyh territorij [Guidelines for the assessment of safety levels, risk and damage from the underflooding of urban territories], M., ZAO «DAR\VODGEO», publ., 2010 (in Russian).
9. Kuz'min V.V., Timofeeva E.A., Chunosov D.V. Ocenka riska negativnyh vozdejstvij pri podtoplenii urbanizirovannyh territorij [Evaluation of negative impacts risk in case of urbanized territories inundation], Water supply and sanitary techniques, M., OOO «Izd-vo VST», publ., 2008, issue № 8 (in Russian).
10. Dzekcer E.S., Pyrchenko V.A. Tehnologija obespechenija ustojchivogo razvitija urbanizirovannyh territorij v uslovijah vozdejstvija prirodnyh opasnostej [Technology of sustainable development of urban areas in terms of exposure to natural hazards], M., ZAO «DAR/VODGEO», publ., 2004, p. 166 (in Russian).

Fedorov Ju.A., Garkusha D.N.Methane as an indicator of waste water treatment efficiency on the example of the aeration plant of the city of Rostov-on-Don. p..66-72

The methane concentration change observed in treatment shows the possibility to use the level of its content for assessment of the waste water treatment efficiency at the waste water treatment plant (WWTP). The article presents the research results at the WWTP of the city of Rostov-on-Don by indication of the methane concentration on every step of waste water treatment and gives a description of the flow chart of the waste water and sludge treatment process at the plant. According to the indication results the concentration of methane in waste water incoming to the aeration plant changes within 348,9-1640,4 mcl/l making at average 11304 mcl/l. The dramatic decrease (in 100-400 times) of the methane concentration after the aerotank (up to 2-5 mcl/l) is observed, that is caused by the intensive water aeration and its passing through the activated sludge biomass whereby the activity of methanogenic microorganisms is suppressed and the favorable conditions for methane oxidation are created. After passing through all treatment steps the methane concentration reduces to 11,0 mcl/l.
Key words: aeration plant, sewage water, technological treatment steps, methane concentration.
References: 1. Garkusha D.N., Fjodorov Ju.A. Metan v vode i donnyh otlozhenijah ustevoj oblasti Severnoj Dviny v zimnij period [Methane in water and bottom sediments of the mouth of the Northern Dvina river in winter], Oceanology, journ., 2014, vol. 54, №2, pp. 178-188 (in Russian).
2. Garkusha D.N., Fjodorov Ju.A. Osobennosti raspredelenija soderzhanija metana v pribrezhnyh uchastkah Petrozavodskoj guby Onezhskogo ozera [The distribution of methane in the coastal areas of the Petrozavodsk Bay of the lake Onego], Water Resources, journ., 2015, issue 42, № 3, pp. 288-297 (in Russian).
3. Garkusha D.N., Fjodorov Ju.A. Formirovanie urovnja soderzhanija metana v uslovijah moshhnogo zagrjaznenija vodnyh jekosistem kadmiem (na primere modelnyh jeksperimentov) [The formation of the methane content level in conditions of high contamination of aquatic ecosystems by cadmium (on the example of model experiments)], Hydrobiological Journal, 2014, vol. 50, №3(297), pp. 108-120 (in Russian).
4. Garkusha D.N., Fjodorov Ju.A., Tambieva N.S. «Metan kak indikator uslovij rannego diageneza i jekologicheskogo sostojanija vodnyh jekosistem» [Methane as an indicator of the conditions of early diagenesis and the ecological state of aquatic ecosystems], Izvestiya Vizov. Severo-Kavkazskii region: Natural sciences, journ., 2013, № 6, pp. 78-82 (in Russian).
5. Garkusha D.N., Fjodorov Ju.A., Tambieva N.S. Metan kak indikator jekologicheskogo sostojanija rybovodnyh prudov [Methane as an indicator of the ecological status of fish ponds], materials of the international scientific conference “Fishery water bodies of Russia: fundamental and applied research, Saint-Petersburg, 2014, pp. 883-887 (in Russian).
6. Fedorov Ju.A., Tambieva N.S. Ispolzovanie pokazatelja «metan» pri ocenke jekologicheskogo sostojanija morskih i presnovodnyh jekosistem [The use of the indicator "methane" in assessing the ecological state of marine and freshwater ecosystems], Materials of interuniversity collection of scientific papers “Life safety. Labor safety and environment protection”, Rostov-N/D: Izd-vo RGASHM,publ., 1997, pp. 17-18 (in Russian).
7. Fedorov Ju.A., Tambieva N.S., Garkusha D.N. et al. Teoreticheskie aspekty svjazi metanogeneza s zagrjazneniem vody i donnyh otlozhenij veshhestvami neorganicheskoj i organicheskoj prirody [Theoretical aspects of methanogenesis communication with water pollution and sediment substances of inorganic and organic nature], Izvestiya Vizov. Severo-Kavkazskii region: Natural sciences, journ., 2000, № 4, pp. 68-73 (in Russian).
8. Fedorov Ju.A., Tambieva N.S., Garkusha D.N. Metan kak pokazatel jekologicheskogo sostojanija presnovodnyh vodoemov (na primere ozer Valdaj i Uzhin) [Methane as an indicator of the ecological status of freshwater bodies (on the example of the Lake Valdai and Lake Uzhin)], Russian Meteorology and Hydrology, journ., 2004, № 6, pp. 88-96 (in Russian).
9. Fedorov Ju.A., Tambieva N.S., Garkusha D.N., Horoshevskaja V.O. Metan v vodnyh jekosistemah [Methane in aquatic ecosystems], 2nd edition, revised and enlarged, Rostov-on-Don – Moscow, ZAO «Rostizdat»,publ., 2007, p. 330 (in Russian).
10. Fedorov Ju.A., Horoshevskaja V.O., Zinchenko A.A. O vozmozhnosti ispolzovanija metana kak pokazatelja sostojanija vodoprovodnoj seti i kachestva vody [The possibility of using methane as an indicator of the status of water supply system and water quality], Water sector of Russia, 2002, vol. 4, № 3, pp. 288-294 (in Russian).


Drozd G.Y.Wastewater sludge in ceramics producing. Technological and ecological aspects. p.73-80

The new method of wastewater sludge utilization by means of destruction and clearance of hazardous substances containing in the sludge and blockage of heavy metals by high-temperature processing in ceramic mixture with the simultaneous production of new useful products – wall ceramics, is justified.
Key words: wastewater sludge, heavy metals, disposal, high-heat treatment, ceramics.
References: 1. Drozd G.Ja. Tehnicheskie aspekty utilizacii deponirovannyh osadkov stochnyh vod [Technical details of deposit sewage sludge disposal], Water and ecology: problems and solutions, journ., Saint-Petersburg, №1/2014(57), pp. 35-50 (in Russian).
2. Drozd G.Ja., Pogostnova O.A. Racionalnye sostavy keramicheskoj massy dlja izgotovlenija jeffektivnyh keramicheskih izdelij [Rational compositions of ceramic mass for effective ceramics production], collection of scientific papers of the Luhansk national agrarian University, №41/53, technical science, Lugansk, LNAU,publ., 2004, pp. 14-16 (in Russian).
3. Vinarskij M.S., Lure M.V. Planirovanie jeksperimenta v tehnologicheskih issledovanijah [Design of experiments in technological research], Tehnika, publ., Kyiv, 1975, p. 169 (in Russian).
4. Melnikov S.V. et al. Planirovanie jeksperimentov v issledovanijah selskohozjajstvennyh processov [Design of experiments in agricultural research processes], L., «Kolos», publ., Leningrad department, 1980, p. 168 (in Russian).
5. Mihajlov V.I., Krivonosova N.T. Tehnologija proizvodstva keramicheskih izdelij na osnove othodov promyshlennosti [Technology of ceramics production based on industrial wastes], K., Budіvelnik, publ., 1983, p. 80 (in Russian).
6. Jakunin V.P., Agroskin A.A. Ispolzovanie othodov obogashhenija uglej [Use of the by-product coal], M., Nedra, publ., 1978, p. 167 (in Russian).
7. SanPіN Gigienicheskie trebovanija, kasajushhiesja obrashhenija s promyshlennymi othodami i opredelenie ih klassa opasnosti dlja zdorovja naselenija [Hygienic requirements for industrial waste management and determination of public health hazard classes], Approved by the Ministry of health of Ukraine, 01.07.1999 (in Russian).
8. Metodika NSAM №155-HS Atomno-absorbcionnoe plamenno-fotometricheskoe opredelenie tjazhelyh metallov v gornyh porodah, rudah i tehnologicheskih rastvorah atomno-absorbcionnym metodom na spektrofotometre «Saturn-3P» [Methodology of the Research council on analytical methods №155-HS Atomic-absorption flame-photometric detection of heavy metals in rocks, ores and technological solutions by atomic absorption method in spectrophotometer "Saturn-3P"] (in Russian).


Theme day. Opinion

Mihajlenko R.R., Tsvetkova L.I., Kopina G.I.On the question of water body ecological state management with the use of hydrotechnical constructs.p.3-19

On the example of the Saint Petersburg Flood Protection Barrier (FPB) the article presents the opportunity to manage the water body ecological state by using hydrotechnical constructs. At the design stage the FPB was meant to be used not only for the city protection from floods but for ecological problem solution as well. The results of a large-scale field experiment on maneuvering the discharge opening locks of the FPB which was carried out in 1992 when the protective structures were built only in the Northern Gate of the Neva Bay are presented. The experiment results proved a fundamental possibility of hydrological regime management of the Neva Bay water area and the eastern part of the Gulf of Finland. The data showing that the ecological state of water bodies depends both on human impact as well as on natural hydrodynamic factors is given. It is a basis for using the hydrotechnical constructs for the management of hydrological regime and environmental situation. Then a program of the experiment on maneuvering in conditions of a complete construction of the FPB which was done only in 2011 is presented. The experiment results allow developing a regulation of maneuvering the discharge opening locks of the FPB for the management of hydrological regime, sanitary and environmental situation in the Neva Bay and the eastern part of the Gulf of Finland in case of emergency. The precedent of the FPB use for the ecological situation management in the Neva Bay and in the Gulf of Finland can be useful for other water objects which have hydrotechnical constructs allowing managing the hydrological regime.
Key words: hydrotechnical constructs, Saint Petersburg Flood Protection Barrier (FPB), maneuvering, hydrological regime, ecological state, Neva Bay, Gulf of Finland.
References: 1. Leningrad bez navodnenij [Leningfrad without floods], compiled by V.T. Senin], LZZ L., Lenizdat, publ., 1984, 127 (in Russian).
2. Usanov B.P., Tsvetkova L.I., Michailenko R.R. The experience of management of ecological condition of the Neva Bay and the eastern part of the Gulf of Finland by maneuvering flood defending complex water-gates // Abstr.1-st Intern.Conf.: Environm. Protection Strategy Standartization and Control of Pollution Load on the Marine Environment. – Tallinn, Estonia, - 1993, 27 p (in English).
3. Plan dejstvija Helkoma po Baltijskomu morju [The action plan of HELCOM in the Baltic sea], OOO «Izdatetel'stvo "Dialog"», publ., 2008, p. 112 (in Russian).
4. Alekseev M.I., Makarova S.V., Newerowa-Dziopak E. and ahathor . Influenсe of wastewater on eutrophication process in narth-east part of the Neva bay, 2010 – Intern Environment Forum “Baltic Sea Day” Thesises collection, SPb: OOO «Maksi-Print»,publ., рр 397-399 (in English).
5. B. Virkmae, T. Soomare, K. Mgrberg, 2010, Towards identification of areas of reoluceol risk in the Gulf of Finland (Baltic Sea), SPb: OOO «Maksi-Print»,publ., рр 317-319 (in English).
6. Round table resolution the Assessment of ecological state of the Baltic within framework of the IX International Forum “Baltic Sea Day” 2008,СПб: ООО Изд-во «Диалог», рр 525-527 (in English).
7. Elena Newerowa-Dziopak, 2010, Podstawy zarzadzania procesem eutrofizacji antropogeniczeji Krakow: AGH, - p. 132 (in Polish).
8. Neverova-Dziopak E. Ohrana poverhnostnyh vod ot antropogennogo jevtrofirovanija [Protection of surface waters from anthropogenic eutrophication], LAPLAMBERT. Acad.Publ.Saarbruken, Deutschland, 2012, p. 332 (in Russian).
9. Report on agreement NIR № 23-75-100 on 1st March 2013 «Vypolnenie sanitarno- mikrobiologicheskih i sanitarno-virusologicheskih issledovanij v stvorah zashhitnyh sooruzhenij dlja obespechenija jekspluatacii Kompleksa sooruzhenij zashhity Sankt-Peterburga v 2013 godu» [The implementation of sanitary - microbiological and sanitary-virological research in the sites of the protective structures to support the operation of the the Flood Prevention Facility Complex], Scientific Research Centre for Ecological Safety, manuscript, 2013, p. 130 (in Russian).
10. Tsvetkova L.I., Alekseev., Makarova S.V., Kopina G.I., Neverova-Dziopak E. Vlijanie stochnyh vod Sankt-Peterburga na jevtrofirovanie Nevskoj guby [The impact of wastewater of St. Petersburg on the eutrophication of the Neva Bay], Bulletin of Civil Engineers, 2012, №1(30), pp. 178-187 (in Russian).
11. Nikulina V.N. Fitoplankton jestuarija reki Nevy. Jekosistema jestuarija reki Nevy: biologicheskoe raznoobrazie i jekologicheskie problemy [Phytoplankton of the Neva river estuary. Ecosystem of the Neva river estuary: biological diversity and environmental problems ] edited by A.F.Alimova, S.M. Golubkova, M., Scientific press KMK, 2008, pp. 76-95 (in Russian).
12. Balushkina E.V. Ocenka sostojanija jestuarija reki Nevy po integral'nomu pokazatelju IP’ v 2004-2012 gg. [Assessment of the Neva river estuary according to the IP overall performance in 2004-2012], collection of papers of the XIV International ecological forum “Baltic Sea Day”, SPb, Chelovek,publ., 2013, pp.139-140 (in Russian).
13. Gubelit Ju.I., Golubkov S.M., Berezina N.A., Nikulina V.N. Problemy jevtrofirovanija pribrezhnyh vod jestuarija reki Nevy/ Jekosistema jestuarija reki Nevy: biologicheskoe raznoobrazie i jekologicheskie problemy [The problem of eutrophication of coastal waters of the Neva river estuary. Ecosystem of the Neva river estuary: biological diversity and environmental problems ] edited by A.F.Alimova, S.M. Golubkova, M., Scientific press KMK, 2008, pp. 76-95 (in Russian).
14. Metodicheskie rekomendacii po formalizovannoj kompleksnoj ocenke kachestva poverhnostnyh i morskih vod po gidrohimicheskim pokazateljam [Methodical recommendations on a formal comprehensive assessment of the quality of surface and marine waters by hydrochemical indicators], Order of the Office of Supervision and Control of Environmental Pollution of the Federal Service for Hydrometeorology and Environmental Monitoring of USSR, M., 27.07.88 (in Russian).
15. SanPiN Vodootvedenie naselennyh mest, sanitarnaja ohrana vodnyh obektov. Gigieni-cheskie trebovanija k ohrane poverhnostnyh vod [Wastewater disposal, sanitary protection of water objects. Hygienic requirements to surface water protection], on 01.01.2001, p. 11 (in Russian).
16. Basov L.L., G.N.Kuzmin, L.G.Smirnova Use of fotochemical methods in technologies of water treatment./ Abstracts of Joint Conference 7-th Stockholm Water Symp. And 3-rd Int. Conf. on the Environmental Management of Enclosed Coastal Seas (EMECS), 10-15 Fug. 1997, Stockholm, Sweden, pp .282-284 (in English).
17. Stoll M.H.C., Bakker K., Nobbe G.N., Yaese R.R. Continuous-flow analysis of dissolved inorganic carbon content in seawater. / Annal. Chem. 2001. V.73, №17, р.4111-4116 (in English).
18. Olihov I., Prokof'eva E., Prokof'eva S., Mihajlova L. Apparatnyj gidromonitoring [Hardware hydromonitoring], Electronika: Science, Technology, Business,journ., 2000. vol T.4, pp .54-57 (in Russian).

Water supply

Kobyljanskij V.Ja., Vasilenko S.L.Comprehensive assessment of drinking water quality in the city water-supply network.p.20-28

Toughening of requirements to quality of drinking water at the regulatory level is active particularly in extension of the controlled parameters list. It undeniably increases a drinking water supply safety guarantee but complicates a comprehensive assessment of water quality broadly in the city water-supply network in a spaciotemporal profile. First of all, difficulties occur at the grouping of various parameters of water quality with different metrics due to a large set of control points in a certain integral indicator. The article proposes a procedure of determining of a water quality comprehensive assessment which enables to assess the drinking water quality broadly in the city as well as in its separate parts and at various time intervals. The comprehensive assessment is based on ranking the quality parameters and control points. The parameters are differentiated by harmful indexes and hazard classes using cumulative coefficients and regulation regarding the threshold limit value. The cumulative coefficients are set on the base of exponential relations as well as on the base of the value which is applied for a quantitative assessment of critical transitions which refers to a gradation of chemical substance hazard levels for living organisms either. Weight coefficients are assigned as objects of control on the bases of the representativeness of the observation points and number of consumers using water from a given site of the city water supply network. The selection of the control points and assigning them the weights of importance are mainly determined by local conditions. The formalized representation of the result of water quality changes in the city during a predetermined period of time is carried out using a matrix representation of analysis data. In order to clarify the calculations, a basic set of physico-chemical parameters of drinking water quality on the base of the sanitary rules and the regulations of surface water protection from pollution is made.
Key words: drinking water, integral assessment, water supply system, networks.
References: 1. Integral'naja ocenka pit'evoj vody centralizovannyh sistem vodosnabzhenija po pokazateljam himicheskoj bezvrednosti: Metodicheskie rekomendacii [Integrated assessment of drinking water of centralized water supply systems in terms of chemical safety], MR(guidelines), M., Hygienic and Epidemiological Centers of Rospotrebnadzor , 2011, p. 37 (in Russian).
2. Volkova L.A. Metodika integral'noj ocenki kachestva komponentov okruzhajushhej sredy [The technique of integrated assessment of the quality of environmental components], Modern scientific achievements: materials of the international conference 2013, (in Russian).
3. Kushniruk Ju.S., Volkova L.A. Kachestvo pit'evoj vody kak odin iz aspektov rejtingovoj ocenki territorii po mediko-jekologicheskomu risku [The quality of drinking water as one of the aspects of the rating assessment of the territory for medical environmental risk], Vestnik Nac. un-ta vodnogo hozjajstva i prirodopol'zovanija, journ., 2012, issue 2 (58), pp. 43–53 (in Russian).
4. Petrosov V.A., Kobyljanskij V.Ja., Panasenko A.A. Geoinformatika v upravlenii kachestvom pit'e-voj vody [Geoinformatics in managing the quality of drinking water], Kharkov, Osnova,publ., 2000, p. 112 (in Russian).
5. Petrosov V.A., Kobyljanskij V.Ja. Formirovanie matric kompleksnoj ocenki fiziko-himicheskih parametrov kachestva pit'evoj vody [The formation of matrices of complex assessment of physico-chemical parameters of drinking water quality], Vestnik Nac. tehn. un-ta, journ., Kharkov, 2002, issue 20, pp. 131-135 (in Russian).
6. Petrovskaja M.A. Ohrana vod (sanitarnye normy i pravila): ucheb. posobie [Protection of waters (sanitary regulations and rules): the manual], Lviv, Ivan Franko National University of Lviv,publ., 2005, p. 205 (in Russian).
7. Vasilenko S.L. Prioritetnye pokazateli dlja modelirovanija i kachestvennoj ocenki sostojanija poverhnostnyh vod [Priority indicators for modelling and qualitative assessment of surface water], Naukovij vіsnik budіvnictva,journ., Kharkov, Kharkiv national University of construction and architecture, 2004, issue 27, pp. 107–113 (in Russian).
8. Zhirmunskij A.V., Kuz'min V.I. Kriticheskie urovni v razvitii prirodnyh system [Critical levels in the development of natural systems], Leningrad, Nauka,publ., 1990, p. 223 (in Russian).

Doncova T.A., Astrelin I.M., Fedenko Ju.N.Regularities of cation sorption from water by an activated carbon-based nanocomposite. p.29-38

The regularities of heavy metal cation adsorption from water solutions by a nanocomposite sorption material based on activated carbon and nanodispersed zirconium oxide (IV) are studied in the article. In obtaining the nanocomposite a homogeneous chemical deposition method where urea was used as a precipitator was employed. The sorption isotherms of different heavy metal cations by the nanocomposite material were made and their kinetic parameters were defined. By a potentiometric titration method and infrared spectroscopy a mechanism of interaction of the nanocomposite sorption material with heavy metal cations (on the example of iron ions) is found out and the nature of adsorption bond is identified. The investigation result shows that the efficiency of sorption extraction of heavy metal cations by the synthesized nanocomposite material based on active carbon and nanodispersed zirconium oxide (IV) increases with the increasing of their charge and size (the maximum degree of extraction is observed in the case of iron (III) while the nanocomposite absorbance capacity to iron makes 88,2 mg/g). It is also found out that the adsorption of all investigated heavy metal cations proceeds in accordance with the Langmuir model and has the chemical nature of interaction: the strength of chemical bond “adsorbate-adsorbent” is the greater, the less the cationic contaminant size. When extracting heavy metal cations by the synthesized nanocomposite material there is mainly the irreversible specific adsorption with the formation of a ?-FeOOH –type crystal structure on the surface of the nanodispersed zirconium oxide (IV) phase.
Key words: heavy metals, adsorption, activated carbon, zirconium oxide (IV), nanocomposite.
References: 1. Kochetov G.M. Kompleksnaja ochistka stochnyh vod promyshlennyh predprijatij s regeneraciej tjazhelyh metallov [Integrated wastewater treatment of industrial enterprises with the regeneration of heavy metals], Jekotehnologii i resursosberezhenie,journ., 2000, № 4 (in Russian).
2. Bevza A.G., Kutlahmedov Ju.O. Modeljuvannja Vplivu Gal'vanіchnogo Virobnictva Na Navkolishnє Seredovishhe, Ta Ljudinu//Ekologіchnabezpeka, journ., 2011, № 2 (in Ukrainian).
3. Mel'nik E.S. Al'ternativnye metody reshenija problemy utilizacii gal'vanoshlamov [Alternative methods of solving the problem of disposing of galvanic sludge] Actual problems of chemical science, practice and education: international scientific-practical conference, 19-21 of May 2009, collection of articles, Kursk, 2009 (in Russian).
4. PetrovN., BudinovaT., RazvigorovaM. et. al. Preparation and characterization ofcarbon adsorbents from furfural // Carbon,2000, V.38, № 15 (in English).
5. Fedenko Ju.M., Doncova T.A., Astrelіn І.M. Sorbenti na osnovі nanokompozitіv «cirkonіj(IV) oksid – aktivovane vugіllja» // Hіmіchna promislovіst' Ukraїni,journ., 2013,№ 1 (in Ukrainian).
6. FedenkoYu.M., DontsovaT.A., AstrelinI.M. Physicochemical and sorptive properties of nanocomposites based on zirconium (IV) oxide //ChemistryandChemicalTechnology, 2014,V.8,№ 1 (in English).
7. Lur'e Ju.Ju. Spravochnik po analiticheskojhimii [Reference book of analytical chemistry], M., Himija,publ., 1971.
8. Evstratova K.I., Kupina N.A., Malahova E.E. Fizicheskaja i kolloidnaja himija [Physical and colloid chemistry], M., Vysshaja shkola,publ., 1990 (in Russian).
9. Rabinovich V.A., Havin Z.Ja. Kratkij himicheskij spravochnik [Quick chemistry reference book], L., Himija,publ., 1978 (in Russian).
10. Roberts Dzh. Osnovy organicheskoj himii [Fundamentals of organic chemistry], M., Mir,publ., 1978 (in Russian).
11. Lygin V.I. Adsorbcija iz rastvorov na poverhnosti tverdyh tel [Adsorption from solutions on solid surfaces], M., Mir,publ., 1986 (in Russian).
12. Ivanovskaja M.I., Tolstik A.I., Kotikov V.A. Strukturnye osobennosti Zn-Mn-ferrita, sintezirovannogo metodom raspylitel'nogo piroliza [Structural features of Zn-Mn-ferrite synthesized by spray pyrolysis], Journal of Physical Chemistry, 2009, vol. 83, № 12 (in Russian).
13. Kostrikin A.V., Spiridonov F.M., Komissarova L.N. K voprosu o stroenii i degidratacii kserogelejgidratirovannyh dioksidov cirkonija i gafnija [To the issue of the structure and dehydration of xerogels, hydrated dioxides of zirconium and hafnium], Russian Journal of Inorganic Chemistry,journ., 2010, vol. 55, № 6 (in Russian).

Water disposal

Ermolin Ju. A., Alekseev M. I. Real-time control of a big city head-and-gravity flow sewage disposal system: capabilities and technical realizability. p.39-48

The principle possibility of the real-time control of a big city head-and-gravity flow sewage disposal system that has a hydraulic connection between separate sewer basins is analyzed. The control refers to a targeted redistribution of waste water flows through the sewer network facilities. The approaches to a mathematic modeling of water disposal system are examined; the practice-based assumptions greatly simplifying the model are discussed. Formally the problem of the object control reduces to an optimization problem on the criterion of minimum total costs of energy consumed by all network sewage pumping stations in the process of waste water transportation to treatment facilities. In order to test the offered method of control the series of active experiments were carried out on the site of the waste water transportation system of Moscow. The experimental site represented a fragment of a sewer network with 11 inputs and included 9 sewage pumping station which perform about two thirds of the total energy consumption by all sewage pumping station of Moscow. Each sewage pumping station was characterized by its own specific energy consumption. The “typical” daily diagrams of water consumption at the site inputs approximated with a step function of time with the 1-hour intervals of constancy. The optimal distribution of waste water flows through the network facilities was defined for every source data combination as a result of a solution of linear programming problem. Due to the absence of locking and controlling devices in the network the flow redistribution was actually implemented only at the site of sewage pumping station by means of switching of station pump units on a predefined time program linked with an optimization problem solution. The series of experiments included 40 days of the optimal mode and 40 control days of the traditional mode of site operation. The comparison of obtained data showed a statistically steady decrease of the specific energy consumption costs at the experimental operation for more than 4%. The network program control is compulsory; it uses the potential options of the optimal control only partially. However, if a fully automatic control of a big city water disposal system is only a prospective, than a program control can be implemented with the minimal maintenance costs today.
Key words: sewage network, real-time control, power costs, mathematic modeling, control criterion, optimization.
References: 1. Ermolin Yu. A., Automated control of urban sewage disposal systems, “Water Research”, vol. 26, № 9, 1992, pp 1255-1259 (in English).
2. ErmolinYuri A., Mathematical modeling for optimized control of Moscow’s sewer network, “Applied Mathematical Modelling”, vol. 23, № 7, 1999, pp 543-556 (in English).
3. Evdokimov A. G., Dubrovskij V. V., Tevjashev A. D., Potokoraspredelenie v inzhenernyh setjah [Flow distribution in engineering networks], M., Strojizdat, publ., 1979, p.312 (in Russian).
4. Alekseev M. I., Ermolin Ju. A., Optimizacija processa vodootvedenija v krupnyh gorodah [Water disposal process optimization on big cities], M., Izd-vo ASV,publ., 2013, p. 184 (in Russian).
5. Ermolin Ju. A., Skrjabin L. F., Pokazatel' funkcionirovanija naporno-samotechnoj sistemy vodootvedenija [Performance index of head-and-gravity flow sewage disposal system ], Water disposal and sanitary techniques, journ., № 4, 1987, p. 23 (in Russian).
6. Chou V. T., Gidravlika otkrytyh kanalov [Open-channel hydraulics], M., Izd-vo literatury po stroitel'stvu,publ., 1969, p. 464 (in Russian).
7. Vasil'ev O. F., Godunov S. K., Chislennyj metod rascheta rasprostranenija voln v otkrytyh ruslah i prilozhenie ego k zadache o pavodke [A numerical method of calculation of wave propagation in open channels and its application to the problem of flooding], Proceedings of the USSR Academy of Sciences, journ., vol. 151, issue 3, 1980, pp. 18-27 (in Russian).
8. Cembrowicz R. G., Krauter G. E., Anwendung von Operations Research Verfahren zur Planung von stadtischen Kanalizationsnetzen // Zwischenbericht, Institut fur Siedlungswasserwirtsschaft, i. A. der Deutschen Forschungsgemeinschaft, Universitat Karlsruhe, 1983. – 80 s. (in German).
9. Ermolin Y., Study of open-channel dynamics as controlled process, “Journal of Hydraulic Engineering”, vol. 118, № 1, 1992, pp 59-72 (in English).
10. Ermolin Yuri A., Ordinary operating conditions of large channels of Moscow’s sewerage network, “Journal of Irrigation and Drainage Engineering”, vol. 122, № 3, 1996, pp 145-148 (in English).

Dan E.L., Butenko Je.O., Kapustin A.E.Neutralisation of hydrogen sulfide from industrial waste water by oxidation. p.49

Currently, problems of rational using of water resources and environmental protection are in the foreground in the environmental policy of Ukraine. This issue is particularly relevant in terms of Mariupol (Ukraine) as well as sewage steel and coke enterprises are the source of a variety of toxic substances, including sulfide compounds that later fall into nearby water bodies (rivers and Kalchyk Kalmius Sea of Azov) . Also, the source of these compounds are slag dumps as contaminated infiltration water washed into groundwater and surface water, which later fall into the Sea of Azov. These substances have a negative impact on human health and the environment. Therefore it is necessary to find the most optimal method of neutralization of sulfide compounds (including hydrogen sulfide) under these conditions. For example, in 1999 the main city enterprises (AZOVSTAL IRON & STEEL WORKS and ILYICH IRON AND STEEL WORKS (Metinvest holding, System Capital Management) was dropped into water bodies 885.0 million. m? of wastewater (including 403.9 million. m? of polluted waste water). There are 97 mg / l of sulfides in the studied protective dam of AZOVSTAL IRON & STEEL WORKS, which exceeding the norm (MPC = 10 mg / l). Therefore the kinetics of neutralization of hydrogen sulfide and sulfide compounds from industrial wastewater by oxidation by oxygen was studied, and the possibility of using this method in the conditions of AZOVSTAL IRON & STEEL WORKS(Mariupol, Ukraine) was analyzed. On the basis of the researches conclusions was made and prospects of using this method was identified.
Key words: slag, hydrogen sulfide, sulfide, oxidation, oxygen, water.
References: 1. Snizhenie jekologicheskoj nagruzki pri obrashhenii so shlakami chernoj metallurgii: monografija [Reduction of environmental load by use of the slags of ferrous metallurgy. Monograph], K. G. Pugin, Ja. I. Vajsman, B. S. Jushkov, N. G. Maksimovich, Perm, Perm National Research Polytechnic University, 2008, p. 316 (in Russian).
2. Vanjukov A. V., Zajcev V. Ja. Shlaki i shtejny cvetnoj metallurgii [Slags and mattes nonferrous metallurgy], M., Metallurgija,publ., 1969, p. 408 (in Russian).
3. Bandman A. L., N. V. Volkova, T. D. Grehova et al. Vrednye himicheskie veshhestva. Neorganicheskie soedinenija jelementov V-VIII grupp: Spravochnoe izdanie [Harmful chemical substances. Inorganic compounds of elements of V-VIII groups: reference edition], L., Himija,publ., 1989, p. 592 (in Russian).
4. Butenko Je.O., A.E. Kapustin Tehnologija udalenija sulfidov [Sulfide removal technology], East Europe Journal, 2010, №3/8 (45), pp 7-9 (in Russian).
5. Sedluho Ju.P., Ju.O. Stankevich Vlijanie ajeracionnyh processov na metody i tehnologiju ochistki podzemnyh vod ot serovodoroda [The influence of aeration processes on methods and technology of groundwater treatment from hydrogen sulfide], Bulletin of Polotsk State University, 2014, №8, pp. 90-94 (in Russian).
6. Aleksin O.A. Osnovy gidrohimii [Fundamentals of hydrochemistry], L., Gidrometioizdat,publ., 1970, p. 413 (in Russian).
7. Peter O?Neill. Chemia ?rodowiska / Peter O?Neill. - Warszawa-Wroc?aw : Wydawnictwo Naukowe PWN, 1997, p. 308 (in Polish).
8. Obzor metodov opredelenija soderzhanija sery v nefteproduktah [Review of methods of sulphur tests in petrolium products], I.I. Bilinskij, O.S. Gorodeckaja, V. V. Krotevich, Scientific reviews of Vinnytsia National Technical University, 2014, № 3, p. 7 (in Russian).
9. Kuznecov S.M. Metody izuchenija vodnyh mikroorganizmov [Methods of aquatic organisms study], S.M. Kuznecov, G.A. Dubinina, M., Nauka, publ., 1989, p. 288 (in Russian).
10. Voronovich N.V. , E.E. Samojlenko Tehnologija utilizacii sulfidsoderzhashhih stochnyh vod [Recycling technology of sulphide-containing waste water], Himija i neftehimija, journ., 2007, № 3, pp. 2-5 (in Russian).
11. Vilson E. V. Issledovanija v oblasti udalenija vosstanovlennyh soedinenij sery iz stochnyh vod [Research in the field of removal of reduced sulphur compounds from wastewater], On-line Journal "Naukovedenie", № 3, 2013, p. 10 (in Russian).


Evdokimov A.A., Kiss V.V.Dimensioning of hydrocarbon drops in water. p.50-66

In order to assess the risk of hydrocarbon ingress into natural water bodies the authors suggest examining the forces affecting a single drop of “oil” in endless motionless liquid (water). The developed mathematical model considers both the surface tension forces which strive to put a drop into a spherical shape as well as the volume forces which strive to reduce the potential energy of the drop. With a balance of the affecting forces the drop takes a shape of an ellipsoid of revolution which size can be calculated by the methods of mathematical analysis. The obtained results allow defining the amount of spilled product as well as the thickness of a hydrocarbon film by the area of the oil slick. For implementing the necessary calculations it is sufficient to know the spilled hydrocarbon density and the surface tension coefficient at the boundary with water. The examples of “drop” dimensioning for two products: gasoline and mazut are presented.
Key words: oil spills, hydrocarbon drops in water, the surface tension coefficient at the phase boundary, monitoring, localization and collection of spilled hydrocarbons.
References: 1. Evdokimov А. А. How to protect the hydrosphere against oil pollution. Summary of the USSR presentation. Second Soviet-American symposium on marine environmental protection, port development and trade. Seattle,-Washington, 8 Sept. 1991, p. 36-37 (in English).
2. Evdokimov A.A. Zashhita vodojomov ot neftjanyh zagrjaznenij. Besstochnaja neftevodoochistka. Monografija [Protection of water bodies from oil pollution. Drainless petro-water treatment. Monograph], SPb, SPbSUR&FE, 2003, p. 136 (in Russian).
3. Patent RF N 2017891. Neftelovitel [Oilcatcher], A. A. Evdokimov, V. V. Evdokimova, E. P. Bucko. BI No. 15, 1994 (in Russian).
4. Patent RF № 2217552. Ustrojstvo dlja sbora zhidkih plavajushhih zagrjaznenij [Device for collection of liquid floating impurities], A.A. Evdokimov, V.V. Evdokimova, V.M. Smoljanov, BI № 33, 2003 (in Russian).

Pashkevich M.A., Alekseenko A.V., Vlasova E.V.Biogeochemical and geobotanical assessment of marine ecosystems conditions (Novorossiysk city). p.67-80

The largest bay on the Black Sea coast of the Caucasus is Tsemes bay. Novorossiysk city with a population of more than 300 thousand inhabitants is located on the shores of the bay. The most important commercial port of southern Russia is located here. The largest centre of the cement industry operates here on the basis of the developed marl deposit. Cement production is a major source of pollution in the city and the surrounding area. Biogeochemical study of 150 samples of algae revealed the water areas with adverse environmental conditions. Intense accumulation of heavy metals by algae occurs within these areas. Ten years of biogeochemical monitoring showed the general trend of increasing contents of pollutants in algae. Geobotanical study allowed to reveal the most contaminated sites within the waters of Tsemes bay, where the disappearance of most of the species of algae was noted.
Key words: Black sea; environmental geochemistry; macrophytes; algae; phytoindication; heavy metals.
References: 1. Alekseenko V.A. Geobotanicheskie issledovanija dlja reshenija rjada jekologicheskih zadach i poiskov mestorozhdenij poleznyh iskopaemyh [Geobotanical studies for solving a number of environmental tasks and searching of mineral deposits], M., Logos, publ., 2011, p. 244 (in Russian).
2. Alekseenko V.A. Geojekologija. Jekologicheskaja geohimija [Geoecology. Environmental Geochemistry], Rostov-n/D, Feniks, publ., 2015, p. 688 (in Russian).
3. Alekseenko V.A. Jekologo-geohimicheskie izmenenija v biosfere. Razvitie, ocenka [Ecological and geochemical changes in the biosphere. Development, assessment], M., Logos, publ., 2006, p. 520 (in Russian).
4. Alekseenko V.A., Alekseenko A.V. Himicheskie jelementy v gorodskih pochvah [Chemical elements in urban soils], M., Logos, publ., 2014, p. 312 (in Russian).
5. Alekseenko V.A., Vlasova E.V. Jekologo-geohimicheskaja ocenka sostojanija Cemesskoj buhty geokriologija [Ecological-geochemical assessment of the Tsemes Bay], Environmental geoscience: Engineering Geology, Hydrogeology, Geocryology, journ., 2015, № 2, pp. 155–163 (in Russian).
6. Alekseenko V.A., Suvorinov A.V., Vlasova E.V. Metally v okruzhajushhej srede. Pribrezhnye akvalnye landshafty Chernomorskogo poberezhja Rossii [Metals in the environment. Coastal aquatic landscapes of the Black sea coast of Russia], M., Research Institute of advanced materials and technologies, 2012, p. 360 (in Russian).
7. Gromov V.V., Afanasev D.F. Adaptacionnye vozmozhnosti fitocenoza cistozejry k zagrjazneniju pribrezhnoj zony morja [The adaptive capacity of phytocenosis of cystoseira to the pollution of the coastal zone], 2nd international conference of young specialists "Pont Jevksinskij", Sevastopol, 2001, pp. 117-119 (in Russian).
8. Donchenko V.K., Ivanova V.V., Pitulko V.M. Jekologo-geohimicheskie osobennosti pribrezhnyh akvatorij [Ecological-geochemical characteristics of coastal waters], SPb, 2008, p. 544 (in Russian).
9. Kurilenko V.V., Osmolovskaja N.G. Bioindikatornaja rol vysshih rastenij pri diagnostike zagrjaznenij vodnyh jekosistem (na primere malyh vodoemov Sankt-Peterburga) [Bio-indicator role of higher plants in the diagnosis of contamination of aquatic ecosystems (by the example of small water bodies of St. Petersburg)], Water resources,journ., 2007, vol.34, № 7, pp. 1-8 (in Russian).
10. Pankova E.S. Ispolzovanie vodoroslej v monitoringe kachestva pribrezhnyh vod Chernomorskogo poberezhja (Krasnodarskij kraj) [Use of algae in monitoring the quality of coastal waters of the black sea coast (Krasnodar Krai)], Bulletin of Moscow Society of Naturalists, vol. 50: Geology, geography, ecology, organization of practices, M., Peoples Friendship University of Russia, 2013, pp. 208-212 (in Russian).
11. Pashkevich M.A. Geohimija tehnogeneza. Uchebnoe posobie [Geochemistry of technogenesis. Teaching aid], SPb., University of Mines, 2007, p. 72 (in Russian).
12. Prompredprijatija Kubani v janvare-marte uvelichili vypusk cementa na 21 % // Setevoe izdanie «Interfaks» [Industrial enterprises of Kuban increased the production of cement by 21 % in January-March], 14.04.2015, access: (in Russian).
13. Simakova U.V. Vlijanie relefa dna na soobshhestva cistoziry Severo-Kavkazskogo poberezhja Chernogo morja [The influence of bottom shape on the community of cystoseira of the North Caucasian coast of the Black sea], Oceanology, journ., vol. 49, № 5, 2009, pp. 672-680 (in Russian).
14. Tejubova V.F. Jekologo-fitocenoticheskaja harakteristika makrofitobentosa Novorossijskoj buhty (Chjornoe more) [Ecological-phytocoenotic characteristics of microphytobenthos of the Novorossiysk Bay (Black sea)], Izvestiya vuzov. severo-kavkazskii region, journ., 2010, № 6, pp. 78–84 (in Russian).
15. Toichkin A.M. Firsov, Ju.K. Morfometricheskie harakteristiki buroj vodorosli Cystoseira barbata kak pokazatel kachestva pribrezhnyh vod Chjornogo morja [Morphometric characteristics of brown algae of cystoseira barbata as an indicator of the quality of coastal waters of the Black sea], Jekologija morja,journ., 2008, 76, pp. 54–60 (in Russian).
16. Toropov P.A., Shestakova A.A. Ocenka kachestva modelirovanija novorossijskoj bory s pomoshhju WRF-ARW [Quality assessment of modeling the Novorossiysk Bora using WRF-ARW], Russian Meteorology and Hydrology,journ., 2014. №7, pp. 38–51(in Russian).
17. Jekogeohimija landshaftov [Ecogeochemistry of landsacpes], N.S. Kasimov, M., sole entrepreneur Filimonov M.V.,publ., 2013, p. 208 (in Russian).
18. Jekologicheskie problemy megapolisov i promyshlennyh aglomeracij. Uchebnoe posobie [Environmental problems of mega-cities and industrial agglomerations. Teaching aid], M.A. Pashkevich et al. SPb., University of Mines, 2010, p. 202 (in Russian).
19. Alekseenko V., Alekseenko A. The abundances of chemical elements in urban soils // Journal of Geochemical Exploration. 2014. № 147 (B). pp. 245–249 (in English).
20. Bech J. Potentially harmful elements in soil-plant interactions // Journal of Soils and Sediments. 2014. № 14 (4). pp. 651-654 (in English).
21. Danilov A.S., Smirnov U.D., Pashkevich M.A. The system of the ecological monitoring of environment which is based on the usage of UAV // Russian Journal of Ecology, 2015, 46 (1), pp. 14-19 (in English).
22. Ermakov V.V. Geochemical ecology and biogeochemical criteria for estimating the ecologic state of biospheric taxons // Geochemistry International, 2015. Vol. 53, Issue 3, pp. 195-212 (in English).
23. Kosheleva N.E., Makarova M.G., Novikova O.V. Heavy metals in the foliage of deciduous species in urban landscapes // Vestnik Moskovskogo Universiteta, Seriya 5: Geografiya, 2005 (3), pp. 74-81 (in English).
24. Lychagin M.Y., Tkachenko A.N., Kasimov N.S., Kroonenberg S.B. Heavy metals in the water, plants, and bottom sediments of the Volga River mouth area. Journal of Coastal Research. 2013. (in English).
25. Minkina T.M., Motusova G.V., Mandzhieva S.S., Nazarenko O.G. Ecological resistance of the soil-plant system to contamination by heavy metals // Journal of Geochemical Exploration. 2012. № 123. pp. 33-40 (in English).
26. Mouchan V.N., Opekunova M.G. The biogeochemical aspects of geoecological studies. Vestnik Sankt-Peterburgskogo Universiteta, Seriya Geologiya i Geografiya. 2002 (3), pp. 93-103 (in English).
27. Norra S. The biosphere in times of global urbanization // Journal of Geochemical Exploration. 2014. № 147 (A). pp. 52–57 (in English).
28. Uwasu M., Hara K., Yabar H. World cement production and environmental implications // Environmental Development. 2014. 10. pp. 36–47 (in English).
29. Volkova I.I., Baikov K.S., Syso A.I. Kuznetsk Alatau mires as filters for natural waters Contemporary Problems of Ecology. 2010; 3(3):265-271 (in English).



Chernikov N.A., Voronov Yu.V.120th anniversary of the first department “Water Supply and Sewerage” of Petersburg State Transport University in Russia. p.3-17

In 2015 it is 120 years since professor Timonov V.E. founded the first department “Water Supply and Sewerage” in Russia. This occasion inspired the authors to pay attention to the history of the department founding and to the biography of Vsevolod Evgenevich Timonov, a famous scientist, professor of the transport university, honorary member of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, life member of the Permanent International Association on Navigation Congress, honorable chairman of the French Association of Civil Engineers, member of many foreign and international engineering organizations, member of the Orders of Russia as well as Austria, Serbia, Bulgaria, Belgium, Prussia and France. The article gives information about the outstanding person of encyclopedic knowledge, extraordinarily diverse scientific interests, the founder of the first department “Water Supply and Sewerage” of Petersburg State Transport University in Russia.
Key words: Timonov V.E., water supply, sewerage, water disposal, hydraulics, navigability improvement, construction and operation of ports, Institute of railway engineers.
References: 1. Voronov Yu. V., Gogina E. S. Istoriya sozdaniya distsipliny «Vodootvedenie i ochistka stochnykh vod» («Vodostoki» ? «Kanalizatsiya» ? «Vodootvedenie») [History of developing «Wastewater disposal and treatment» («Storm sewers» -> «Sewerage» -> «Wastewater disposal») educational course], Water disposal and sanitary techniques,journ., 2004, № 3, pp. 64-68 (in Russian).
2. Voronov Yu. V., Pugachev E. A. Istoriya otrasli i vvedenie v spetsial'nost' «Vodosnabzhenie i vodootvedenie»: Uchebnik dlya vuzov [The history of the industry and introduction to the specialization "Water supply and water disposal": the textbook for higher educational institution], M., ASV, publ., 2012, p. 392 (in Russian).
3. Voronov Yu. V., Pugachev E. A. Istoriya spetsial'nosti «Vodosnabzhenie i vodootvedenie». Uchebnoe posobie dlya vuzov [History of the specialization "Water supply and water disposal"], M., Izdatel'stvo Assotsiatsii stroitel'nykh vuzov,publ., 2008, p. 380 (in Russian).
4. Dikarevskiy V. S., Ivanov V. G. 100 let prepodavaniya sanitarnoy gidrotekhniki v Rossii: Kratkiy ocherk razvitiya kafedry "Vodosnabzhenie i vodootvedenie [100 years of teaching of sanitary hydrotechnics in Russia: a brief sketch of the development of the Department "Water supply and water disposal”], SPb, PSTU, 1999, p. 43 (in Russian).
5. Zenzinov N. A., Ryzhak S. A. Vydayushchiesya inzhenery i uchenye zheleznodorozhnogo transporta [Outstanding engineers and scientists of railway transport], M., 1978, p. 328 (in Russian).
6. Ivanov V. G., Chernikov N. A. I Del'vig ikh blagoslovil… Peterburgskiy gosudarstvennyy universitet putey soobshcheniya gotovitsya otmetit' yubiley [And Delvig blessed them... Petersburg State Transport University is preparing to celebrate the anniversary], M., WATER-Magazine, journ., 2008, № 5 (9), p. 72 (in Russian).
7. Karmazinov F. V., Alekseev M. I., Ivanov V. G., Medvedev G. P., Mishukov B. G. i dr. Otvedenie i ochistka stochnykh vod Sankt- Peterburga. K 300-letiyu so dnya osnovaniya Sankt-Peterburga [Disposal and treatment of wastewater in St Petersburg. To the 300 anniversary of St. Petersburg], SPb, Novyy zhurnal,journ., 2002, p. 682 (in Russian).
8. Lyakhnitskiy V. E., Surin A. A. Vsevolod Evgen'evich Timonov. L., 1959, p. 33 (in Russian).
9. Man'ko A. V. Mezhdunarodnye kongressy po sudokhodstvu: stranitsy istorii. Istoriya transporta [International congresses of navigation: the pages of history. The history of transport], s. 35-37 (in Russian).
10. Rossiyskaya arkhitektura - stroitel'naya entsiklopediya. T. VII. Vedushchie nauchnye shkoly, peredovye tekhnologii i nauchnye kadry vysshey kvalifikatsii v arkhitekture, stroitel'stve i zhilishchno-kommunal'noy sfere Rossii [Russian architecture and construction encyclopedia. T. VII. Leading scientific schools, advanced technology and scientific personnel of higher qualification in architecture, construction and housing and utilities in Russia], M., Bumazhnaya Galereya, publ., 2001, p. 59 (in Russian).
11. Surin A. Kratkie svedeniya o prepodavanii sanitarnoy gidrotekhniki (vodosnabzheniya i vodostokov) v Institute Inzhenerov Putey Soobshcheniya Imperatora Aleksandra I [A summary of the teaching of sanitary hydrotechnics (water supply and drains) in the the Institute of the Corps of Railroad Engineers named after the Emperor Alexander I,], SPb, 1914, p. 101 (in Russian).
12. Fal'kovskiy N. N. Istoriya vodosnabzheniya v Rossii [The history of water supply in Russia], M.-L., . Ministry of Housing and Utilities Sector of RSFSR, 1947, p. 307 (in Russian).

Water Supply

Belyaeva N.F., Mikhailova M.V., Zolotarev K.V., Torkhovskaya T.I., Nakhod K.V., Mikhailov A.N., Nakhod V.I.Xenobiotics in water of drinking water supply sources. p.18-33

The brief review of currently available data on the presence of xenobiotics in water objects – drinking water supply sources – of some economically developed countries is presented. The issues of water protection generally make a significant aspect of the environmental protection problem almost in all developed countries and are under the authority of the appropriate institutions and organizations. The European Union Water Framework Direvtive gives a list which includes about 40 priority xenobiotics to be compulsorily monitored among which are pesticides, heavy metals, halogenated arenes, alkanes, phenols and diphenyl ethers. In order to detect a risk of a total toxic effect of the xenobiotics present in water objects, the biomonitoring with the use of different biological objects is carried out. The biomonitoring gives an opportunity to estimate a general biological effect of a mixture of xenobiotics, often unidentified. With the development of new methods allowing measuring the concentration of substances in the order of ng/l, the detecting of so-called “emerging” xenobiotics became possible. These xenobiotics are not presented in the current water composition standards, and there is little information about their behavior in water ecosystems and their toxicological properties. In order to detect and identify the emerging polar xenobiotics concentration, a high-performance liquid chromatography conjugated with a spectrophotometric detection in an ultraviolet spectral range (HPLC-UV) or with a mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS) is used. For more non-polar and thermostable compounds a gas-liquid chromatography with a mass-spectrometry detection (GLC-MS) is more frequently used. A special attention is paid to a problem of natural water pollution with drug compounds related to the emerging xenobiotics. The algorithm of xenobiotics ranking by their hazard for ecosystems and their use on the example of own determinations of hydrophobic organic water compounds concentration in the drinking water supply sources and water objects of Moscow city is presented.
Key words: xenobiotics, drinking water supply source water, biomonitoring, raking.
References: 1. Benotti M.J., Trenholm R.A., Vanderford B.J., Holady J.C., Stanford B.D., Snyder S.A. Pharmaceuticals and endocrine disrupting compounds in U.S. drinking water // Environ. Sci. Technol. 2009. V. 43. P. 597–603 (in English).
2. Fuerhacker M. EU Water Framework Directive and Stockholm Convention: can we reach the targets for priority substances and persistent organic pollutants? // Environ. Sci. Pollut. Res. Int. 2009. Suppl. 1. S92–S97 (in English).
3. Kumar A., Xagoraraki I. Pharmaceuticals, personal care products and endocrine-disrupting chemicals in U.S. surface and finished drinking waters: A proposed ranking system // Sci. Tot. Environ. 2010. V. 408. P. 5972–5989 (in English).
4. Mohmood I., Lopes C.B., Lopes I., Ahmad I., Duarte A.C., Pereira E. Nanoscale materials and their use in water contaminants removal-a review // Environ. Sci. Pollut. Res. Int. 2013. V. 20. P. 1239–1260 (in English).
5. Sasikaran S., Sritharan K., Balakumar S., Arasaratnam V. Physical, chemical and microbial analysis of bottled drinking water // Ceylon Medical Journal. 2012. V. 57. P. 111–116 (in English).
6. van Wezel A., Mons M., van Delft W. New methods to monitor emerging chemicals in the drinking water production chain // J. Environ. Monitor. 2010. V. 12. P. 80–89 (in English).
7. Loos R., Gawlik B.M., Locoro G., Rimaviciute E., Contini S., Bidoglio G. EU-wide survey of polar organic persistent pollutants in European river waters // Environ. Pollut. 2009. V. 157. P. 561–568 (in English)
8. Cova D., Molinari G.P., Rossini L. Focus on toxicological aspects of pesticide chemical interaction in drinking water contamination // Ecotoxicol. Environ. Saf. 1990. V. 20. P. 234–240 (in English).
9. Sun C., Dong Y., Xu S., Yao S., Dai J., Han S., Wang L. Trace analysis of dissolved polychlorinated organic compounds in the water of the Yangtse River (Nanjing, China) // Environ Pollut. 2002. V. 117. P. 9–14 (in English).
10. Zhang Y., Zhao D., Wu B., Hu F., Kong J., Zhang X., Li M., Cui Y., Cheng S. Effects of the Yangtze River source of drinking water on metabolites of Mus musculus // Ecotoxicology. 2009. V. 18. P. 722–728 (in English).
11. Yoon Y., Ryu J., Oh J., Choi B.G., Snyder S.A. Occurrence of endocrine disrupting compounds, pharmaceuticals, and personal care products in the Han River (Seoul, South Korea) // Sci. Total. Environ. 2010. V. 408 P. 636–643 (in English).
12. Maldaner L., Jardim I.C. Determination of some organic contaminants in water samples by solid-phase extraction and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry // Talanta. 2012. V. 100. P. 38–44 (in English).
13. Cao L.L., Yan C.H., Yu X.D., Tian Y., Zou X.Y., Lu D.S., Shen X.M. Determination of Polychlorinated Biphenyls and Organochlorine Pesticides in Human Serum by Gas Chromatography with Micro-Electron Capture Detector // J. Chromatogr. Sci. 2012. V. 50. № 2. P. 145–150 (in English).
14. Cahill J., Furlong E., Burkhardt M., Kolpin D., Anderson L. Determination of pharmaceutical compounds in surface- and ground-water samples by solid-phase extraction and high-performance liquid chromatography–electrospray ionization mass spectrometry // J. Chromatogr. A. 2004. V. 1040. P. 171–180 (in English).
15. Hao C., Lissemore L., Nguyen B., Kleywegt S., Yang S., Solomon K. Determination of pharmaceuticals in environmental waters by liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization/tandem mass spectrometry // Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 2006. V. 384. P. 505–513 (in English).
16. Hilton M.J., Thomas K.V. Determination of selected human pharmaceutical compounds in effluent and surface water samples by high performance liquid chromatography-electrospray tandem mass spectrometry // J. Chromatogr. A. 2003. V. 1015. P. 129–141 (in English).
17. Loos R., Hanke G., Eisenreich S.J. Multi-component analysis of polar water pollutants using sequential solid-phase extraction followed by LC-ESI-MS // J. Environ. Monit. 2003. V. 5. № 3. P. 384–394 (in English).
18. Petrovic M., Hernando M.D., Diaz-Cruz M.S., Barcelo D. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry for the analysis of pharmaceutical residues in environmental samples: a review // J. Chromatogr. A. 2005. V. 1067. P. 1–14 (in English)
19. Hogenboom A.C., van Leerdam J.A., de Voogt P. Accurate mass screening and identification of emerging contaminants in environmental samples by liquid chromatography-hybrid linear ion trap Orbitrap mass spectrometry // J. Chromatogr. A. 2009. V. 1216. № 3. P. 510–519 (in English).
20. Belyaeva N.F., Kashirtseva V.N., Medvedeva N.V., Khudoklinova Yu.Yu., Ipatova O.M., Archakov A.I. Zebrafish kak model v biomeditsinskikh issledovaniyakh [Zebrafish as a model in biomedical research], Problems of Medical Chemistry, 2010, vol. 56, № 1, pp. 120–131 (in Russian).
21. Groh K.J., Suter M.J. Stressor-induced proteome alterations in zebrafish: a meta-analysis of response patterns // Aquat Toxicol. 2015. V. 159. P. 1–12 (in English).
22. Scholz S., Fischer S., Gundel U., Kuster E., Luckenbach T., Voelker D. The zebrafish embryo model in environmental risk assessment–applications beyond acute toxicity testing // Environ. Sci. Pollut. Res. 2008. V. 15. P. 394–404 (in English).
23. Stewart A.M., Grossman L., Nguyen M., Maximino C., Rosemberg D.B., Echevarria D.J., Kalueff A.V. Aquatic toxicology of fluoxetine: understanding the knowns and the unknowns // Aquat. Toxicol. 2014. V. 156. P. 269–273(in English).
24. Zolotarev K.V., Belyaeva N.F., Mikhailova M.V., Kashirtseva V.N., Nakhod K.V., Nakhod V.I., Zgoda V.G. Poisk markerov toksicheskogo deistviya Cd2+ i Cu2+ metodom proteomnogo profilirovaniya pecheni i serdtsa Danio rerio [The search of markers of toxic effects of Cd2+ and Cu2+ by method of proteomic profiling of liver and heart of Danio rerio] Biotechnology: State of the Art and Prospects of Development: collection of materials of the VIII International Congress, M., 2015, pp 55–58 (in Russian).
25. Barenboim G.M., Chiganova M.A. Zagryaznenie poverkhnostnykh i stochnykh vod lekarstvennymi preparatami [Pollution of surface waters and wastewaters with drugs], Water: chemistry and ecology, journ., 2012. № 10, pp. 40–46 (in Russian).
26. Santos L.H., Araujo A.N., Fachini A., Pena A., Delerue-Matos C., Montenegro M.C. Ecotoxicological aspects related to the presence of pharmaceuticals in the aquatic environment // J. Hazard. Mat. 2010. V. 175. P. 45–95 (in English).
27. Zuccato E., Calamari D., Natangelo M., Fanelli R. Presence of therapeutic drugs in the environment // Lancet. 2000. V. 355. P. 1789–1790 (in English).
28. Zwiener C. Occurrence and analysis of pharmaceuticals and their transformation products in drinking water treatment // Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 2007. V. 387. P. 1159–1162 (in English).
29. Uchenye obnaruzhili lekarstvennoe zagryaznenie v vodokhranilishchakh Moskvy [Scientists have detected drug contamination in the water reservoirs of Moscow] M., RIA Nauka, 2013, URL: (on the 2nd of Ocotober, 2015) (in Russian).
30. Calabrese E.J., Baldwin L.A., Kostecki P.T., Potter T.L. A toxicologically based weight-of evidence methodology for the relative ranking of chemicals of endocrine disruption potential // Regul. Toxicol. Pharmacol. 1997. V. 26. P. 36–40 (in English).
31. Mitchell R.R., Summer C.L., Blonde S.A., Bush D.M., Hurlburt G.K., Snyder E.M., Giesy J.P. SCRAM: a scoring and ranking system for persistent, bioaccumulative, and toxic substances for the North American Great Lakes–resulting chemical scores and ranking // Human Ecol. Risk Assess. 2002. V. 8. № 3. P. 537–557 (in English).
32. Sanderson H., Johnson D.J., Reitsma T., Brain R.A., Wilson C.J., Soloman K.R. Ranking and prioritization of environmental risks of pharmaceuticals in surface waters // Regul. Toxicol. Pharmacol. 2004. V. 39. P. 158–183 (in English).
33. Arnot J.A, Mackay D. Policies for chemical hazard and risk priority setting: can persistence, bioaccumulation, toxicity, and quantity information be combined? // Environ. Sci. Technol. 2008. V. 42. № 13. P. 4648–4654 (in English).
34. Voigt K., Bruggemann R. Ranking of pharmaceuticals detected in the environment: aggregation and weighting procedures // Comb. Chem. High Throughput Screen. 2008. V. 11. P. 770–782 (in English).
35. Cooper E.R., Siewicki T.C., Phillips K. Preliminary risk assessment database and risk ranking of pharmaceuticals in the environment // Sci. Tot. Environ. 2008. V. 398. P. 26–33 (in English).
36. Schriks M., Heringa M.B., van der Kooi M.M.E., de Voogt P., van Wezel A.P. Toxicological relevance of emerging contaminants for drinking water quality // Water. Res. 2010. V. 44. P. 461–476 (in English).
37. Hygienic standards Predelno dopustimaya kontsentratsiya veshchestva v vode vodnykh ob"ektov khozyaistvenno-pitevogo i kulturno-bytovogo vodopolzovaniya [The threshold limit value of substances in water of water objects of drinking and domestic water use], M., The Ministry Of Health Of Russia, 1998 (in Russian) (in English).
38. FatePointers Search Module // North Syracuse, NY, USA: SRC, Inc., 2015. URL: (in English).
39. Hazardous Substances Data Bank (HSDB) // Bethesda, MD, USA: U.S. National Library of Medicine, 2015. URL: (in English).
40. Zolotarev K.V., Belyaeva N.F., Mikhailova M.V., Nakhod K.V., Nakhod V.I., Mikhailov A.N. Fraktsionirovanie vzveshennykh chastits kak metod issledovaniya raspredeleniya tyazhelykh metallov po formam v vodoeme [Fractionation of suspended particles as a method of studying of the distribution of heavy metals forms in the pond], Science, Technology and Life – 2014: collection of materials of the International Conference, Karlovy Vary-Kirov: 2015, pp. 42–49 (in Russian).

Govorova Zh.M., Govorov O.B.Advanced groundwater conditioning technology with the use of bioreactors with jet vacuum ejection and moving bed filters. p.34-44

The background and topicality of the development of a reagentless two-stage biotechnology of groundwater conditioning with the use of a bioreactor with jet vacuum ejection and contact bed along with a polystyrene foam moving bed filter on the first stage are presented. The laboratory test results on a vacuum distribution of a necessary value and degree over the bioreactor area at a certain height of a compact jet and a diameter ratio between stream-forming noozles and supply pipeline are given. The dynamics of a layered change of рН, Eh и O2 in the bioreactor with a partially unsubmerged bed depending on a filtration and contact time is studied. The analysis of a plant operational efficiency in conditions of the industrial operation of a groundwater conditioning station is carried out. It is found that iron bacteria of Leptothrix ochracea and Gallionella types, detected in the sediments, isolated from washwater of the bioreactor and filter, take part in the oxidation processes of the compounds of dissolved forms of iron and manganese. It is presented that at the iron content in the initial water from 1,07 up to 9,79 mg/l, at manganese content – from 0,14 up to 0,45 mg/l, at ammonium ion content from 0,67 up to 1,44 mg/l and the presence of hydrogen sulfide and carbon dioxide at the output of the plant, the quality of treated water satisfies the normative requirements.
Key words: groundwater, biochemical deferrization and demanganization, reagentless technology, jet vacuum ejection bioreactor, moving bed filter.
References: 1. Zolotova E.F., Ass G.Yu. Ochistka vody ot zheleza, margantsa, ftora i serovodoroda [Water treatment from iron, manganese, fluorine, and hydrogen sulfide], M., Stroiizdat,pub., 1975, p. 176 (in Russian).
2. Nikoladze G.I. Uluchshenie kachestva podzemnykh vod [Improvement of groundwater quality], M., Stroiizdat, publ., 1987, p. 240 (in Russian).
3. Govorova Zh.M., Govorov O.B., Zhurba M.G. Bioreaktor-filtr [Bioreactor filter] RF patent for the invention RU № 2356854 S1, B01D 24/00. Byul. № 15, 27.05.2009 (in Russian).
4. Govorov O.B., Govorova Zh.M., Zhurba M.G. Ustanovka dlya obezzhelezivaniya vody [Water deferrization unit] RF patent for the invention RU № 2370455 S1, C02F 64, Byul. № 29 ot 20.10.2009 (in Russian).
5. Zhurba M.G. Vodoochistnye filtry s plavayushchei zagruzkoi. Nauchnoe izdanie [Water treatment filters with moving bed. Scientific publication], M., 2011, p. 536 (in Russian).
6. Govorov O.B. Bezreagentnoe konditsionirovanie zhelezosoderzhashchikh podzemnykh vod na bioreaktorakh-filtrakh [Reagentless conditioning of iron-containing groundwater on the bioreactor- filters], synopsis of thesis of the candidate of technical sciences, 05.23.04, Vologda, 2007, p. 20 (in Russian).
7. Mencha M.N. Zhelezobakterii v sistemakh pitevogo vodosnabzheniya iz podzemnykh istochnikov [Iron bacteria in drinking water systems from underground sources], Water supply and sanitary techniques, journ., № 7, 2006, pp. 25-35 (in Russian).
8. Mushe P., Gerasimov G.N. Biologicheskaya deferrizatsiya vody: obosnovanie i realizatsiya [Biological water deferrization: groudning and implementation], Water supply and sanitary techniques, journ., 2011, №11, part .2, pp. 40-47; №12, pp. 35-39 (in Russian).
9. Zhurba M.G., Govorova Zh.M., Kvartenko A.N., Govorov O.B. Biokhimicheskoe obezzhelezivanie i demanganatsiya podzemnykh vod [Biological deferrization and demanganization of ground water], Water supply and sanitary techniques, journ., 2006, № 9, part 2, pp. 17-23 (in Russian).
10. Zhurba M. G., Govorov O. B., Govorova Zh. M., Kvartenko A. N. Bioreaktory-filtry s plavayushchei zagruzkoi v tekhnologiyakh konditsionirovaniya podzemnykh vod [Moving bed bioreactor-filters in groundwater conditioning technology ] SANTECHNIKA magazine, journ., 2012, №3, pp. 50-54 (in Russian).
11. Zhurba M.G., Govorov O.B., Govorova Zh.M., Kvartenko A.N. Issledovanie i opyt vnedreniya innovatsionnykh tekhnologii konditsionirovaniya podzemnykh vod [Research and experience of implementation of innovative technologies of underground water conditioning], Water supply and sanitary techniques, journ., 2014, № 9, pp. 38-46 (in Russian).

Water Disposal

Belyak A.A., Smirnov A.D., Khodyrev V.M.Assessment of zeolite-containing Tripoli applicability in the storm runoff treatment system. p. 44-55

Nowadays literature presents more and more information on applicability of natural sorptive filtering materials for removal of dispersive admixtures, oil and oil-products, dyes, radioactive contamination, heavy metal ions and etc. from water. The new sorptive filtering material – zeolite-containing Tripoli is made of Tripoli of Khotynetsky deposit in Oryol Oblast by the method of crushing and heat treating. The crushed and heat-treated natural Tripoli for sorption of truly dissolved oil-products from a model solution is tested. The static sorption capacity for both options of material by oil-products is defined. The layout of the working stormwater treatment facilities of Moscow is described; the stromwater composition on the estimated stage of aftertreatment with the use of the zeolite-containing Tripoli bed is presented. The model laboratory plant for testing of heat-treated zeolite-containing Tripoli is developed. The testing of the zeolite-containing Tripoli material in dynamic conditions for the true wastewater aftertreatment on the final stage of treatment from oil-products, metal ions, copper, zinc, chromium as well as ammonium ions is presented. On the basis of the analysis results of initial and treated water samples, the elution curves on each contaminator are designed, and their dynamic sorption capacities on oil-products, ions of ammonium and zinc are calculated. The efficiency of treatment from metals and copper in the form of hydroxides using the zeolite-containing Tripoli bed is presented. It is shown that oil-products content in waste waters in the periods of emergency situations increases in several time and they present in three forms: truly dissolved, colloidal and emulsion. The testing on treatment of real wastewaters contained oil-products in all forms in dynamic conditions is carried out. The efficiency of treatment from oil-products contained in water in three forms is estimated. The received testing results of the crushed zeolite-containing Tripoli for real wastewater treatment from oil-products and heavy metals show its efficient applicability on the working treatment plants. The specialist of JSC "NII VODGEO" offer the engineering solutions of reconstruction of zeolite-containing Tripoli bed filters. After the reconstruction of facilities, the material of the zeolite-containing Tripoli will be loaded into production filters and brought into the facility work.
Key words: zeolite-containing Tripoli, sorptive filtering material, sorption, sorption bed, sorption capacity, oil-products, ammonium ion, heavy metal ions, storm wastewaters, aftertreatment, wastewater treatment plants.
References: 1. Distanov U.G., Konyukhov T.P. Mineralnoe syre. Sorbenty prirodnye [Mineral raw materials. Natural sorbents], M., ZAO "Geoinformmark",publ., 1999, p. 42 (in Russian).
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3. Distanov U.G. Mineralnoe syre - opal-kristobalitovye porody [Mineral raw materials - opal-cristobalite materials], M., ZAO"Geoinformmark", publ., 1998, p. 27 (in Russian).
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5. Vezirov A.I. Gigienicheskaja ocenka ceolitov zakavkazskih mes¬torozhdenij, predlagaemyh dlja sovershenstvovanija tehnologicheskih shem obrabotki vody hozjajstvenno-pitevyh vodoistochni¬kov [Hygienic evaluation of the Transcaucasus zeolite deposits proposed for the improvement of technological schemes of water treatment of drinking water sources], synopsis of the candidate of medicine’s thesis, Baku, 1985, p. 21 (in Russian).
6. Tarasovich Ju.I. Fiziko-himicheskie svojstva zakarpatskogo klinoptilolita i ego primenenie v kachestve filtrujushhego materiala pri ochistke vody [Physico-chemical properties of Transcarpathian clinoptilolite and its application as filter material in water treatment.], Water: chemistry and ecology, journ., 1981, №1, pp. 66-69 (in Russian).
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8. Kosorukov A.A. Ochistka radiaktivno zagrjaznennyh vod s is¬polzovaniem prirodnyh i mehanoaktivirovannyh saponitovyh i glaukonitovyh glin [Treatment of radioactively contaminated water by natural and mechano-activated saponite and glauconitic clays], Water: chemistry and ecology, journ., 1998, vol. 20, № 3, pp. 289-295 (in Russian).
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10. Goncharuk V.V., Deshko I.I., Gerasimenko N.G. Koaguljacija, flotacija, flokuljacija i filtrovanie v tehnologii vodopodgotovki [Coagulation, flotation, flocculation and filtration in water treatment technologies], Water: chemistry and ecology, journ.,1998, vol. 20, №1, pp. 19-31 (in Russian).
11. Klimenko N.A., Koganovskij A.I. Razvitie issledovanij v oblasti adsorbcii i adsorbcionnoj tehnologii [The development of research in the field of adsorption and adsorption technology], Water: chemistry and ecology, journ., 1998, vol. 20, № 1, pp. 32-41 (in Russian).
12. Tarasovich Ju.I. Fiziko-himicheskie osnovy primenenija prirodnyh i modificirovannyh sorbentov v processah ochistki vody [Physico-chemical basis for the use of natural and modified adsorbents in water treatment processes], Water: chemistry and ecology, journ., 1998, vol. 20, № 1, pp. 42-51 (in Russian).
13. Polyakov V.V., Polyakova I.G., Tarasovich Yu.I. Ochistka artezianskoi vody ot ionov margantsa i zheleza s ispolzovaniem modifitsirovannogo klinoptilolita [Treatment of artesian water from ions of manganese and metal with the use of a modified clinoptilolite], Water: chemistry and ecology, journ., 1997, vol. 19, № 5, pp. 493-505 (in Russian).
14. GOST 16190-70. Sorbenty. Metod opredeleniya nasypnoi plotnosti [Sorbents. Method of determining of bulk density] (in Russian).

Ospanov K.T., Mukhanova G.N.Wastewater sludge neutralization from heavy metals with the use of natural zeolite. p.56-62

The article presents the laboratory research results on extraction of heavy metal ions from wastewater sludge. The wastewater sludge of the Almaty aeration station before being discharged to the sludge beds was used as a sample of experimental research. The laboratory experimental research was carried out with the use of a natural zeolite of Chankaysky deposit, 2,5-5 mm in size preliminary placed in water for 54 hours. The zeolite was places in the 500 ml measuring vessels in amount of 50, 100 and 200 ml; then wastewater sludge samples were added into the measuring vessels up to the mark of 400 ml. After that, the samples were thoroughly mixed and soaked in water for 6, 12, 24 and 48 hours. According to the experimental research results, it is proved that it is advantageous to use the natural zeolite for extraction of heavy metal ions from wastewater sludge. On extraction of heavy metals, including manganese, chromium, zinc, iron and copper, the regularity of extraction is within a range from 2,4 to 47,9%. At that point, the maximum effect of 47,9 % at the zeolite volume of 200 ml is observed for the manganese pollutant.
Key words: wastewater sludge, treatment, neutralization, natural zeolite, utilization, fertilization.
References: 1. Kontseptsiya po perekhodu Respubliki Kazakhstan k «zelenoi ekonomike». Utverzhdena Ukazom Prezidenta Respubliki Kazakhstan ot 30 maya 2013 goda № 577 [The concept on transition of the Republic of Kazakhstan to "green economy". Approved by the decree of the President of the Republic of Kazakhstan on May 30, 2013 № 577], Astana, 2013 (in Russian).
2. Obrabotka osadka stochnykh vod: poleznyi opyt i prakticheskie sovety. Proekt po gorodskomu sokrashcheniyu evtrofikatsii cherez Komissiyu po okruzhayushchei srede Soyuza baltiiskikh gorodov, Finlyandiya [Wastewater sludge treatment: useful experience and practical advice. The project on urban reduction of eutrophication through Environment Committee of UBC, Finland],, 2012 (in Russian).
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4. Drozd G. Ya. Tekhnicheskie aspekty utilizatsii deponirovannykh osadkov stochnykh vod [Technical details of deposit sewage sludge disposal], Water and ecology: problems and solutions,journ., №1, Saint-Petersburg, 2014 (in Russian).
5. Metcalf, Eddy, editors. Wastewater engineering—treatment, disposal and reuse. 3rd ed. New York, USA: McGraw Hill; 1991 (in English).
6. Ospanov K.T., Kuldeeva E., Tamabaev O.P. Otsenka sovremennogo sostoyaniya obrabotki osadkov stochnykh vod stantsii aeratsii g.Almaty, Respublika Kazakhstan [Assessment of the modern state of aeration station wastewater sludge treatment in Almaty, Republic of Kazakhstan Water and ecology: problems and solutions,journ., №1, Saint-Petersburg, 2014 (in Russian).
7. GOST R Okhrana prirody. Pochvy. Trebovaniya k svoistvam osadkov stochnykh vod pri ispolzovanii ikh v kachestve udobreniya [Environmental protection. Soil. Requirements to the wastewater sludge properties when used as fertilizer] (in Russian).

Busarev A.V., Selyugin A.S. , Abitov R.N.Highly-watered oil dehydration with the treatment of separated stratal water in hydrocyclone units. p.62-68

The researches on development of a unit of combined treatment of oil and stratal water separated from it which is used for water flooding of oil-bearing production horizons have been carried out in the Kazan State University of Architecture and Engineering for several years. The researches have been conducted on a test hydrocyclone unit EGU–150 at the oil fields of the Republic of Tatarstan. The results of the experimental researches have been used in the design of a package hydrocyclone unit of preliminary removal with the treatment of separated stratal water - BGUPS–5000.
Key words: highly-watered oil, stratal water, treatment, unit of combined treatment of oil and stratal water, hydrocyclone unit.
References: 1. Baikov N.M., .N. Pozdnyshev, R.I. Mansurov Sbor i promyslovaya podgotovka nefti, gaza i vody [Collection and field processing of oil, gas and water], Nedra,publ., 1981, p. 262 (in Russian).
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3. Busarev A.V. Intensifikatsiya ochistki neftesoderzhashchikh stochnykh vod s primeneniem gidrotsiklonov s protivodavleniem na slivakh [Intensification of oily waste water treatment using hydrocyclones with the backpressure at discharge], synopsis of the thesis of the candidate of technical sciences; 05.23.04: defended on 13.05.97, Kazan, 1997, p. 244 (in Russian).
4. Inventors Certificate 1636006 USSR, MKI5 B 01D 17/02. Ustanovka dlya predvaritelnogo obezvozhivaniya vysokoobvodnennykh neftei [Installation for preliminary dehydration of highly- watered oil], A.B. Adelshin et al, p. 4 (in Russian).
5. Inventors Certificate 1456178 USSR, MKI5 B 01D 17/02. Ustanovka dlya predvaritelnogo obezvozhivaniya vysokoobvodnennykh neftei [Installation for preliminary dehydration of highly- watered oil], A.B. Adelshin et al, p. 4 (in Russian).


Alekseev E.V.Ecological aspects of treatment of wastewater containing persistent organic pollutants. p.68-78

The article is dedicated to the problems of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) getting into the environment, including water bodies. It is noted that along with technogenic incomes of POPs from industrial production, the transformation of wastewater organic pollutants in process of their biological treatment and the increase of POPs part in treated water take place. The comparative dynamics of the POPs content change for biologically easily-oxidable substances and for substances resistant to oxidation is presented. The ways of solution of POP reduction in treated wastewater are offered. The schematic diagram of wastewater treatment including combinations of then separation and destructive processes is presented. The advantages of selective process of technological solution treatment which most reliably prevents incoming of POP with industrial wastewater are specified.
Key words: biorefactory organic substances, wastewaters, surface-active material, treatment, separation processes, destructive processes, selective treatment.
References: 1. Federalnyi zakon "O ratifikatsii Stokgolmskoi konventsii o stoikikh organiche-skikh zagryaznitelyakh" ot 27 iyunya 2011 goda N 164-FZ [Federal law "On ratification of the Stockholm Convention on persistent organic pollutants" dated 27 June 2011 N 164-FZ.] (in Russian).
2. GOST R 55829-2013 Resursosberezhenie. Nailuchshie dostupnye tekhnologii. Likvidatsiya otkhodov, soderzhashchikh stoikie organicheskie zagryazniteli [The efficient use of resources. The best available technology. Disposal of waste containing persistent organic pollutants] (in Russian).
3. S.V.Kakareka, T.I. Kukharchik, V.S.Khomich Stoikie organicheskie zagryazniteli: istochniki i otsenka vybrosov [Persistent organic pollutants: sources and estimation of emission], Minsk, RUP Minsktipproekt,publ., 2003, p. 220 (in Russian).
4. Schroder, H. Fr. "Characterization and Monitoring of Persistent Toxic Organics in the aquatic Environment", Wat. Res., 38, (1998), 151-158 (in English).
5. Yakovlev P.I. Otsenka podzemnogo pritoka reki Zapadnaya Dvina na verkhnem ee uchastke – ot istoka do g. Velizh Smolenskoi oblasti [An estimate of Zapadnaya Dvina river tributary stream at upstream flow – from the source up to Velizh village (Smolensk district)], Water and ecology: problems and solutions, 2013, №1, p. 59 (in Russian).
6. Bespalova E.V. Vliyanie talykh vod na sostoyanie Voronezhskogo vodokhranilishcha [The influence of melt waters on Voronezh artificial lake state], Water and ecology: problems and solutions, 2013, №2, p. 72 (in Russian).
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9. Gigienicheskie normativy "Predelno dopustimye kontsentratsii (PDK) khimicheskikh veshchestv v vode vodnykh ob"ektov khozyaistvenno-pitevogo i kulturno-bytovogo vodopolzovaniya [Hygienic standards "Threshold limit values (TMV) of chemical substances in water of water objects of drinking and domestic water use], GN, The Ministry of Health of Russia, Moscow, 2003 (in Russian).
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11. Pichat, P. Photocatalytic degradation of aromatic and alicyclic pollutants in water: by-products, pathways and mechanisms, //Wat.Sci.Tech., 35 (4), (1997), p.73-78 (in English).
12. Alekseev E.V. Osnovy tekhnologii ochistki stochnykh vod flotatsiei: monografiya, nauchnoe izdanie [Basic technology of wastewater treatment by flotation: a monograph, scholarly edition], M., Izdatelstvo ASV,publ., 2009, p. 136 (in Russian).
13. Alekseev E.V. Ochistka stochnykh vod flotatsiei. Osnovy tekhnologii [Treatment of waste water by flotation. Technology basics], (in Russian).