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№1

Water disposal

Epov A.N., Kanunnikova M.A.Comparison of structural analysis methods of nitrogen/phosphorus biological removal plants with mathematical modeling application. p.3-14

The updated building code allows using any structural analysis method (including foreign) for calculating nitrogen/phosphorus biological removal plants. From 2012 it is approved in the building code to use an up-to-date mathematical modeling for structural analysis. The choice of one or another method of analysis is up to a designer under his own responsibility. In practice, specialists more commonly use a German method ATV-DVWK-A 131E, a simplified method of aerotank calculation, a mathematic model GPS-X (GIDROMANTIS, Canada, model “Biosim” («Eko-Polimer»). In recent years, there have been a lot of plants reconstructed using analyses based on modern methods without substantial errors in calculations, which, unfortunately, have not entered a design mode after being put into operation. The article presents the main current methods of structural analysis, recommendations on their use to avoid errors applying them as well as the advantages of mathematic modeling calculation.
Key words: mathematical modeling, load on sludge, ATV131 method, GPS-X, sludge index, anaerobic sludge age, nitrogen and phosphorus removal, sludge growth, sludge dose, nitrification process, denitrification process.
References: 1. Code of rules, SP 32.13330.2012. Kanalizacija. Naruzhnye seti i sooruzhenija [Sewerage. Public utilities], Revised edition of SNiP 2.04.03-85, M, 2012. pp. 1-92 (in Russian).
2. Standard ATV-DVWK-A 131E,Dimensions of Single-Stage Activated Sludge Plants. -2000. -57p (in English).
3. GPS-X 5.0 Technical Reference. Copyright 1992-2006 Hydromantis,Inc (in English).
4. A.N.Jepov, V.I.Bazhenov. Raschet ajerotenkov s udaleniem biogennyh jelementov [Calculation of aeration tanks with biogenic elements removal], collection of reports of the congress “Water: ecology and technology”, M., ECWATECH, 2008 (in Russian).
5. Meshengiser Ju.M., Esin M.A., Smirnov A.V. Jenergosberegajushhij podhod k realizacii tehnologii udalenija biogennyh jelementov na sooruzhenijah ochistki vody [Energy saving approach to the implementation of the technology of biogenic elements removal on water treatment facilities], The collection of materials of the X international scientific-production conference, The problems of ecological security in the water sector, Novosibirsk 1-2 of Ocotber, 2014 (in Russian).
6. Stroitelnye normy i pravila SNiP 2.04.03-85. Kanalizacija. Naruzhnye seti i sooruzhenija [Building Code( SNiP) 2.04.03-85. Sewerage. Public utilities], M., 1986 (in Russian).
7. Stroitelnye normy i pravila SNiP II-32-74. Kanalizacija. Naruzhnye seti i sooruzhenija [Building Code( SNiP) II-32-74. Sewerage. Public utilities], M., 1975 (in Russian).
8. K.M. Morozova. Principy rascheta sistem biologicheskoj ochistki stochnyh vod [The principles of calculation of biological wastewater treatment systems], Water Supply and Sanitary Technique, 2009, 1, pp. 26-31 (in Russian).
9. Vavilin V.A., Vasilev V.B. Matematicheskoe modelirovanie processov biologicheskoj ochistki stochnyh vod aktivnym ilom [Mathematical modeling of biological wastewater treatment by activated sludge], Nauka, publ., 1979 (in Russian).
10. Jepov A.N., Nikolaev V.N. Intensifikacija glubokoj ochistki stochnyh vod v ajerotenkah putem optimizacii vozrasta ila [Intensification of deep cleaning of wastewater in aeration tanks by optimization of sludge age.], Survey information, Academy of municipal economy named. K. D. Pamfilova, 1989 (in Russian).
11. M. Khentce. Ochistka stochnykh vod. Biologicheskie i khimicheskie protcessy [Wastewater treatment. Biological and chemical processes], M., Mir, 2004 (in Russian).
12. Epov A.N. Kanunnikova M.A. Razrabotka tipovykh reshenii po avtomatizatcii protcessov biologicheskoi ochistki stochnykh vod s sovmestnym udaleniem azota i fosfora [Development of standard solutions for automation of processes of biological wastewater treatment with joint removal of nitrogen and phosphorus.], Best available techniques,journ., 2014, №3 (in Russian).
13. Technical Specifications for Anaerobic-Anoxic-Oxic Activated Sludge Process HJ 576?2010/ Chinese National Environmental standards, 2010 (in English).
14. A.N. Epov, V.A. Zagorskii, D.A. Danilovich, F.A. Daineko, N.A. Belov, C.E. Berezin, V.I. Bazhenov. Rekonstruktciia aerotenkov Liuberetckoi stantcii [Reconstruction of the Lyubertsy aeration station], ZhKKh,journ., 2000, 4, pp. 1-3 (in English).
15. M.A. Kanunnikova, A.N. Epov. Respirometricheskoe opredelenie kineticheskikh koeffitcientov uravneniia skorosti nitrifikatcii [Respirometry determination of kinetic coefficients of the nitrification rate law], Water supply and sanitary techniques, journ., 2009, 4 (in Russian).

Vardanian M.AOily waste water treatment in industrial filters with expanded perlite moving bed. p.15-25

The testing of expanded perlite in industrial pressure bulk filters of the Armenian Nuclear Power Plant oily wastewater treatment system instead of activated carbon and crushed heat-treated anthracite is carried out. The following important process performance is found out: during the filtration in industrial equipments particles of expanded perlite are floating; a bed volume reduction due to the reorientation of sorbent particles makes 15%; at the discharge of 6-7m3/m2?h the bed hydraulic resistance does not exceed 2 atm; a sorbent free volume makes 30% on average, while a contact time with the sorbent at the stated discharge makes 9-4 minutes; an oil content in water after treatment by mechanical filters with the 5-15-mm fraction mixture expanded perlite beds does not exceed 2mg/l at their initial concentration of 2,5-15; the fine filters with the 2-5-mm fraction mixture expanded perlite beds purify polluted water from oil up to 0,3 mg/l – “absence”. It is also found out that the use of expanded perlite at the stage of tertiary wastewater treatment avoids the need to intensify the flotation process by adding a coagulant. Besides, a substitution of activated carbon and crushed heat-treated anthracite in industrial pressure bulk filters for expanded perlite allows improving the hygiene-and-sanitary working conditions of the staff members at the stages of charge and discharge of the sorbent.
Key words: oily waste waters, industrial pressure bulk filter, expanded perlite, moving bed, hydraulic resistance, residual concentration.
References: 1. Azatian S.G., Kostanian S.K., Varderesian G.Tc., Vardanian M.A., Sirakanian M.A., Tagmazian K.Tc. Razrabotka tekhnologii i promyshlennoe ispytanie protcessa ochistki zamaslennykh stokov na vspuchennom perlite vzamen droblenogo antratcita [Technology development and industrial testing of the oily wastewater treatment process on expanded perlite instead of crushed anthracite], thesis of the report of the IV International Congress “Water: Ecology and Technology”, Moscow, 2000, pp. 465-466 (in Russian).
2. Vardanian M.A. Ochistka neftesoderzhashchikh vod v nasypnom filtre na sloe vspuchennogo perlita [The treatment of oil containing waters in the bulk filter on the layer of expanded perlite], Water and ecology:problems and solutions, journ., №4-2014, pp. 49-57 (in Russian).
3. Vardanian M.A. Doochistka neftesoderzhashchikh stochnykh vod sorbtcionnym metodom na vspuchennom perlite i razrabotka tekhnologii [Tertiary treatment of oil-containing waste water by means of sorption on expanded perlite and development of technology], Ph.D. thesis in Engineering Science, Erevan, 2001, p. 144 (in Russian).
4. Varderesian G.Tc., Vardanian M.A., Sirakanian M.A. Tagmazian K.Tc. Sorbtcionnaia ochistka AAES ot nefteproduktov v promyshlennykh filtrakh na sloe vspuchennogo perlite [Sorption treatment of the Armenian nuclear power plant from oil products in industrial filters on the layer of expanded perlite], Information technology and management: collection of scientific papers, Erevan, Noyan-Tapan, 1998, №4, pp. 10-14 (in Russian).
5. Lure Iu.Iu., Rybnikova A.I. Khimicheskii analiz proizvodstvennykh stochnykh vod [Chemical analysis of industrial wastewater], M., Khimiia,publ., 1974, p. 334 (in Russian).
6. Ponomarev V.G. Ochistka stochnykh vod ot vzveshennykh veshchestv i nefteproduktov [Wastwater treatment from suspended and oil products], thesis of the reports of the IV International Congress “Water: Ecology and Technology”,journ., Moscow, 2000, pp. 564 (in Russian).
7. Sirotkina E.E., Novoselova L.Iu. Materialy dlia adsorbtcionnoi ochistki vody ot nefti i nefteproduktov [Materials for absorption treatment of water], Chemistry for Sustainable Development, journ., 13 (2005), pp. 359-377 (in Russian).

Arakcheev E.N., Petkova A.P., Brunman M.V.Disinfection and water treatment using anode liquor and sodium ferrate and apparatus for their integrated production

Problems of water treatment and drinking, technical and waste water disinfection using a complex electrolysis cell are examined. The selection of chlorine containing anode liquor and a sodium ferrate as reagents for water treatment is substantiated. Offered solutions of such an apparatus and its efficiency advance are justified. Applied automation solutions of water treatment using the apparatus are discussed. Specifics of the designed unit’s construction and technology of anode liquor and sodium ferrate in-situ production are disclosed. Benefits of the designed unit are analyzed and compared to the foreign analogs.
Key words: water disinfection, reagent, acquisition principles, anode liquor, sodium ferrate, complex electrolytic cell, adaptive control, safety, energy efficiency.
References: 1. Gulyas, H. (1997) Processes for the removal of recalcitrant organics from industrial wastewaters. Water Science and Technology 36(2-3), 9-16 (in English).
2. Bielski, B.H.J., Sharma, V.K. and Czapski, G. (1994) Reactivity of ferrate (V) with carboxylic acids: A pre-mix pulse radiolysis study. Radiation Physics and Chemistry 44(5), 479-484 (in English).
3. Graham, N., Jiang, C.C., Li X.Z., Jiang, J.Q. and Ma, J. (2004) The influence of pH on the degradation of phenol and chlorophenols by potassium ferrate. Chemosphere 56(10), 949-956 (in English).
4. Jiang, J.Q., Yin, Q., Zhou, J.L. and Pearce, P. (2005) Occurrence and treatment trials of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) in wastewaters. Chemosphere 6l(4), 544-550 (in English).
5. Bartzatt, R. and Nagel, D. (1991) Removal of Nitrosamines from Waste Water by Potassium Ferrate Oxidation. Archives of Environmental Health: An International Journal 46(5). 313-315 (in English).
6. Kendzi, K., K. Futaba Sterilizuyushchie svoystva peroksokalievykh soley shestivalentnogo zheleza [Sterilizing properties of peroxy potassium salts of hexavalent iron], Abstract journal of chemistry,1985, №3, p. 134 (in Russian).
7. Pat. 2379136 Russian Federation, IPC V09S1/08, C02F1/72. Sposob detoksikatsii ot organicheskikh zagryazniteley pochvennykh i vodnykh sred [Method of detoxification from organic pollutants of soil and water environments], N.A. Kruchinin, G. M. Nikolaeva, G.M. Kostylev, G.N. Kruchinina, O.V. Arapov, E.A. Kopylova, 2007 (in Russian).
8. Kruchinin, N.A. Issledovanie vozmozhnosti primeneniya ferratov dlya neytralizatsii goryuchego NDMG v promstokakh i grunte [Study on the application of ferrates for the neutralization of UDMH fuel in the industrial waste water and soil], N.A. Kruchinin, G.M. Kostylev, G.M. Nikolaeva, L.V. Andreeva, Dvoynye tekhnologii,journ., 2007, №3, pp. 36-42 (in Russian).
9. Tiwari, D., Kim, H.U., Choi, В.J., Lee, S.M., Kwon, О.Н., Choi, K.M. and Yang, J.K. (2007) Ferrate(VI): A green chemical for the oxidation of cyanide in aqueous/waste solutions. Journal of Environmental Science and Health Part a-Toxic/Hazardous Substances & Environmental Engineering 42(6), 803-810 (in English).
10. Не, С., Li, X.Z., Sharma, V.K. and Li, S.Y. (2009) Elimination of sludge odor by oxidizing sulfur-containing compounds with ferrate (VI). Environ. Sci. Technol. 43(15), 5890-5895 (in English).
11. Bartzatt. R., Cano, M., Johnson, L. and Nagel, D. (1992) Removal of toxic metals and nonmetals from contaminated water. Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health 35(4), 205-210 (in English).
12. Pat. KR101202765, IPC, C02F1/461. Ballast water treatment apparatus and method using ferrate /2012-11-19 (in Russian).
13. Electronic resource http://www.oxoterra.com/company-operations.html (in English).

Ignatova A.Iu., Novoselova A.A., Papin A.V.Efficiency improving method of chemical industry waste waters biological treatment. p.37-51

The article presents the results of investigations having been carried out by the authors for several years on the development of a method which improves efficiency of chemical industry waste water biological treatment. The method is based on the stimulation of natural associations of microorganisms-destructors by creating optimal conditions for them. Particularly, microorganism immobilization on plant residues that are simultaneously a source of easily accessible nutrient substances for microorganisms which allows them easily adapt to high concentration of toxic substances in the industrial water flows is used.
Key words: microorganisms, active sludge, immobilization, plant residues, wastewaters, treatment.
References: 1. Sostoyanie okruzhayushhej sredy Kemerovskoj oblasti v 2014 godu: Doklad Departamenta prirodnyx resursov i ekologii Kemerovskoj oblasti [The environment of the Kemerovo region in 2014: Report of the Department of natural resources and ecology of the Kemerovo region], http://kuzbasseco.ru/wp-content/uploads/2015/06/DOKLAD-2014.pdf, 08.08.2015 (in Russian).
2. Dimitrieva, G. Yu., N. K. Xristoforova Detoksikaciya fenola mikroorganizmami pribrezhnoj zony morya [Detoxification of phenol by microorganisms in coastal zone of the sea], Mikrobiologiya, 1999, vol. 68, № 1, pp. 107-113 (in Russian).
3. Berestovskaya, Yu. Yu. Destrukciya xlorproizvodnyx fenola: orto-xlorfenola, para-xlorfenola i 2,4-dixlorfenoksiuksusnoj kisloty bakterialnym soobshhestvom anaerobno-go ila [Destruction of phenol chlorinated derivative: ortho-chlorophenol, para-chlorophenol and 2,4-diclorfenoxiacetic acid by bacterial community of anaerobic sludge], Microbiology,journ., 2000, vol. 69, № 4, pp. 483-487 (in Russian).
4. Zaripov, S. A., Naumov A. V., Suvorova E. S. et al Osobennosti metabolizma 2,4,6-trinitrotoluola u razlichnyx grupp mikroorganizmov [Characteristics of metabolism of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene in various groups of microorganisms], deposit manuscript, № 2524-V2001, 04.12.2001, p. 27 (in Russian).
5. Baboshin, M. A., L. A. Golovleva Degradaciya policiklicheskix aromaticheskix uglevodorodov (PAU) aerobnymi bakteriyami i ee kineticheskie aspekty [Degradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) by aerobic bacteria and its kinetic aspects], Microbiology, 2012, vol. 81, № 6, p. 695 (in Russian).
6. Markusheva, T. V. Bakterii – destruktory fenola i ego xlorirovannyx proizvodnyx [Bacteria – destructors of phenol and its chlorinated derivatives], abstract of the thesis of doctor of biological sciences, Ufa, 2011, p. 48 (in Russian).
7. Sinicyn, A. P. Immobilizovannye kletki mikroorganizmov [Immobilized cells of microorganisms], M., MGU,publ., 1994, p. 288 (in Russian).
8. Skryabin, G. K., K. A. Koshheenko Immobilizovannye kletki mikroorganizmov [Immobilized cells of microorganisms], Biotexnologiya, M., Nauka,publ., 1984 (in Russian).
9. Ekologicheskaya biotexnologiya [Environmental biotechnology], edited by K. F. Foster, L., Ximiya,publ., 1990, p. 384 (in Russian).
10. Kobyzeva, N. V. , A. G. Gataullin, N. N. Silishhev, O. N. Loginov Ispolzovanie immobilizovannoj mikroflory dlya ochistki stochnyx vod ot nefteproduktov [Use of immobilized micro flora for wastewater treatment from oil products], Water and ecology:problems and solutions,journ., 2008, № 1, pp. 74-79 (in Russian).
11. Ignatova, A. Yu. Izuchenie vyzhivaemosti mikroorganizmov-destruktorov v kontakte s fenolom [Studying of the survivability of microorganisms-destructors in contact with phenol], Vestnik of Kuzbass State Technical University journal, 2001, № 6, pp. 74-77 (in Russian).
12. Novoselova, A. A., M. L. Lesina Primenenie estestvennyx biokataliticheskix sistem bakterij v praktike ochistki stochnyx vod [Application of natural bacteria biocatalytic systems in wastewater treatment practice], materials of the International youth conference "Biocatalytic technologies and technologies of renewable resources in the interests of rational nature management",10-12 Sept. 2012, Kemerovo, KemIFST, 2012, pp. 34-37 (in Russian).
13. Novoselova, A. A. Metod stimulyacii razvitiya mikroorganizmov-destruktorov fenola [Method of stimulating the growth of phenol microorganisms-destructors], materials of the youth environmental foroum, 8-10 Oct. 2013, Kemerovo, 2013,pp. 210-213 (in Russian).
14. Lesina, M.L., Novoselova, A. A. Sposob biologicheskoj ochistki stochnyx vod ximicheskix proizvodstv [Method of biological treatment of chemical industry waste waters], materials of the International youth conference "Ecology of Russia and adjacent territories 20-22 June 2012, Kemerovo, 2012, pp. 129-133 (in Russian).
15. Novoselova, A. A., Lesina, M. L. Biodestrukciya ksenobiotikov promyshlennyx stochnyx vod s ispolzovaniem immobilizatorov [Biodegradation of xenobiotics of industrial sewage with use of immobilizer], materials innovation convention "Kuzbass: education, science, innovations", Kemerovo, 2013, vol. 1, pp. 113-138 (in Russian).
16. Opredelitel bakterij Berdzhi [Bergeys Manual of Determinative Bacteriology], edited by Dzh. Xoult, N. Krig, P. Snit et al, 9th edition, in 2 vol., M., Mir,publ., 1997, p. 799 (in Russian).

Evdokimov A.A., Kiss V.V.Thin-layer emulsion separation. p. 52-62

The behavior of disperse particles in narrow channels does not correspond to a traditional view on a self-laminating systems and does not allow using the Stokes’s model to calculate a thin-layer separation. The previous results of a theoretical analysis of the interaction of a single spherical particle with a viscous medium laminar flow are used by authors for a mathematical description of processes in parallel-plate ducts of thin-layer settling tanks. And not only a form, channel size and its orientation in a gravitation field are considered but also the physical and chemical properties of the separated mixture components. The authors obtained the basic equations of the thin-layer separation for two versions of channel orientation: horizontal and vertical. The examples of motion paths of particles of different sizes in quite narrow parallel-plate ducts are presented. The special characteristics of the particle separation in vertical channels are described. On the examples of a monodisperse mixture separation with disperse particles of different sizes, the effect of the Stokes’ hovering component on the separation efficiency and rate is examined. The variants of a reasonable arrangement of a plane-parallel packing in a continuously-working separator case and a separated mixture flow arrangement in order to make a flow effect on particles (Poiseuille’s effect) support the intensification of separation instead of opposing it are presented. The methods of the engineering analysis of thin-layer separators requiring no special mathematical background from designers are presented. The references confirming the applicability of analytical dependencies for a calculation of the oily water mixture thin-layer separation are presented.
Key words: thin-layer separation, oil-water mixture, parallel-plate duct orientation, particle path, Poiseuille’s effect.
References: 1. Evdokimov A. A. O koalescencii. S-P [On coalescence], MZhP, journ., N 5-6, 1995, pp. 39-46 (in Russian).
2. Evdokimov A. A. Ob ispolzovanii jeffekta Puazejlja dlja obrabotki vodno-zhirovyh jemulsij. S-P [On the use of the Poiseuille effect for treatment of water-in-oil emulsions], MZhP, journ., N 1-2, 1995, pp. 42-48 (in Russian).
3. Evdokimov A.A. Zashhita vodojomov ot neftjanyh zagrjaznenij. Besstochnaja neftevodoochistka. Monografija [Protection of water bodies from oil pollution. Drainless oil water treatment. Monograph.], S-P: SPbSUR&FE, 2003, p. 136 (in Russian).
4. Evdokimov А.А. How to protect the hydrosphere against oil pollution. Summary of the USSR presentation. Second Soviet-American symposium on marine environmental protection, port development and trade. Seattle, Washington, 8 Sept. 1991, p. 36 -37 (in English).
5. Patent RF N 2243168. Ustanovka dlja ochistki neftesoderzhashhih vod [Oil-contaminated water treatment facility], Evdokimov A.A., BI N 36, 2004 (in Russian).
6. Patent RF N 2205797. Ustanovka dlja ochistki neftesoderzhashhih stochnyh vod [Oil-containing wastewater treatment facility], A.A. Evdokimov, V.V. Evdokimova, V.M. Smoljanov et al, BI № 16, 2003 (in Russian).
7. Patent RF N 2032443. Ustrojstvo dlja ochistki zhirosoderzhashhih vod kambuza [Fat-containing caboose water treatment facility], A.A. Evdokimov, K.A. Stepanov, V.N. Jacenko, I.V. Menchukov, BI N 10, 1995 (in Russian).
8. Inventors certificate USSR N 1001961 Separator emulsii [Emulsion separator], A.A. Evdokimov, M.A. Altman, BI N 9, 1983 (in Russian).
9. Inventors certificate USSR N 1360764. Koalestciruiushchii separator neftevodianykh emulsii [Coalescing separator of the oily-water emulsions], A.A. Evdokimov, V.I. Beliavskii and A.S. Denisenko, BI N 47, 1987 (in Russian).
10. Inventors certificate USSR N 1487926. Koalestciruiushchii filtr [Coalescing filter], A.A. Evdokimov, K.A. Stepanov, B.C. Machigin and L.N. Shcherbakova, BI N 23, 1989 (in Russian).
11. Inventors certificate USSR N Koalestciruiushchii separator neftevodianykh emulsii [Coalescing separator of the oily-water emulsions], A.A. Evdokimov, V.V. Evdokimova, A.S. Denisenko, BI N 36, 1989 (in Russian).
12. Inventors certificate USSR N 1620114. Ustroistvo dlia razdeleniia suspenzii [Suspensions separation facility], A.A. Evdokimov, N.G. Aslanov, K.A. Stepanov, BI N 2, 1991 (in Russian).

Ecology

Mikhailova M.V., Zolotarev K.V., Beliaeva N.F., Kashirtceva V.N.Assessement of ecological risks and human health risks caused by water bodies pollutants in the EU, U.S. and Russia. p. 63-80

The assessment of risks emerging when anthropogenic pollutants get into water bodies is extremely important from the point of view of preventing probable danger both for environment and human health. The increase of ecological risks highlighted the need to regulate their assessment. The human health risk assessment is a process of defining the nature and probability of harmful impact on people who can be affected by either pollutant at present and in future. The assessment of ecological hazard of a substance is a defining of all ways of its impact on organisms in the environment as well as on populations, communities and ecosystems to which these organisms belong. The article presents the approaches concerning methodologies and ultimate decisions on assessment of both human health risks and environmental risks accepted in the EU, U.S. and Russia. The process of the risk level assessment consists of the following action sequence: effect assessment, assessment of “dose-effect”, exposure assessment and risk description. Whether a substance is hazardous to human health or not depends on a correlation of an effective dose and concentration at which there are either no observable adverse effect level (NOAEL) or lowest-observed adverse effect level (LOAEL). The action sequence of the human health risk assessment is the same in Russia as in the EU and U.S. The differences concern only results. Both in the U.S. and in the EU they concern a regulation of such substance trafficking while in Russia it is offered to restrict the people’s contacts with a toxic substance in a certain area. The methodology of the environmental risk assessment in the EU and U.S. consists of the same stages and brings to making the same ultimate decisions; meanwhile the U.S. methodology is more clear and detailed. Currently there is no regulatory framework for assessment of the ecological risks caused by chemical pollution of water bodies in Russia.
Key words: risk assessment, water bodies pollutants, environmental safety, ultimate decisions.
References: 1. Water quality // International Decade for Action Water for Life 2005-2015 New York: UN DESA, 2014. URL: http://www.un.org/waterforlifedecade/quality.shtml (in English).
2. Fuerhacker M. EU Water Framework Directive and Stockholm Convention: can we reach the targets for priority substances and persistent organic pollutants? // Environmental Science and Pollution Research International. 2009. Supplement. 1. S92–S97 (in English).
3. Benotti M.J., Trenholm R.A., Vanderford B.J., Holady J.C., Stanford B.D., Snyder S.A. Pharmaceuticals and endocrine disrupting compounds in U.S. drinking water // Environmental Science & Technology. 2009. V. 43. P. 597–603 (in English).
4. Sasikaran S., Sritharan K., Balakumar S., Arasaratnam V. Physical, chemical and microbial analysis of bottled drinking water // Ceylon Medical Journal 2012. V. 57. P. 111–116 (in English).
5. Council Directive 67/548/EEC of 27 June 1967 on the approximation of laws, regulations and administrative provisions relating to the classification, packaging and labeling of dangerous substances // European Commission. 1967 (in English).
6. Commission Directive 93/67/EEC of 20 July 1993 laying down the principles for assessment of risks to man and the environment of substances notified in accordance with Council Directive 67/548/EEC // European Commission. 1993 (in English).
7. Commission Regulation (EC) No 1488/94 on Risk Assessment for existing substances // European Commission. 1994 (in English).
8. Regulation (EC) No 1907/2006 of 18 December 2006 concerning the Registration, Evaluation, Authorization and Restriction of Chemicals (REACH), establishing a European Chemicals Agency, amending Directive 1999/45/EC and repealing Council Regulation (EEC) No 793/93 and Commission Regulation (EC) No 1488/94 as well as Council Directive 76/769/EEC and Commission Directives 91/155/EEC, 93/67/EEC, 93/105/EC and 2000/21/EC // European Parliament and Council of the European Union. 2006 (in English).
9. Council Regulation (EEC) No 793/93 of 23 March 1993 on the evaluation and control of the risks of existing substances // Council of the European Union. 1993 (in English).
10. Directive 98/8/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 16 February 1998 concerning the placing of biocidal products on the market // European Parliament and Council of the European Union. 1998 (in English).
11. Commission Regulation (EC) No 1896/2000 of 7 September 2000 on the first phase of the programme referred to in Article 16(2) of Directive 98/8/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council on biocidal products // European Commission. 2000 (in English).
12. TGD (2003). Technical guidance document (TGD) on risk assessment in support of Commission Directive 93/67/EEC on risk assessment for new notified substances, Commission Regulation (EC) no 1488/94 on risk assessment for existing substances, Directive 98/8/ EC of the European Parliament and of the Council concerning the placing of biocidal products on the market // European Commission. 2003 (in English).
13. Directive 2000/60/EC. Water Framework Directive // European Parliament and Council of the European Union. 2000 (in English).
14. TSCA. Toxic Substances Control Act // United States Public law. 1976 (in English).
15. Reviewing New Chemicals Under Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) Washington, DC: US EPA, 2015. URL: http://www2.epa.gov/reviewing-new-chemicals-under-toxic-substances-control-act-tsca (in English).
16. Nabholz J.V. Environmental hazard and risk assessment under the United States Toxic Substances Control Act // Science of the Total Environment. 1991. V. 109–110. P. 649–665 (in English).
17. Human Health Risk Assessment [Электронный ресурс] // Washington, DC: US EPA, 2015 (in English).
18. EPA/600/Z-92/001. Guidelines for Exposure Assessment // U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. 1992 (in English).
19. Rukovodstvo po otcenke riska dlia zdorovia naseleniia pri vozdeistvii khimicheskikh veshchestv, zagriazniaiushchikh okruzhaiushchuiu sredu [Guidance on risk assessment for health when exposed to chemicals, polluting the environment], Guidence. R 2.1.10.1920-04. Introduced 05.03.2004, M., Federal Sanitary and Epidemiological Supervision Center of the Ministry of Health of RF, 2004, p. 168 (in Russian).
20. Estimating "Concern Levels" for Concentrations of Chemical Substances in the Environment. Environmental Effects Branch, Health and Environmental Review Division (TS-796) // Office of Toxic Substances. US EPA. 1984 (in English).
21. «Vodnyi kodeks Rossiiskoi Federatcii» ot 03.06.2006 N 74-FZ [Water code of the Russian Federation on 03.06.2006 N 74-FZ], (edited on 13.07.2015; amended and revised on 24.07.2015), M., 2006 (in Russian).
22. Danilovich D.A., Dovlatova E.V. Normirovanie sbrosov: ot nedostatkov sistemy – k kompleksnoi reforme [The regulation of discharges: from the shortcomings of the system – to comprehensive reform], Industry Newsletter, journ., 2013, № 4, pp. 45–53 (in Russian).
23. Predelno dopustimye kontcentratcii (PDK) khimicheskikh veshchestv v vode vodnykh obektov khoziaistvenno-pitevogo i kulturno-bytovogo vodopolzovaniia. Gigienicheskie normativy. GN 2.1.5.1315-03 [Maximum permissible concentration (MPC) of chemical substances in water of water objects of drinking and cultural-domestic water use. Hygienic standards. HS 2.1.5.1315-03], M., Chief State Medical Officer of RF, 2003 (in Russian).
24. Postanovlenie Pravitelstva Moskvy ot 19.01.2010 N 34-PP (red. ot 12.04.2011) «O Gorodskoi tcelevoi programme "Chistaia voda Moskvy" na period 2010-2011 gg.» [The Moscow city Government decree dated 19.01.2010 N 34-PP (edited on 12.04.2011) "On the City target program "Pure water of Moscow" for the period 2010-2011."] M., 2010 (in Russian).

№2

Watter Supply

Godin V.Drinking water for residents of St.Petersburg and Leningrad region – p. 3-25

The author has been involved in investigation, research and practical usage of underground drinking water since 1999. As a result of this survey the region №78 (St.Petersburg) and №47 (Leningrad region) were offered physiologically full valued drinking water PFVDW(47; 78). Geographical boarders of its distribution were marked and a new title to standard is proposed – Sanitary Standards of the region (47; 78) "Physiologically full valued underground drinking water. Quality standard".
Key words: physiologically full valued drinking water (47; 78), optimum mineral quantity, underground drinking water, water bearing complex, hydro-geology, vendian water bearing complex, macro and micro-salt composition.
References: 1. Vsevolozhskij V.A., Osnovy gidrogeologii [Fundamentals of hydrogeology], M., 2007, рр 448 (in Russian).
2. Vorobeva L. V., Lutaj G. F., Seljuzhickij G. V. et al. Obosnovanie normativnyh pokazatelej fiziologicheskoj polnocennosti pitevoj vody [Justification of the normative parameters of physiological full value of drinking water], Scientific papers of the Federal scientific center of hygiene named after F. F. Erisman, Lipetsk, 2009, issue 21, pp. 42 -45 (in Russian).
3. Godin V. Ju., Voronjuk G. Ju. Gidrogeologicheskoe zakljuchenie: sostojanie pitevyh podzemnyh vod Leningradskoj oblasti [Hydrogeological report: the state of the underground potable waters of Leningrad region], LLC Aqualine, SPb, 2012 (in Russian).
4. Grejser E.L., Ivanova N.G. Presnye podzemnye vody: sostojanie i perspektivy vodosnabzhenija naselennyh punktov i promyshlennyh obektov [Fresh groundwater: status and prospects of water supply of settlements and industrial objects], Prospect and protection of mineral resources, journ., issue 5, 2005, p. 36-42 (in Russian).
5. Zenin S.V. Strukturnoe sostojanie vody kak pokazatel ee kachestva [Structural state of water as an indicator of its quality.]. 2004. №5. рр 23-25 (in Russian).
6. Krasovskij G. N., Rahmanin Ju. A., Egorova N. A. Gigienicheskie osnovy formirovanija perechnej pokazatelej dlja ocenki i kontrolja bezopasnosti pitevoj vody [Hygienic bases of formation of the lists of indicators for evaluating and monitoring the safety of drinking water], Hygiene and sanitation, 2010, № 4, p. 8 (in Russian).
7. Kurennoj V. V. Nauchno- metodicheskie osnovy strukturno – gidrogeologicheskogo analiza i ocenki uslovij lokalizacij resursov pitevyh podzemnyh vod [Scientific and methodical bases of structural – hydrogeological analysis and evaluation of the conditions of drinking groundwater resource localization], thesis of doctor of geological Sciences, M., 2010 (in Russian).
8. Metodicheskie rekomendacii po geohimicheskomu izucheniju zagrjaznenija podzemnyh vod [Methodic recommendations for geochemical study of groundwater pollution], VSEGINGEO, M., 1991 (in Russian).
9. Mosin O. V. Himicheskaja priroda vody i ejo pamjat [Chemical nature of water and its memory] 2008. №3. Рр 18-27 (in Russian).
10. Nikolaev A.S., Sokolinskaja O.S. Otchet o rabote po obsledovaniju vodozabornyh, rezervnyh i beshoznyh skvazhin na territorii Vyborgskogo rajona Leningradskoj oblasti [Report on the survey of water intake, backup and unattended wells on the territory of the Vyborg district of the Leningrad region], Northwestern state geological enterprise Sevzapgeologiya, SPb, 2002 (in Russian).
11. Obespechenie Sankt-Peterburga fiziologicheski polnocennoj pitevoj vodoj [Provision of St. Petersburg with physiologically adequate drinking water], edited by Sergeeva O. E., Merkusheva V. N., SPb, 2011 (in Russian).
12. Rahmanin Ju. A., Doronina O. D. Strategicheskie podhody upravlenija riskami dlja snizhenija ujazvimosti cheloveka vsledstvie izmenenija vodnogo faktora [Strategic risk management approaches to reduce human vulnerability to changes in the water factor], Hygiene and sanitation, journ., 2010, № 2, pp. 8 – 13 (in Russian).
13. Regionalnyj informacionnyj bjulleten «Sostojanie nedr territorii Severo-Zapadnogo federalnogo okruga Rossijskoj Federacii za 2010 god» [Regional information Bulletin "Subsurface state in the North-West Federal district of the Russian Federation for 2010"], issue 12, SPb, 2011 (in Russian).
14. Rodionova A.M. Otchet «Pereocenka kachestva podzemnyh vod «gdovskogo» vodonosnogo gorizonta v ramkah sovremennyh trebovanij radiacionnoj bezopasnosti» [Report "Reassessment of groundwater quality "Gdov" aquifer in the framework of modern requirements to radiation safety".], SPb., 2003 (in Russian).
15. SanPiN 2.1.4.1116-02. "Pitevaja voda. Gigienicheskie trebovanija k kachestvu vody, rasfasovannoj v emkosti. Kontrol kachestva" [SanPiN 2.1.4.1116-02. "Drinking water. Hygienic requirements of pre-packaged water quality. Quality control"] (in Russian).
16. Tolmacheva N. V. «Jekologo-Fiziologicheskoe obosnovanie optimalnyh urovnej makro-i mikrojelementov v pitevoj vode i pishhevyh racionah [Ecological-Physiological substantiation of optimum levels of macro-and microelements in drinking water and food rations], dissertation of doctor of medical sciences, M., 2011 (in Russian).
17. Tretjakov V.Ju., Kulesh V.P. Avtomatizirovannaja obrabotka jekologicheskoj informacii [Automated processing of environmental information], SPb, 2005 (in Russian).
18. Shebesta E.A. Otchet o provedenii rabot po obektu: «Sozdanie sovremennoj gidrogeologicheskoj karty Leningradskogo artezianskogo bassejna masshtaba 1:500 000 s vyjavleniem uslovij lokalizacii pitevyh podzemnyh vod, razlichnyh po zashhishhennosti vodonosnyh gorizontov i kachestvu vod» [Report on the carrying out of works on object: "Creation of modern geological maps of the Leningrad artesian basin, scale 1:500 000 with the identification of the conditions of localization of potable groundwater, protection of various aquifers and water quality"], Saint-Petersburg Complex Geological Expedition, SPb., 2007 (in Russian).
19. Jahnin Je. Ja., Tomilin A. M., Shelemotov A. S. «Ocenka kachestva i himicheskij sostav podzemnoj vody dochetvertichnyh otlozhenij Leningradskoj oblasti» [Assessment of the quality and chemical composition of the groundwater of the pre-quaternary deposits of the Leningrad region], Prospect and protection of mineral resources,journ., 2005, issue 5, pp. 42-48 (in Russian).
20. National Research Council // Drinking Water and health. Washington: DC, National Academy of Sciences, 1977. –Vol. 7 (in English).
21. Water quality Detection and enumeration of Escherichia coli and coliform bacteria/ -Part 1: Membrane Filtration metod. EN ISO 9308- 2000 (in English).

Kim A. N., Romanova A. Yu.Development of an automated plant with volume filter cartridges for mechanical water treatment (UMV-8). p.26-34

The article presents a new automated plant UMV-8 for water filtration which operating principle is based on a super-high-speed filtration method developed by Professor G.N. Nikiforov. Pressure granular-bed filters turned into filtration system are used for water treatment; meanwhile, a main feature of these filters is an automatic alternate backwash at which all filters of the unit, except for a washed filter, provide a useful consumption during the filtration. This principle was used at the development of the plant UMV-8 where volume filter cartridges made of fibrous-porous polyethylene are used as separate filters. In order to determine the basic characteristics of the plant UMV-8, the tests, during which the dependency of the plant performance on pressure difference and wash water amount as well as on the cross section diameter of a wash water drainage collector are defined along with the water treatment efficiency, are carried out. At the rate of 8m3\h, filtration capacity makes more that 20 µm; regeneration scheme of the filter cartridge "outside-inside" allows minimizing the filter cartridge washing time, optimizing the water consumption for the washing, improving the washing quality and saving the plant capacity; while at the washing for 5 s, the volume of washing water from one filter cartridge makes 1% from the total performance of the UMV-8.
Key words: automated filter plant, super-high-speed filering method, suspended substances, volume filer cartridges.
References: 1. Zhuzhikov V. A. Filtrovanie. Teoriia i praktika razdeleniia suspenzii [Theory and practice of suspension separation ], M., Khimiia, publ., 1971, p. 440 (in Russian).
2. Kuzmin Iu. M. Setchatye ustanovki sistem vodosnabzheniia. Spravochnoe posobie [Net installations of water supply systems. Handbook], L., Stroiizdat, publ., 1976, p. 160 (in Russian).
3. Nikoladze G. I., Somov M. A. Vodosnabzhenie: uchebnik dlia VUZov [Water supply: the textbook for high schools], M., Stroiizdat,publ., 1995, p. 688 (in Russian).
4. Kliachko V. A., Apeltcin I. E. Ochistka prirodnykh vod [Natural water treatment], M., Izd. literatury po stroitelstvu,publ., 1971, p. 574 (in Russian).
5. Kim A. N. Sovershenstvovanie napornykh vodoochistnykh sooruzhenii [Improvement of the pressure wastewater treatment plant], Abstract of the thesis of the doctor of engineering, SPb, 1998, p. 48 (in Russian).
6. Zhurba M. G., Sokolov L. I., Govorova Zh. M. Vodosnabzhenie. Proektirovanie sistem i sooruzhenii: izdanie vtoroe. Uchebnoe posobie [Water supply. Design of the systems and plants: second edition. Study guide], M., Izdatelstvo ASV, publ., 2004, p. 496 (in Russian).
7. Aratskii P. B., Petrov V. E., Utin A. V. Innovatcionnyi avtomaticheskii filtr dlia doochistki vody [Innovative automatic filter for water tertiary treatment], Water and ecology:problems and solutions,journ., 2013, № 3, pp. 41-49 (in Russian).
8. Patent RF na poleznuiu model № 137477 «Patronnyi filtr» [RF patent for useful model No. 137477 "Cartridge filter"], A.V.Utin, V.E. Petrov, application 27.03.2013, published on 20.02.2014, Bull. No. 5 (in Russian).
9. Malinovskaia T. A., Kobrinskii I. A., Kirsanov O. S., Reinfart V. V. Razdelenie suspenzii v khimicheskoi promyshlennosti [Separation of suspensions in chemical industry], M., Khimiia,publ.,1983, p. 264 (in Russian).
10. GOST 2138-98 «Peski formovochnye. Obshchie tekhnicheskie usloviia» [GOST 2138-98 "Molding dands. General technical conditions"], legal reference system «ConsultantPlus», access mode: www.consultant.ru, 12.11.2016 (in Russian).

Water disposal

Manuilov M.B., Moskovkin V.M.Influence of the surface flow (rainwater and meltwater) on the ecological and industrial situation in cities. p.35-47

The experience of the Soviet scientific school on studying the problems of discharge and treatment of the urban surface flow in the city of Kharkov (All Union Research Institute of Water Conservation) is presented and the further development of its main basics is accomplished. The complex of design formulae for estimation of the road dust load formation by means of aerosol deposition, tire abrasion on the road surface, pollutant transfer by vehicles, road surface deterioration by cargo transportation, pavement destruction by atmospheric precipitation and sand accumulation in winter at deicing is presented. Beside these physical-chemical components of the road dust including the road dust fractions with particles size of both less than 250 μm (first three types of the load) and more than 250 μm (last three types of the load), two types of the biological components of the road dust were thoroughly examined. The structural logical schemes of the actual effect of the urban surface flow on water objects, formation of pollutants on the urbanized territories during the annual cycle, main sources of the pollutant chemical composition formation and possible effects of the urban surface flow on the water object siltation are constructed. The experience of the All Union Research Institute of Water Conservation (Kharkov) in solving problems of the polluted surface flow effect on water objects as well as the cost minimization at the technology adaption of the surface flow discharge and treatment is described. As a conclusion, the calculated methods of assessment of the water object environmental damage by the surface flow based on the mathematical and physical modeling of the pollutant formation process in the build-up territories and their removal during the rain are offered.
Key words: urban surface flow, road dust, water objects, ecological damage, mathematical modeling, physical modeling, discharge and treatment of urban surface runoff, All Union Research Institute of Water Conservation( Kharkov, USSR)
References: 1. Vremennye rekomendacii po proektirovaniju sooruzhenij dlja ochistki poverhnostnogo stoka s territorii promyshlennyh predprijatij i raschetu uslovij vypuska ego v vodnye obekty [Interim guidelines for the design of facilities for surface runoff removal from the territory of industrial enterprises and calculating the conditions of its discharge into water bodies], M., VNIIVODGEO, VNIIVO, 1983, p. 47 (in Russian).
2. Manujlov M.B., Moskovkin V.M. Vlijanie zagrjaznenij, formirujushhihsja na urbanizirovannyh territorijah, na jepidemiologicheskuju i jekologicheskuju situacii [The impact of pollutants formed in urban areas on epidemiological and environmental situation], Ecology of Urban Areas, journ., № 1, 2010, pp. 18-31 (in Russian).
3. Manujlov M.B., Moskovkin V.M., Martynov A.V., Kukovickij N.N. Vozdejstvie zagrjaznenij, formirujushhihsja na urbanizirovannyh territorijah, na jekologicheskuju i jepidemiologicheskuju situacii [The impact of pollutants formed in urban areas on epidemiological and environmental situation], Investigated in Russia, journ., MIPT, publ., 2009, vol. 12, pp. 204-226 (in Russian).
4. Kalicun V.I. Vodootvodjashhie sistemy i sooruzhenija [Drainage systems and structures], M., Strojizdat,publ., 1987, p. 335 (in Russian).
5. Molokov M.V., Shifrin V.N. Ochistka poverhnostnogo stoka s territorij gorodov i poromyshlennyh ploshhadok [Removal of surface runoff from the territories of cities and industrial sites], M.: Strojizdat, publ., 1977, p. 67 (in Russian).
6. Lozanskij V.R., Eremenko E.V., Kuzin A.K. Metody i celi ohrany vod SSSR [methods and goals of protection of waters of the USSR Proceedings of the Soviet - American Symposium "Methodology and practice of planning for the protection of river basins", Kharkov, VNIIVO, publ., 1981, pp. 16-43 (in Russian).
7. Manujlov M.B., Shutinskij A.G., Avin V.M., Skomoroha O.p. Novaja tehnologija otvedenija i ochistki poverhnostnogo stoka, obrazujushhegosja na selitebnyh territorijah i promyshlennyh ploshhadkah predprijatij [New technology for disposal and treatment of surface runoff generated in residential areas and industrial sites], Vestnik Nacionalʹnogo tehničeskogo universiteta "HPI", journ., 2003, № 3, pp. 49-57 (in Russian).
8. Manujlov M.B., Kravchuk L.S., Bolshakova E.S., Moskovkin V.M. Ocenka vlijanija poverhnostnogo stoka, otvodimogo s urbanizirovannyh territorij, na process zalivanija rusel i podtoplenija gorodskih territorij [Assessment of the impact of surface runoff discharged from urban land on the process of flooding of river channels and urban areas], Business Inform, journ., 2005, № 1-2, pp. 46-54 (in Russian).
9. Kondratev K.Ja., Hvat V.M., Moskovkin V.M., Manujlov M.B. O dispersnom sostave atmosfernyh ajerozolej i raschetu ih osazhdenija [On the disperse composition of atmospheric aerosols and calculation of their deposition], report of the Academy of Science of the USSR, 1988, vol. 303, № 3, pp. 591-593 (in Russian).
10. Hvat V.M., Moskovkin V.M., Manujlov M.B., Ronenko O.p. Ob ajerozolnom zagrjaznenii poverhnostnogo stoka na urbanizirovannyh territorijah [On the aerosol pollution of surface runoff in urban areas], Russian Meteorology and Hydrology, journ., 1991, № 2, pp. 54-57 (in Russian).
11. Manujlov M.B., Bolshakova E.S. Formirovanie zagrjaznjajushhih veshhestv na gorodskih territorijah za bez dozhdevye periody vremeni [Formation of pollutants in urban areas during the rainless period], Scientific Bulletin of Construction,journ., 2004, issue 28, pp. 265-273 (in Russian).
12. Shver p.A. Atmosfernye osadki na territorii SSSR [Atmospheric precipitation on the territory of the USSR], L.:, GMizdat,publ., 1976, p. 480 (in Russian).
13. Hvat V.M., Moskovkin V.M., Medvedev V.S., Manujlov M.B. et al. Razrabotat i vnedrit tehnologicheskij process otvedenija i ochistki poverhnostnogo stoka s zastroennyh territorij (promezhutochnyj) [Develop and implement the technological process of disposal and treatment of surface runoff from built-up areas (intermediate)], Research report: VNIIVO, № 01.870084, Kharkov, 1988, p. 115 (in Russian).
14. Moskovkin V.M., Manujlov M.B. Ocenka potokov osadimyh ajerozolej i tjazhelyh metallov na urbanizirovannye territorii (na primere gorodov Jalta i Alushta) [Estimation of flows of sediment aerosols and heavy metals on urbanized territories (on the example of the cities of Yalta and Alushta) ], The issues of development of Crimea, Scientific-analytical collection, Issue 2, Centre for regional development, Crimea Academy of Science, Simferopol, 1996, pp. 32-36 (in Russian).
15. Manujlov M.B., Toshinskij V.I., Shhutinskij A.G., Demenkova S.D., Skomoroha O.p. Pereraspredelenie zagrjaznjajushhih veshhestv, nakaplivajushhihsja na urbanizirovannyh territorijah avtotransportnymi sredstvami [Redistribution of pollutants accumulating in urban areas by motor vehicles], Vestnik Nacionalʹnogo tehničeskogo universiteta "HPI", journ., 2002, vol. 1, №9, pp. 40-43 (in Russian).
16. Manujlov M.B., Prokopenko V.S., Bolshakova E.S. Metodologija ocenki ob#emov zagrjaznjajushhih veshhestv, privnosimyh avtotransportnymi sredstvami na centralnye zony gorodskih territorij [Methodology of assessing the amount of pollutants introduced by motor vehicles in the central zone of urban areas],Scientific Bulletin of Construction,journ., 2004, issue 27, pp. 76-83 (in Russian).
17. Manujlov M.B., Moskovkin V.M., Bolshakova E.S., Mironova-Kopysova K.V. Jekologo-jekonomicheskoe i tehnologicheskoe upravlenie processami zailivanija rusla rek i podtoplenija gorodskih territorij [Ecological-economic and technological control of the processes of siltation of rivers and flooding of urban areas],Business Inform, journ., 2003., № 1-2, pp. 49-57 (in Russian).
18. Sidenko V.M., Mihovich S.I. Jekspluatacija avtomobilnyh dorog [Road service], M., Transport, 1978, p. 226 (in Russian).
19. Birulja A.K., Mihovich S.I. Rabotosposobnost dorozhnyh odezhd [Pavement efficiency], M., Transport, 1968, p. 172 (in Russian).
20. Kurichev I.S. Pochvovedenie [Soil science], M., Kolos, publ., 1975, p. 496 (in Russian).
21. Shvebs G.I. Formirovanie vodnoj jerozii, stoka nanosov i ih ocenka [Formation of water erosion, sediment load and their assessment], L., GMizdat, publ., 1974, p. 207 (in Russian).
22. Kuznik I.A. Agrolesomeliorativnye meroprijatija, vesennij stok i jerozija pochv [Agroforestry events, spring runoff and soil erosion], L., GMizdat, 1962, p. 220 (in Russian).
23. Hvat V.M., Medvedev V.S., Manujlov M.B., Ronenko O.p., Shevchenko L.F. Research report: «Razrabotat i vnedrit tehnologicheskij process regulirovanija otvedenija i ochistki poverhnostnogo stoka s zastroennyh territorij (zakljuchitelnyj)» [Develop and implement the technological process of regulating the discharge and treatment of surface runoff from built-up areas (final)], № 01.870084.- VNIIVO, Kharkov, 1990, p. 127 (in Russian).
24. Moskovkin V.M., Manujlov M.B., Mendygulov Ju.D et al. Razrabotka i sozdanie modelej jekologo-jekonomicheskogo prognoza (metodologicheskie aspekty provedenija jekologicheskogo monitoringa i jekologicheskoj jekspertizy) [Design and creation of models of ecological-economic forecast (methodological aspects of conducting environmental monitoring and environmental assessment)], Research report: The Yalta Department of the Crimean branch of the USSR Academy of Sciences SNIC, № 03.890081, Sochi, 1990, p. 106 (in Russian).
25. Manujlov M.B., Medvedev V.S., Ronenko O.p., Shevchenko L.p. Metodika opredelenija potoka osadimyh ajerozolej i tjazhelyh metallov [The method of determining the flow of sediment aerosols and heavy metals], Abstracts of the reports of the All-Union Symposium of young scientists: "the Rational use and protection of resources from pollution", Kharkov, 1990, pp. 77-79 (in Russian).
26. Manujlov M.B., Moskovkin V.M., Petrjuk p.T. Obosnovanie versii toksikologicheskogo porazhenija zhitelej sela Boleslavchik Pervomajskogo rajona Nikolaevskoj oblasti [Justification of the version of toxicological lesion of the inhabitants of the village Boleslavchik of the Pervomayskiy region of the Nikolaev area], Problems of science, education and management, Kharkov, 2004, issue 5, pp. 37-39 (in Russian).
27. Manujlov M.B., Toshinskij V.I., Petrjuk p.T. K izucheniju toksikologicheskogo porazhenija zhitelej sela Boleslavchik: prichiny, analiz situacii, reshenie problemy [On the study of the toxicological lesion of the inhabitants of the village of Boleslavchyk: reasons, situation analysis, problem solving], Ukrainian psychiatry news, Kyiv-Kharkov, 2010, pp. 46-50 (http://www.psychiatry.ua/articles/paper346.htm) (in Russian).
28. Koncepcija kompleksnogo uluchshenija sanitarno-jepidemiologicheskogo sostojanija g. Harkova po napravlenijam raboty GKP «Harkovkommunochistvod» [The concept of integrated improve of the sanitary-epidemiological state of the city of Kharkov in the areas of work of the MUS "Kharkovkommunochistvod"], Kharkov, MUS «Kharkovkommunochistvod, ICE «JuzhtransNIIproekt», 1999, p. 34 (in Russian).
29. Hvat V.M., Manujlov M.B., Medvedev V.S. Ispolzovanie poverhnostnogo stoka v sistemah promvodosnabzhenija pri ustrojstve malostochnyh proizvodstv [The use of surface runoff in the industrial water supply system at low-waste production], Materials of the 3rd Republican scientific-practical conference "Closed technology systems of water use and the recycling of water precipitation in industry",Chisinau, 1990, pp. 103-105 (in Russian).
30. Hvat V.M., Medvedev V.S., Manujlov M.B., Ronenko O.p., Bacula L.I. Research report: «Razrabotat rekomendacii po sboru i ochistke poverhnostnogo stoka s territorii Juzhnoj promyshlennoj i zhiloj zon g. Kahovki» [Develop recommendations for the collection and treatment of surface runoff from the territory of the southern industrial and residential zones in Kakhovka], № 01.89.0084689, VNIIVO, publ., Kharkov, 1989, p. 95 (in Russian).
31. Vremennye instrukcii po proektirovaniju sooruzhenij dlja ochistki poverhnostnyh stochnyh vod SN 496-77 [Temporary instruction on designing the facilities for surface wastewater treatment SN 496-77], M., Strojizdat, publ., 1978, p. 40 (in Russian).
32. Mance G., Harman M. The quality of urban storm-water run-off // Urban Storm Drainage Prot. Int. Conf. Southampton, 1978.- p. 603-617 (in English).
33. Shevchuk V., Pilipchuk N., Karpenko N., Kulik A., Satalkіn Ju., Navrockij V., Mazurkevіch V. Spravochnik po voprosam jekonomiki i finansirovanija prirodopolzovanija i prirodoohrannoj dejatelnosti [Handbook on the issues of economics and financing of environmental management and nature conservation work], K., Geoprint,publ., 2000, p. 412 (in Ukrainian).
34. Manujlov M.B., Perepeljak E.A. Jekologo-jekonomicheskaja ocenka vlijanija poverhnostnogo stoka, otvodimogo s urbanizirovannyh territorij, na kachestvo vodnyh obektov [Ecological-economic assessment of the impact of surface runoff drained from urban areas on the quality of water bodies], Vіsnik HІSP,journ., 2003, issue3 (5), pp .44-47 (in Russian).
35. Mostepan E.V., Rybalov O.V., Savchenko N.V. Problema zashhity malyh rek ot zagrjaznenija ih poverhnostnym stokom s urbanizirovannyh territorij [The problem of protection of small rivers from pollution by surface runoff from urbanized territories], materials of the 4th International interdisciplinary scientific-practical conference, Yalta, Mysl ,publ., 2003, p. 68 (in Russian).
36. Mostepan E.V. Jekologo-jekonomicheskie metody kak reshenie problemy zagrjaznenija okruzhajushhej prirody livnevym stokom na postsovetskom prostranstve [Ecological-economic techniques as a solution to the problem of the environmental pollution by rain runoff in the post-Soviet space], Scientific notes,journ., series "Science and practice of management", special issue, Kharkov, 2002, № 4(8), pp. 181-184 (in Russian).
37. Pravila prinjatija stochnyh vod v kanalizacionnuju set m. Harkova [Rules for acceptance of wastewater in the sewer network in the city Kharkov], solution № 581 on 18.06.2003, Kharkiv city Council, 2003, Kharkov, p. 24 (in Ukrainian).
38. Manujlov M.B., Shevchenko A.K. Jekologo-jekonomicheskaja ocenka vlijanija poverhnostnogo stoka, otvodimogo s urbanizirovannyh territorij na kachestvo vodnyh obektov [Ecological-economic assessment of the impact of surface runoff discharged from urbanized areas on the quality of water bodies], Development management, journ., 2004, № 1, pp. 92-96 (in Russian).
39. Manujlov M.B., Shevchenko A.K. Jekologo-jekonomicheskaja ocenka vlijanija poverhnostnogo stoka, otvodimogo s urbanizirovannyh territorij, na kachestvo poverhnostnyh vod [Ecological-economic assessment of the impact of surface runoff drained from urban areas on surface water quality], Economics of development, journ., 2006, №3 (39), pp. 18-23 (in Russian).
40. Manujlov M.B., Shevchenko A.K. Jekologo-jekonomicheskie aspekty funkcionirovanija rekreacionnyh obektov [Ecological economic aspects of recreational facilities], Bulletin of Kharkov State Economic University, 2001, № 4 (20), pp. 105-106 (in Russian).
41. Manujlov M.B., Shevchenko A.K. Teoreticheskie i tehnologicheskie aspekty upravlenija kachestvom rekreacionnyh zon vodnyh obektov [Theoretical and technological aspects of quality management of recreational zones of water bodies], Economics of development, journ., 2003, № 1 (25), pp. 37-41 (in Russian).

Kremcheev E.A., Ivanov A.V.Surface flow treatment with peat-based filters. p.48-57

At the filtration treatment of liquids and gases, the most effective (by quantity) removal of substances from the filtered medium at the maximum speed of proceeding of filtration process is set as the main goal of the process. The National Mineral Resources University develops the integrated technical and technological solutions on use of peat filering materials in different environment-oriented directions. The aim of the work which results are presented in this article was obtaining the highly porous filtering material based on peat, studying the physical and mechanical properties of filtering materials and the surface flow treatment process. The efficiency of peat-based filtering material use can be described through the total relative reduction of contaminants in the filtrate by suspended substances of more than 80%; heavy metals: Zn of more than 70%, Pb of more than 70%; Fe (flakes) of more than 80%; oil products of more than 90%. The researches were based on the comprehensive study of the processes of mass transfer in peat materials of the damaged structures. Also the essentially different types of peat materials for production of peat-based filtering material are examined and recommended for use.
Key words: peat, ion exchange processes, filtration, porosity, surface flow treatment.
References: 1. Suvorov V.I., Mikhailov A.V. & Linno V.J. (1993) Research of a purification process of industrial sewages on Peat Filters by a method REM. VIII Symposium on a raster electron microscopy and analytical methods research of solids, Chernogolovka, Russia: 156 (in Russian).
2. Mikhailov A.V. (1993) Development of production method of peat filters for treatment of oil-containing wastewaters. Physical chemistry of peat production process, Tver: 50-55 (in Russian).
3. Mikhailov A.V., Kuznetsov N.V. & Davies L.M. (1998) Ecological aspects of peat utilization in Russia. International Peat Symposium - The Spirit of Peatlands. International Peat Society, Jyvaskyla, Finland:135-136 (in Russian),
4. Lishtvan I.I. et al. (1989) Physics and chemistry of Peat. Moscow, Nedra: 304 (in Russian).
5. Belkevich p.I., Chistova L.R. & Rogach L.M. (1983) Treatment of oil-containing wastewaters by peat filters. Peat Industry 4: 15-18 (in Russian).
6. Mikhailov A., Bashilov A., Suvorov V., Davies L. Natural Peat Filtration process. Proc. of the 11th International Peat Congress. Quebec, Canada August 6-12, 2000. IPS.Vol. 1. p.344-350. (in Russian).
7. Mihajlov A.V., Suvorov V.I. Innovacionnyj potencial torfjanoj otrasli Rossii [Innovative potential of the peat industry in Russia], Materials of scientific-practical conference "Rational use of peat and other resources of the peat bogs", Kostroma, 12-13 of Feb., 2003, pp. 106 -117 (in Russian).
8. Kim A.N., Mihajlov A.V. Ochistnye sooruzhenija poverhnostnyh stochnyh vod s territorii delovoj zony «Pulkovo-3» [Treatment plants of surface waste water from the territory of the business zone "Pulkovo-3"], Torf i biznes, journ., №2(4), 2006, pp.41-43 (in Russian).
9. Kremcheev E.A., Nagornov D.O. (2014) Environmentally compatible technology of peat extraction, Life Science Journal, 2014; 11(11s), p. 453-456 (in Russian).
10. Afanasev A.E. , L.M. Malkov, V.I. Smirnov et al. Tehnologija i kompleksnaja mehanizacija razrabotki torfjanyh mestorozhdenij: uchebnoe posobie dlja vuzov [Technology and complex mechanization of peat deposits: a study guide for universities], Nedra, publ., 1987, p. 311 (in Russian).
11. Afanasev A.E., Churaev N.V. Optimizacija processov sushki i strukturoobrazovanija v tehnologii torfjanogo proizvodstva [Optimization of the processes of drying and structure formation in the technology of peat production], M., Nedra, publ., 1992, p. 288 (in Russian).
12. Gorjachev V.I. Iskusstvennoe obezvozhivanie torfa: Monografija [Artificial dehydration of peat: Monograph], Tver: TGTU, 2012, p. 184 (in Russian).
13. Navesnoe oborudovanie dlja poputnogo poluchenija kondicionnoj torfjanoj produkcii pri provedenii stroitelnyh rabot na zatorfovannyh uchastkah Sankt-Peterburga i Leningradskoj oblasti [Attached equipment for concurrent production of certified peat products during construction works on peaty areas of St. Petersburg and Leningrad region], Research report. Direction: "Energy saving technologies", Je.A. Kremcheev, National Mineral Resources University SPb, 2014, p. 61 (in Russian).
14. Nauchnoe obespechenie ispolzovanija mestnyh torfjanyh toplivno-jenergeticheskih resursov i organicheskih othodov dlja proizvodstva okuskovannyh tverdyh topliv: otchjot o NIR (zakljuchit.): 42-52/ [Scientific support for the use of local peat fuel and energy resources and organic waste for the production of agglomerated solid fuels: a research report (concluded.): 42-52/], National Mineral Resources University, head Kovshov S.V.; executive Kremcheev Je.A. et al, SPb., 2013, p. 87 s, № GR 01201175903 (in Russian).
15. Rasshirenie ispolzovanija torfa v maloj jenergetike v ramkah realizacii JeS 2030, kak perspektivnogo mestnogo vida topliva dlja razvitija sistem teplosnabzhenija izolirovannyh potrebitelej na urovne municipalnyh obrazovanij v torfoobespechennyh regionah RF: otchjot o NIR (zakljuchit.): 42-52 [Extension of the use of peat in small power engineering in the framework of ES 2030, as a perspective domestic fuel for the development of systems of a heat supply of the isolated consumers on the level of municipalities in regions of the Russian Federation provided with peat: report on R & d (concluded.): 42-52/], National Mineral Resources University; head: Mihajlov A.V.; executive: Kremcheev Je.A. et al, SPb., 2012, p. 85, № GR 01201062471 (in Russian).
16. Tehnologicheskoe obespechenie kruglogodovogo proizvodstva kachestvennogo torfjanogo topliva dlja regionalnyh klasterov maloj jenergetiki: otchjot o NIR (zakljuchit.): 42-52 [Technological support of the year-round production of high quality peat fuel for regional clusters of small power engineering: a research report (concluded.): 42-52/], National Mineral Resources University; head: Kremcheev Je.A.; executive: Nagornov D.O. et al, SPb., 2012, p. 84, № GR 01201062473 (in Russian).
17. Antonov V.Ja., Kopenkin V.D. Tehnologija i kompleksnaja mehanizacija torfjanogo proizvodstva. Uchebnoe posobie dlja vuzov [Technology and complex mechanization of peat production. Study guide for high schools], M., Nedra,publ., 1983, p. 287 (in Russian).
18. Antonov V.Ja., Kopenkin V.D. Tehnologija i kompleksnaja mehanizacija torfjanogo proizvodstva [Technology and complex mechanization of peat production.], M.: Nedra, 1972, p. 312 (in Russian).
19. Nagornov D.O. Obosnovanie parametrov kovshevoj drobilki torfjanogo pogruzochno-pererabatyvajushhego agregata [Substantiation of parameters of bucket crusher of peat loading processing unit],abstract of thesis of candidate of technical Sciences, SPb, National Mineral Resources University, 2012, p. 20 (in Russian).
20. Kremcheev Je.A., A.E. Afanasev, A.S. Efremov Gravitacionnoe obezvozhivanie navala torfjanogo syrja s uchetom isparenija vlagi [Gravitational dewatering of bulk peat materials with the moisture evaporation], Mining informational and analytical bulletin,journ., Gornaja kniga, publ., M., 2013, № 3, pp. 93-103 (in Russian).
21. Kremcheev Je.A., Afanasev A.E. Ocenka jeffektivnosti gravitacionnogo obezvozhivanija syrja pri kompleksnoj mehanizacii kruglogodovoj dobychi torfa [Evaluation of the effectiveness of gravity dewatering of the raw material in year-round complex mechanization of peat production], Mining informational and analytical bulletin,journ., Gornaja kniga, publ., M., Gornaja kniga,publ., 2012, №4, pp. 50-58 (in Russian).

Gogina E.S. , Deriusheva N.L.Major methods of snow-melting facility design with regard to ecological safety criteria. p.58-64

The city surface flow is formed due to melt water and rain water. Snow, as it falls and temporary remains on the city pavement, absorbs from the air and accumulates from the pavement the majority of pollutants: oil products, heavy metals, plastic, construction materials, household waste, ice-melting products and other hazardous substances. Until quite recently the major part of the snow had been discharged into water bodies. From the beginning of 2000 the works on development of a complex scheme of the snow removal and utilization from the motorways have been in progress in Moscow. The efficient snow melting is carried out at the stationary snow-melting facilities using domestic waste waters as a heat-transfer. On the initial stage of design and construction the snow-melting facilities were constructed not as facilities of water disposal system but as a snow receiving point requiring no special researches and methodological approaches on determining the geometric dimensions and regulating the operation. The quality of the facility performance is usually quantified. One of the quality factors is reliability which indicator may be a probability of no-failure operation of the facility during the time t - P (t).The article presents the investigation results of the snow melting at the stationary snow-melting facility of the city of Moscow as well as on the test models. The mathematical model of the snow-melting process in the receiving chamber on the sewer network and the calculation method of geometric dimensions of the snow-melting facility considering the ecological safety criteria of quality and quantity of melt waters as well as formed precipitations on the environment are justified. The thremotechnical calculation of the melting of pavement snow by waste waters is presented for the first time. The assessments of snow-melting time based on this calculation are carried out. The optimal dimensions of the stationary snow-melting facility depending on the quantity of utilized snow and the quantity of heat-transfer by consumption and temperature are justified. The time of no-failure operation of the stationary snow-melting facility should be evaluated for the period of its load with snow.
Key words: environmental protection, surface runoff, snow disposal, water disposal system facilities.
References: 1. SP 32.13330.2012. Svod pravil. Kanalizatciia. Naruzhnye seti i sooruzheniia. «Aktualizirovannaia redaktciia SNiP 2.04.03-85» [A set of rules. Sewerage. Public utilities. "The updated edition of SNiP 2.04.03-85"], approved by the Order Of The Ministry Of Regional Development on 29.12.2011 N 635/11, M., 2012 (in Russian).
2. Khoruzhaia T. A. Otcenka ekologicheskoi opasnosti [Assessment of ecological hazard], M.:, Kniga servis,publ., 2002, p. 208 (in Russian).
3. Postanovlenie Pravitelstva RF ot16 02.2008 g. №87 (red. ot 23.01.2016) «O sostave razdelov proektnoi dokumentatcii i trebovanii k ikh soderzhaniiu» [The RF government decree of 16 02.2008, No. 87 (ed. of 23.01.2016) "On the composition of design documentation sections and requirements to their content"] (in Russian).
4. Pupyrev E.I. Kompleksnaia modernizatciia obektov zhizneobespecheniia sovremennogo megapolisa [Comprehensive upgrade of critical infrastructure of the modern megapolis], M., 2013, p. 343 (in Russian).
5. Koshkin, N.I., Shirkevich M.S. Spravochnik po elementarnoi fizike [Handbook of elementary physics], Nauka, publ., M., 1976, tab.2.2, p.61 (in Russian).
6. Smirnov N.V., Dunin-Barkovskii I.V. Kurs teorii veroiatnostei i matematicheskoi statistiki [Course of probability theory and mathematical statistics], Nauka, M., 1969, tab.V, p. 471 (in Russian).
7. Raschet normativa soderzhaniia kolichestva musora v 1 m3 snega, zavozimogo na snegosplavnye punkty, dlia rascheta predelnoi rastcenki na priem snega [The calculation of the standard content of the amount of garbage in 1 m3 of snow imported into snow-melting poiting for calculating marginal prices for the snow intake], approved by first Deputy Mayor of Moscow in the Moscow Government, p. p. Biryukov 24.10.2009.

Epov A.N., Kanunnikova M.A.Comparison of structural analysis methods of nitrogen/phosphorus biological removal plants with mathematical modeling application. p. 65-80

The updated building code allows using any structural analysis method (including foreign) for calculating nitrogen/phosphorus biological removal plants. From 2012 it is approved in the building code to use an up-to-date mathematical modeling for structural analysis. The choice of one or another method of analysis is up to a designer under his own responsibility. In practice, specialists more commonly use a German method ATV-DVWK-A 131E, a simplified method of aerotank calculation, a mathematic model GPS-X (GIDROMANTIS, Canada, model "Biosim" («Eko-Polimer»). In recent years, there have been a lot of plants reconstructed using analyses based on modern methods without substantial errors in calculations, which, unfortunately, have not entered a design mode after being put into operation. The article presents the main current methods of structural analysis, recommendations on their use to avoid errors applying them as well as the advantages of mathematic modeling calculation.
Key words: mathematical modeling, load on sludge, ATV131 method, GPS-X, sludge index, anaerobic sludge age, nitrogen and phosphorus removal, sludge growth, sludge dose, nitrification process, denitrification process.
References: 1. Code of rules, SP 32.13330.2012. Kanalizacija. Naruzhnye seti i sooruzhenija [Sewerage. Public utilities], Revised edition of SNiP 2.04.03-85, M, 2012. pp. 1-92 (in Russian).
2. Standard ATV-DVWK-A 131E,Dimensions of Single-Stage Activated Sludge Plants. -2000. -57p (in English).
3. GPS-X 5.0 Technical Reference. Copyright 1992-2006 Hydromantis,Inc (in English).
4. A.N.Jepov, V.I.Bazhenov. Raschet ajerotenkov s udaleniem biogennyh jelementov [Calculation of aeration tanks with biogenic elements removal], collection of reports of the congress "Water: ecology and technology", M., ECWATECH, 2008 (in Russian).
5. Meshengiser Ju.M., Esin M.A., Smirnov A.V. Jenergosberegajushhij podhod k realizacii tehnologii udalenija biogennyh jelementov na sooruzhenijah ochistki vody [Energy saving approach to the implementation of the technology of biogenic elements removal on water treatment facilities], The collection of materials of the X international scientific-production conference, The problems of ecological security in the water sector, Novosibirsk 1-2 of Ocotber, 2014 (in Russian).
6. Stroitelnye normy i pravila SNiP 2.04.03-85. Kanalizacija. Naruzhnye seti i sooruzhenija [Building Code( SNiP) 2.04.03-85. Sewerage. Public utilities], M., 1986 (in Russian).
7. Stroitelnye normy i pravila SNiP II-32-74. Kanalizacija. Naruzhnye seti i sooruzhenija [Building Code( SNiP) II-32-74. Sewerage. Public utilities], M., 1975 (in Russian).
8. K.M. Morozova. Principy rascheta sistem biologicheskoj ochistki stochnyh vod [The principles of calculation of biological wastewater treatment systems], Water Supply and Sanitary Technique, 2009, 1, pp. 26-31 (in Russian).
9. Vavilin V.A., Vasilev V.B. Matematicheskoe modelirovanie processov biologicheskoj ochistki stochnyh vod aktivnym ilom [Mathematical modeling of biological wastewater treatment by activated sludge], Nauka, publ., 1979 (in Russian).
10. Jepov A.N., Nikolaev V.N. Intensifikacija glubokoj ochistki stochnyh vod v ajerotenkah putem optimizacii vozrasta ila [Intensification of deep cleaning of wastewater in aeration tanks by optimization of sludge age.], Survey information, Academy of municipal economy named. K. D. Pamfilova, 1989 (in Russian).
11. M. Khentce. Ochistka stochnykh vod. Biologicheskie i khimicheskie protcessy [Wastewater treatment. Biological and chemical processes], M., Mir, 2004 (in Russian).
12. Epov A.N. Kanunnikova M.A. Razrabotka tipovykh reshenii po avtomatizatcii protcessov biologicheskoi ochistki stochnykh vod s sovmestnym udaleniem azota i fosfora [Development of standard solutions for automation of processes of biological wastewater treatment with joint removal of nitrogen and phosphorus.], Best available techniques,journ., 2014, №3 (in Russian).
13. Technical Specifications for Anaerobic-Anoxic-Oxic Activated Sludge Process HJ 576-2010/ Chinese National Environmental standards, 2010 (in English).
14. A.N. Epov, V.A. Zagorskii, D.A. Danilovich, F.A. Daineko, N.A. Belov, C.E. Berezin, V.I. Bazhenov. Rekonstruktciia aerotenkov Liuberetckoi stantcii [Reconstruction of the Lyubertsy aeration station], ZhKKh,journ., 2000, 4, pp. 1-3 (in English).
15. M.A. Kanunnikova, A.N. Epov. Respirometricheskoe opredelenie kineticheskikh koeffitcientov uravneniia skorosti nitrifikatcii [Respirometry determination of kinetic coefficients of the nitrification rate law], Water supply and sanitary techniques, journ., 2009, 4 (in Russian).

№3

Volkov A.A.95th Anniversary of National Research Moscow State University Of Civil Engineering. p.3-5

Watter Supply

Orlov V.A., Zotkin S.P.Calculation of steel pipeline minimal wall thickness. p.6-17

The approach to solve the task of calculation of minimal thickness of pressure steel pipeline of water and sanitation system by means of computer modeling of the complex of internal and external factors, including destabilizing affecting it is examined. The evaluation tests on the possibility of further operation of pipelines in the cities with a longstanding engineering pipeline infrastructure or their renovation by modern trenchless methods are presented. The data of longtime operation of pipeline network of the Moscow water pipeline were used as the basic parameters of pipeline operation. The calculation technique of minimal thickness of steel pipeline wall depending on operating conditions, internal and external destabilizing factors is developed on the basis of the extensive analytical and archival materials of pipeline network operation, test data on pipeline diagnostics, engineering survey results and archival information. The automated system of calculation and analysis of minimal thickness of pipeline wall is developed for simulations at influence of destabilizing factors on existing and designed sections of pipeline network. The pipeline wall thickness, internal pipe diameter, internal pressure of transported water, average depth of pipe top location, soil density, ultimate metal strength, metal uniformity coefficient, underground water pressure, coefficients showing the external operating conditions and surrounding environment are included in the basis of the algorithm. The program is run by WINDOWS XP and higher operation systems; developed by using Microsoft Visual Fox Pro 9.0 and provides registration, storage, editing and processing of data by input initial positions. The algorithm of automated complex operation is presented as a user manual. The results of program operation and their interpretation for one of the section of virtual pipeline network are presented. The possible options of further pipeline operation and their possible repair using trenchless method in order to increase a bearing capacity are listed.
Key words: pipelines, wall thickness, destabilizing factors, calculation program, trenchless repair.
References: 1. Rameil M. Handbook of pipe bursting practice. Vulkan verlag. 2007. 351 p. (in English).
2. Zwierzchowska A. Technologie bezwykopowej budowy sieci gazowych, wodociagowych i kanalizacyjnych // Politechnika swietokrzyska. 2006. p. 180 (in Polish).
3. Orlov, V., Andrianov, A. The selection of priority pipe sections for sewer network renovation (2014) Applied Mechanics and Materials, 580-583, pp. 2398-2402 (in English).
4. Bette U., Vesper W. Taschenbuch fur den kathodischen Korrosionsschutz. Essen, Vulkan verlag. 2005. 219 p. (in German).
5. Wang H., Hu X., Yang M., Qu J. Effects of disinfectant and biofilm on the corrosion of cast iron pipes in a reclaimed water distribution system. Water Research, Volum 46, Issue 4, pp. 1070-1078 (in English).
6. Karsten M. Zustandserfassung von Kanalisationen. WWT: Wasserwirt. Wassertechn, 2007, N 3, p. 10-15 (in German).
7. Santiago A., Durango M. Most advanced technology for pipeline inspection in the world: see, measure and navigate in 3D through pipes and manholes. 31st NO-DIG International Conference and Exhibition, 2012, Sao Paulo (Brasil), PAP 011595, pp.1-7 (in English).
8. Pinguet J.-F., Meynardie G. Reseaux d'assainissement: du diagnostic a la rehabilitation. Eau, industry, nuisances. 2006, № 295. рp. 39-43 (in French).
9. Shivprakash I., Sinha S.K. Automated condition assessment of buried sewer pipes based on digital imaging techniques. J. Indian Inst. Sci.. 2005. 85, N 5, p. 235-252 (in English).
10. Bremond B., Konig A., Le Gat Y., Saegrov S., Torterotot J.-Ph., Werey C. Vers une maintenance et une rehabilitation preventives des reseaux d'assainissement. Techn., sci., meth., 2004, N 9, p. 71-75 (in French).
11. Orlov, V., Averkeev, I. Choosing an optimal trenchless renovation method for pressure and non-pressure pipes (2014) Applied Mechanics and Materials, 580-583, pp. 2384-2388 (in English).
12. Thewes M., Kamarianakis S., Bielecki R. Decision making for underground infrastructure. 29 NO-DIG International Conference and Exhibition, NO-DIG Berlin 2011, Paper 2B-4, pp. 1-10 (in English).
13. Orlov V.A., Zotkin S.P. Opredelenie tolshchiny stenki stalnogo truboprovoda s uchetom vozdeistviia vneshnikh faktorov. Svidetelstvo RF o gosudarstvennoi registratcii programmy dlia EVM № 2014613275 ot 21.03.2014 [Calculation of steel pipeline wall thickness considering the influence of external factors. Certificate of the RF on state registration of computer program № 2014613275 21.03.2014] (in Russian).
14. Kuliczkowski A. Rury kanalizacyjne // Wydawnictwo Politechniki Swietokrzyskiej. 2004. p. 507 (in Polish).
15. Khramenkov S.V., Primin O.G., Orlov V.A. Rekonstruktciia truboprovodnykh system [Pipeline system reconstruction], ASV,publ., 2008, p. 214 (in Russian).
16. Ishmuratov R., Orlov V., Andrianov A. The spiral wound pipeline rehabilitation technique for pipe networks: An application and experience in Moscow City, 31st NO-DIG International Conference and Exhibition, NO-DIG Down Under 2013, Paper 2.16, pp. 1-7 (in English).
17. Schmager K-D. Overblew of spiral-wound pipe lining technologies. 29 NO-DIG International Conference and Exhibition, NO-DIG Berlin 2011, Paper 2B-4, pp. 1-10 (in English).

Andrianov A.P., Chukhin V.A.Morphology, composition and formation condition analysis of corrosive deposits in water pipes. p.18-34

Corrosion of metal pipes is the pervasive phenomenon that afflicts damage to communal services and negatively impacts on water quality. A great number of publications are dedicated to the description of the corrosion deposits morphology and composition. However, the tuber growth process is hardly covered. The article provides the structure, composition and formation condition analysis of corrosive deposits formed during long-term usage of steel and cast iron pipes for cold and hot water supply. According to the published results and studies, corrosion deposits include specific parts that structure and composition significantly differs in a surface layer, covering, core and bottom. Formation of these parts depends on the local flow conditions and electrochemical or biological corrosion of metal pipes. The thin surface layer is mainly formed of impurities settling from water and mixed with iron corrosion products. There is the most important element below the surface layer - a dense layer (shell) that stimulates tuber structure stabilization and minimizes contact between a tuber and basic amount of water in the pipe. The lower layer (bottom) limits the metal core and almost completely consists of iron corrosion products with steel impurities. In these parts microcavities filled with salt solutions with high corrosiveness that lead to electrochemical corrosion deposit formation occur. The author describes various effects on corrosion, such as bacteria. The author also makes a hypothesis that an important factor influencing tuber shape is the hydrogen gas evolution. The gas bubbles movement defines formation of spherical and tubular structures in corrosive deposits due to the wall and center pipe pressure difference. The article demonstrates the results of the Moscow water supply system internal corrosion affect on the quality of consumer water. The obtained results show that despite the eventually progressive process of old steel pipe corrosion, it does not significantly affects the total iron content in tap water.
Key words: corrosion, corrosion deposits, water supply system, steel pipeline, biological corrosion.
References: 1. Sontheimer H., Kolle W., Snoeyink V.L. The siderite model of the formation of corrosion resistant scales // J. AWWA. 1981. V. 73(11). P. 572-579 (in English).
2. Gerke T.L., Maynard J.B., Schock M.R., Lytle D.L. Physiochemical characterization of five iron tubercles from a single drinking water distribution system: possible new insights on their formation and growth // Corrosion Science. 2008. V. 50. P. 2030-2039 (in English).
3. Sarin P., Snoeyink V.L., Bebee J., Kriven W.M., Clement J.A. Physico-chemical characteristics of corrosion scales in old iron pipes // Water Research. 2001. V. 35. Is. 12. P. 2961-2969 (in English).
4. Sarin P., Snoeyink V.L., Bebee J., Jim K.K., Beckett M.A., Kriven W.M., Clement J.A. Iron release from corroded iron pipes in drinking water distribution systems: effect of dissolved oxygen // Water Research. 2004. V. 38. Is. 5. P. 1259-1269 (in English).
5. Ray R.I., Lee J.S., Little B.J., Gerke T.L. The anatomy of tubercles: A corrosion study in a fresh water estuary // Materials and Corrosion. 2010. V. 61. No. 12. P. 993-999 (in English).
6. Andrianov A.P., Chukhin V.A. Strukturnye i morfologicheskie osobennosti korrozii stalnykh vodoprovodnykh trub [Structural and morphological features of steel water pipe corrosion], Science Review,journ., 2014, № 7, pp. 176-180 (in Russian).
7. Stone D.A., Goldstein R.E. Tubular precipitation and redox gradients on a bubbling template // Physics. 2004. V.101(32). P. 11537-11541 (in English).
8. Smith D.C., McEnaney B., The influence of dissolved oxygen concentration on the corrosion of grey cast iron in water at 50 °C // Corrosion Science. 1979. V. 19. P. 379-394 (in English).
9. McEnaney B., Smith D.C. The reductive dissolution of γ-FeOOH in corrosion scales formed on cast iron in near-neutral waters // Corrosion Science. 1980. V. 20. P. 873-886 (in English).
10. Clarke B.H., Aguilera A.M. Microbiologically Influenced Corrosion in Fire Sprinkler Systems. P. 955-964. / In.: Automatic Sprinkler Systems Handbook. 2007. (http://www.nfpa.org/~/media/Files/forms and premiums/nf13hb07_chs3.pdf) (in English).
11. Hamilton W.A. Biofilms: Microbial interactions and metabolic activities. P. 361–385 / In.: Ecology of Microbial Communities. 1987. Eds.: Fletcher M., Gray T. R. G. & Jones J. G. Oxford University Press (in English).
12. Coetser S.E., Cloete T.E. Biofouling and Biocorrosion in Industrial Water Systems // Critical Reviews in Microbiology. 2005. V. 31. P. 213-232 (in English).
13. Wang H., Hu C., Hu X., Yang M., Qu J. Effects of disinfectant and biofilm on the corrosion of cast iron pipes in a reclaimed water distribution system // Water Research. 2012. V. 46, Is. 4. P. 1070-1078 (in English).
14. Seth A.D., Edyvean R.G.J. The function of sulfate-reducing bacteria in corrosion of potable water mains // International Biodeterioration & Biodegradation. 2006. V. 58, Is. 3-4. P. 108-111 (in English).
15. Andrianov A.P., Bastrykin R.I., Chukhin V.A. Izuchenie korrozionnykh otlozhenii v truboprovodakh sistem podachi i raspredeleniia pitevoi vody [Study of corrosion deposits in pipeline systems and distribution of drinking water], Water supply and sanitary technique,journ., 2013, № 7, pp 30-36 (in Russian).
16. Böhler E., Hofmann D., Tränckner J. Entwicklung von Methoden zur Selektion effizienter Spülregime für unterbelastete Sektoren in bestehenden Wasserversorgungsnetzen zur Vermeidung der Rostwasserbildung // Veröffentlichungen aus dem Technologiezentrum Wasser Karlsruhe. 2005. V. 27 (in German).
17. Kantor B.Z. Besedy o mineralakh [Talks about minerals], M., Astel,publ., 1997, p. 131 (in Russian).
18. Mandernack K.W., Bazylinski D., Shanks W.C., Bullen T.D. Oxygen and iron isotope studies of magnetite produced by magnetotactic bacteria // Science. 1999. V. 285. P. 1892-1896 (in English).
19. Iverson W.P. Microbial corrosion of metals // Advances in Applied Microbiology. 1987. V. 32. P. 1-36 (in English).
20. Chukhin V.A., Andrianov A.P. Izuchenie korrozionnykh otlozhenii v vodoprovodnykh setiakh s ispolzovaniem elektronnoi mikroskopii [Study of corrosion deposits in water supply systems using electronic microscopy], Internet-Vestnik VolgGASU, journ., 2015, №4(40), article 7, http://www.vestnik.vgasu.ru/ (in Russian).
21. Stepanov V.I. Struktury i tekstury mineralnykh agregatov, obrazuiushchikhsia v svobodnom prostranstve pustot [Structure and texture of mineral aggregates, formed in the free space of voids], Speleologiia v Rossii,journ., M., RSS, 1998, pp. 70-91 (in Russian).
22. Komeili A., Li Z., Newman D.K., Jensen G.J. Magnetosomes are cell membrane invaginations organized by the actin-like protein MamK // Science. 2006. V. 311. P. 242-245.
23. Kirschvink J.L, Jones D.S., McFadden B. (editors). Magnetite Biomineralization and Magnetoreception in Organisms: A New Biomagnetism – New York: Plenum Press, 1985.

Water Disposal

Gogina E.S., Iantcen O.V., Ruzhitckaia O.A., Dabrovski V, Zhilka R. Boruzhko D.Intensification of nitrogen compound removal process from waste waters by biofilters. p.35-45

The article presents intensification of nitrogen compound removal process from waste waters by biofilters. It was testified that treatment facilities of the public sewage that were built in the 60-70-ss of the past century are generally available for modernization and reconstruction. However, the biofilters responsible for biological treatment stage are extremely outdated. The article presents an advanced technical plan representing alternating aerobiotic – anaerobic (or anoxic) zones, the research of feed properties acceptable for use at reconstruction of such objects securing modern treatment regulations was done. The advantages and disadvantages of the explored technologies and feed were marked. On the ground of data analysis and considering all modern load requirements, the following samples were chosen and examined on the first stage of works: polyvinyl chloride load, material of corrugated PVC pipes cutoffs; watering – cubes in shape of fibers bounding against each other and «BBZ» bioload. During the research the interrelation between biofilm thicknesses, its properties and composition was defined, that can be used at selection of the load material. The biofilter model analysis was intended for the selection of the optimal scheme of ammonia nitrogen removal from waste water. At the second stage of the research the laboratory investigations were carried out using a plant developed by the REC of the Moscow State University of Civil Engineering, a series of experiments of alternating aerobic and anaerobic (anoxic) zones. The work was carried out in two sessions: during the first session four zones were being investigated – 2 aerobic and 2 anoxic zones without recirculation of nitrogen water; during the second session four zones were investigated – 2 aerobic and 2 anoxic zones with recirculation of nitrogen water with different feed. During the laboratory research a principal possibility of achieving the treated waste water objectives which meet modern regulations by means of the suggested process scheme was determined on the basis og the results of sanitary-chemical analysis and biofilm investigation.
Key words: waste water treatment, biofilters, nitrogen, biofilm, denitrification-nitrification.
References: 1. Gogina E., Yantsen O. Research of biofilter feed properties. International Journal of Applied Engineering Research. 2015. Т. 10. № 24. С. 44070-44074 (in English).
2. E.Gogina, N.Makisha. Reconstruction of waste water treatment plants in Russia, approaches and solutions // Applied Mechanics and Materials, 2013, Т. 361-363, С. 628-631 (in English).
3. N.Makisha, E.Gogina. Methods of biological removal of nitrogen from waste water and ways to its intensification // Applied Mechanics and Materials, 2014, Т. 587-589, С. 644-647 (in English)/
4. N.Makisha, O.Yantsen. Laboratory modeling and research of waste water treatment processes in biofilters with polymer feed // Applied Mechanics and Materials, 2014, Т.587-589, С. 640-643 (in English)
5. Ruzhitskaya O., Yantsen O. Wastewater treatment to remove phosphates and organic pollutians International Journal of Applied Engineering Research. 2016. Т. 11. № 5. С. 3496-3498 (in English).
6. Kulakov A.A. Otcenka sovremennogo sostoianiia malykh kommunalnykh ochistnykh sooruzhenii kanalizatcii [Assessment of the current state of the small municipal wastewater treatment facilities], Water and ecology:problems and solutions,journ., 2015, № 1 (61), pp. 26-40 (in Russian).
7. Iantcen O.V., Gogina E.S. Intensifikatciia protcessa ochistki stochnykh vod ot ammoniinogo azota na biofiltrakh. V sbornike: IaKOVLEVSKIE ChTENIIa sbornik dokladov XI nauchno-tekhnicheskoi konferentcii, posviashchennoi pamiati akademika RAN Sergeia Vasilevicha Iakovleva [Intensification of wastewater treatment process from ammonia nitrogen in the biofilter. The book:Yakovlevskie Readings, a collection of papers of the XI scientific-technical conference dedicated to the memory of academician Sergei Yakovlev], 2016, pp. 191-195 (in Russian).
8. Makisha N.A., Iantcen O.V. Gidravlicheskoe modelirovanie i issledovanie protcessov ochistki stochnykh vod na biofiltrakh s ispolzovaniem ploskostnoi zagruzki [Hydraulic modelling and research of wastewater treatment processes on biofilters using planar loading], Bulletin of Irkutsk State Technical University, journ., 2014, № 11, pp. 171-175 (in Russian).
9. Chan Tkhan Shon . Glubokaia ochistka stochnykh vod v bioreaktorakh s prikreplennoi biomassoi [Deep treatment of wastewater in the bioreactors with attached biomass], Ph.D. thesis in Engineering Science, 05.23.04 MSUCE, M., 2005, p. 176 (in Russian).
10. Doan Van Tien. Glubokaia ochistka stochnykh vod na biofiltrakh [Deep treatment of wastewater on biofilters], Ph.D. thesis in Engineering Science, 05.23.04 MSUCE, M., 2003, pp. 166 (in Russian).

Alekseev E.V., Kharkova M.I.On possibility of washing solution selective treatment based on adsorptive bubble separation processes. p.46-55

The special properties of surfactants lead to violation of the natural bounds in the environment aqua systems and complication of human impact protection technology. One of the effective ways of solving the problem is reducing the surfactant inflow sources into waste water. The features of the pressure flotation method provide producing of a sufficiently homogeneous microdispersed gas phase. The low "liquid-gas" superficial tension caused by high content of synthetic surfactants largely contributes to it. It creates the conditions of microdispersed gas phase usage for solving problems of treatment and regeneration of washing solutions. Due to low speed of flotation of dispersed gas phase and high adsorption activity of more tiny bubbles, significantly fast oil particle coalescence on the open surface of a floatation unit happens without substantial destruction of underbubble bed. Based on the theoretical positions of flotosorption interaction, the possibility of practical application of selective treatment of wasted washing solutions by flotation and their recycling is presented.
Key words: washing solutions, surfactants, oil products, adsorptive bubble separation, selective treatment.
References: 1. Alekseev E. V. Ekologicheskie aspekty ochistki stochnykh vod, soderzhashchikh biologicheski stoikie organicheskie veshchestva [Ecological aspects of treatment of wastewater containing persistent organic pollutants.], Water and ecology:problems and solutions,journ., 2015, №4, pp. 68-77 (in Russian).
2. Alekseev E.V. Akvasistema kak predmet vodnoi ekologii i nachalo tekhnologii ochistki vody [Aquatic system as the subject of aquatic ecology and the beginning of the water purification technology], Vestnik MGSU,journ., 2012, № 2, pp. 140-144 (in Russian).
3. Melekhin A.G. Ochistka vodnykh rastvorov moiushchikh sredstv v oborotnykh sistemakh vodopolzovaniia [Purification of aqueous solutions of detergents in circulating water systems], Perm, Izd-vo Perm. gos. tekhn. un-ta, publ., 2006, p. 150 (in Russian).
4. Alekseev E.V. Osnovy tekhnologii ochistki stochnykh vod flotatciei: monografiia, nauchnoe izdanie [The basic technology of wastewater treatment by flotation: a monograph, scientific publication], M., Izdatelstvo ASV,publ., 2009, p. 136 (in Russian).
5. Voronov Iu. V., Alekseev E. V., Salomeev V. P., Pugachev E. A. Vodootvedenie: Uchebnik dlia srednego professionalnogo obrazovaniia [Sewerage: Textbook for secondary vocational education], M., Izdatelskii dom “Infra-M”, publ., 2013 (in Russian).
6. Kolesnikov V.A., Vorobeva O.I., Bondareva G.M., Kapustin Iu.I. Vliianie komponentov moiushchikh sredstv na effektivnost elektroflotatcionnoi ochistki vodnykh stokov, soderzhashchikh primesi dizelnogo topliva [], Khim. Tekhnologiia, journ., 2011, vol. 12, № 11, pp. 687-692 (in Russian).
7. Alekseev E.V. Ochistka stochnykh vod flotatciei. Osnovy tekhnologii i primenenie: Monografiia [Sewage treatment by flotation. Basic technology and application: Monograph.], M., Izdatelstvo ASV, publ., 2015, p. 160 (in Russian).
8. Grieves Robert B., Bhattacharyya Dibakar. The foam separation process: A model for waste treatment applications.//WaterPollutionControlFederation.-1965. - 37 (7).- P. 980–989 (in English).
9. Mohammed Matouq. Investigation of the bubble foam separation technique to extract protein from whey //American Journal of Applied Sciences.- 2008. - 5 (5).-р.468-472 (in English).
10. Kosach P. V., Alekseev E.V. Formirovanie i ochistka poverkhnostnykh i moechnykh stochnykh vod (na primere Moskvy) [Formation and treatment of surface and washing waste waters (on the example of Moscow], Vodoochistka, journ., 2005, № 4, p. 66 (in Russian).
11. Alekseev E. V. Ob ochistke stochnykh vod flotatciei s ispolzovaniem terminov adsorbtcii [About wastewater treatment by flotation with the use of the terms of adsorption], Vodoochistka. Vodopodgotovka. Vodosnabzhenie, journ., 2008, № 5, pp. 16-19 (in Russian).
12. Alekseev, E.V. O primenenii pokazatelia «udelnaia flotosorbtciia» v tekhnologicheskikh raschetakh flotatorov [On the application of the indicator "specific flotosorption” in technological calculations of flotation], Water supply and sanitary techniques,journ., 2013, № 6, pp. 39-42 (in Russian).
13. Baran A.A. Polimersoderzhashchie dispersnye sistemy [Polymer-containing disperse systems], Kiev, Naukovadumka,publ., 1986, p. 204 (in Russian).
14. Koganovskii A.M., Klimenko N.A., Levchenko T.M., Roda I.G. Adsorbtciia organicheskikh veshchestv iz vody [Adsorption of organic substances from water], L., Khimiia,publ., 1990, p. 256 (in Russian).
15. Alekseev E.V., Shinibaev A.D. Gidrodinamicheskie osobennosti dvizheniia gazovoi fazy vo flotatcionnom apparate [Hydrodynamic features of the motion of the gas phase in the flotation machine], Izvestia vuzov. Pishevaya tekhnologia,journ.,1992, № 967, p. 92 (in Russian).
16. Helenius A., Simons K. Solubilization of membranes by detergents // Biochimicaet Biophysica Acta. – 1975.- 415. – р. 29-79 (in English).
17. Alekseev E.V., Kharkova M.I. Napravleniia sovershenstvovaniia konstruktcii flotatcionnykh kamer dlia ochistki stochnykh vod [Directions of improvement of the design of flotation cells for wastewater treatment], Science almanac,journ., 2015, № 12-2 (14), pp. 17-22 (in Russian).

Voronov Iu.V., Zaletova N.A., Chembulatova G.Sh.Biological oxidants. p.56-66

The article presents a brief history of development of an organic compound oxidation theory and use of biological oxidants both of aeration and filtration types which was proved in 17th century on the basis of the essence of the processes of combustion and respiration.
In 18th century the theory of slow combustion processes with air oxidation of organic substances and formation of water and carbon dioxide was taken as a basis for respiratory processes.
The further researches allowed moving on to practical implementation and creation of effective structures of biological oxidants and flow chart of their performance. The works on their improvement were carried out in Moscow, Leningrad, Novocherkassk, Minsk, Odessa, Poltava and others. The flow charts of both aeration and filtration types, their operation features, loading material types and material placement methods are examined.
The flow charts of performance of aeration tanks, rotating biological contactors and their modifications are analyzed. A broad experience of their use for waste water treatment of potato processing factory, meat processing plant and others in a wide range of flow rates from 40m3/day up to 10 thousand m3/day is marked.
The biofilters constructions with a flow rate of 40 m3/day 200 m3/day and a treatment facility complex of 700 m3/day as well as a wide range of loading material types such as filling, block, soft roll and tubular types are presented as an example.
The article reflects the problem related to meeting the requirements on waste water fine cleaning both from organic suspended substances and compounds of nitrogen and phosphorus. Currently there is a broad range of equipment of low-capacity and high degree of treatment such as Kontus R, Tekhnosfera, Ekostok and others.
Key words: activated sludge, aeration, aeration tank, biooxidation, biofilm, biotank, biofilters, biofiltration, respiration, loading material, oxygen, oxidation, waste water, filtration.
References: 1. Atkinson B. Biokhimicheskie reaktory [Biochemical reactors], M., Pishchevaya prom.,publ., 1979, p. 280 (in Russian).
2. Biotekhnologiya. Protsessy i primenenie [Biotechnology. Processes and application], edited by I.Khiggensa, D. Besta, Dzh. Dzhons, M., Mir, publ., 1988, p. 480 (in Russian).
3. Yakovlev S.V., Voronov Yu.V., Biologicheskie fil'try [Biological filters], 2nd edition, M., Stroyizdat, publ., 1982, p. 120 (in Russian).
4. Voronov Yu.V., Zhurov V.N. Biologicheskie okisliteli [Biological oxidizers], M., ASV,publ., 2009, p. 104 (in Russian).
5. Voronov Yu.V., Kudin A.V. i dr. Biologicheskaya ochistka stochnykh vod malykh naselennykh punktov i ob"ektov sel'skokhozyaystvennogo naznacheniya [Biological wastewater treatment of small settlements and objects of agricultural purpose], part 2, M., Center of scientific and technical information, propaganda and advertising,publ., 1991, p. 56 (in Russian).
6. Voronov Yu.V. K voprosu rekonstruktsii biologicheskikh okisliteley [On the reconstruction of biological oxidants], Vestnik MGSU, journ., № 8, 2011, pp. 288-292 (in Russian).
7. Tavarkiladze I.M., Tarasyuk T.P., Dotsenko M.I. Ochistnye sooruzheniya vodootvedeniya [Water disposal treatment facilities], K., Budivel'nyk,publ., 1988, p. 256 (in Russian).
8. Voronov Yu.V., Salomeev V.P., Ivchatov A.L. Rekonstruktsiya i intensifikatsiya raboty kanalizatsionnykh ochistnykh sooruzheniy [Reconstruction and intensification of wastewater treatment plant performance], M., Stroyizdat, publ., 1990, p. 224 (in Russian).
9. Voronov Yu.V. Vodootvedenie i ochistka stochnykh vod [Water disposal and wastewater treatment], M., Izdatel'stvo Assotsiatsii stroitel'nykh vuzov,publ., 2009, p. 760 (in Russian).
10. Zaletova N.A., Voronov Yu.V. Novye tekhnologii dlya resheniya zadach ochistki stochnykh vod [New solution technologies for wastewater treatment problems], M., Vestnik MGSU, journ., № 2, 2012, pp. 109-111 (in Russian).
11. Zaletova N.A., Zaletov S.V. Modul'naya sistema «KONTUS»® dlya ochistki stochnykh vod [Modular system "KONTUS"® for wastewater treatment], M., Water supply and sanitary techniques,journ., № 3, 2013, pp. 39-45 (in Russian).
12. Zaletova N.A., Zaletov S.V. «Kontus®» - ustanovka polnoy zavodskoy gotovnosti dlya glubokoy ochistki stochnykh vod» [«Kontus®» -ready-to-operate facility for fine waste water treatment], Vodosnabzhenie i kanalizatsiya, journ., № 5-6, 2014, pp. 72 – 76 (in Russian).
13. Gerasimenko I.A., Kiseleva Yu.A., Musinova N.L., Stantsii biologicheskoy ochistki stochnykh vod modul'nogo tipa [Modular type plant of biological waste water treatment], Vodosnabzhenie i kanalizatsiya,journ., № 2, 2008, pp. 17 – 20 (in Russian).
14. El' Yu.F., Reshetilov Yu.I. Kontseptual'nye izmeneniya v tekhnologiyakh ochistki stochnykh vod [Conceptual changes in wastewater treatment technologies], Vodosnabzhenie i kanalizatsiya, № 5, journ., 2009, pp. 57 – 63 (in Russian).

Ecology

Borovkov V.S., Volshanik V.V.Engineering systems of closed-loop pumping water circulation and aeration at ecological reconstruction of urbanized territory hydrosphere. p.67-80

A great human impact on small water objects within urbanized and protected territories requires using special engineering systems for water quality maintenance. As a rule, the conventional engineering activities included in the projects of water object reconstructions consist of removal of polluted bottom sediments, coastal planning and protection, planting of biologically active cultures, and some other activates including those that are carried out in the conditions of complete water replacement in a water object bed. The article presents the main factors resulting in water quality deterioration of water objects within urbanized territories.
It is presented that in conditions of reduced or absent flowage, the only way of stable ecosystem maintenance of a water body after its treatment is a development of a pumping water circulation system providing an artificial flowage. The practice of calculation and development of water circulation system for a number of water objects of our country gathered in the Moscow State University of Civil Engineering shows that determination of the basic parameters of water circulation system - supply and pressure of pumping station – is entirely related to the local characteristics of water object and individual tasks set for a system. The activities on closed-loop pumping water circulation and artificial aeration of water objects using jet-vortex aerators are offered. In authors’ opinion, development of engineering systems of closed-loop pumping water circulation and jet-vortex aeration for many Moscow ponds and parts of small rivers is one of the very few real, efficient and reliable ways of standard water quality maintenance in the period of the entire further operation of a water object which require no complicated and time-consuming operation and are capable to be adapted to almost any water object.
Key words: water objects in urbanized territories, artificial water circulation, artificial aeration, jet-vortex aerators.
References: 1. Amirova N.N., Borovkov V.S., Volshanik V.V., Dorkina I.V. Sostav i obemy rabot po vosstanovleniiu malvkh rek i vodoemov na selitebnykh territoriiakh [Composition and volume of works on restoration of small rivers and ponds in residential areas], Materials of the tenth All-Russian. Scientific. Conf. "Ecological problems of development of museums-reserves”, M., Heritage institute,journ., 2008, pp. 395-403 (in Russian).
2. Amirova N.I., Volshanik V.V., Peshnin A.G., Rodionov V.B., Iurchenko A.N. Proekt uluchsheniia ekologicheskogo sostoianiia prudov na territorii Borodinskogo polia kak tipovoe reshenie dlia vodnykh obektov muzeev-zapovednikov [The project for the improvement of the ecological status of ponds in the territory of the Borodino field as a model solution for water bodies in museum-reserves], materials of the 8th All-Russian scientific conference Borodino, 2003, M., 2004, pp. 233-242 (in Russian).
3. Akhmetov V.K., Volshanik V.V. Issledovanie rasprostraneniia aerirovannoi zatoplennoi strui [Study of distribution of aerated submerged jet], Hydraulic engineering,journ., 1994, № 10, pp. 24-26 (in Russian).
4. Bogdanov V.M., Borovkov V.S., Volshanik V.V. Ochistka Bolshogo pruda Moskovskogo zooparka sistemoi zamknutogo vodooborota i struino-vikhrevoi aeratcii [Treatment of the Large pond of the Moscow Zoo by closed-loop water circulation system and jet-vortex aeration], Clean city, 2000, № 1(9), pp. 42-48 (in Russian).
5. Boikova I.G., Volshanik V.V., Karpova N.B., Pechnikov V.G., Pupyrev E.I. Ekspluatatciia, rekonstruktciia i okhrana vodnykh obektov v gorodakh: ucheb. Posobie dlia studentov vuzov [Operation, reconstruction and protection of water bodies in urban areas: Textbook for University students], M., ASV, publ., p. 256 (in Russian).
6. Borovkov V.S., Volshanik V.V., Kompleksnye tekhnologii rekonstruktcii gorodskikh vodnykh obektov. Chast 1 [Integrated technologies of the reconstruction of urban water bodies. Part 1], Building materials, equipment, technologies of XXI century, part 1, 2003, № 8(55), pp. 44-45 (in Russian).
7. Borovkov V.S., Volshanik V.V., Kompleksnye tekhnologii rekonstruktcii gorodskikh vodnykh obektov. Chast 2 [Integrated technologies of the reconstruction of urban water bodies. Part 2], Building materials, equipment, technologies of XXI century, 2003, № 9(56). s. 56-57 (in Russian).
8. Borovkov V.S., Volshanik V.V., Karelin V.Ia., Pupyrev E.I., Baiaraa U. Sistemy podderzhaniia kachestva vody v gorodskikh vodnykh obektakh [System of water quality maintaining in urban water bodies], Building materials, equipment, technologies of XXI century, 2005, № 5(76), pp. 62-63 (in Russian).
9. Borovkov V.S., Volshanik V.V., Orekhov G.V. Inzhenernye sistemy vodooborota i aeratcii dlia ochistki vody v gorodskikh vodnykh obektakh [Engineering systems of water circulation and aeration for water purification in urban water bodies], Ecology of urbanized territories, № 2, pp. 21-31 (in Russian).
10. Volshanik V.V., Borovkov V.S., Orekhov G.V. Inzhenernye sistemy zamknutogo vodooborota dlia intensifikatcii protcessov samoochishcheniia vody v gorodskikh vodnykh obektakh. V kn. «Inzhenernaia zashchita okruzhaiushchei sredy. Ochistka vod. Utilizatciia otkhodov [Engineering systems of the closed-loop water circulation for intensification of processes of self-purification of water in urban water bodies. In the book. "Engineering protection of the environment. Water purification. Waste disposal.], M., ASV,publ., 2002, pp. 74-97 (in Russian).
11. Volshanik V.V., Dmitrieva I.L., Kulikov M.V., Peshnin A.G., Rodionov V.B., Shchennikova G.N., Iurchenko A.N. Vodnaia sistema russkoi usadby kak chast istoriko-kulturnogo landshafta [Water system of Russian estate as part of the historical and cultural landscape], Russkaia usadba,journ., 2004, issue 10(26), pp. 64-67 (in Russian).
12. Volshanik V.V., Dorkina I.V., Zilberman R.R. Inzhenerno-ekologicheskie resheniia pri rekonstruktcii uchastka reki Iauzy [Environmental engineering solutions at reconstruction of the section of the Yauza river], Ecology of urbanized territories, 2006, № 3, pp. 84-88 (in Russian).
13. Volshanik V.V., Orekhov G.V. Defitcit rastvorennogo kisloroda v vodoemakh na selitebnykh territoriiakh i sistemy iskusstvennoi aeratcii i zamknutogo vodooborota [Deficit of dissolved oxygen in ponds in residential areas and artificial aeration systems and closed-loop water circulation], Vestnik MGSU,publ., 2008, № 1, pp. 243-246 (in Russian).
14. Volshanik V.V., Peshnin A.G., Rodionov V.B., Iurchenko A.N., Amirova N.N., Dorkina I.V. Inzhenernye puti resheniia problemy uluchsheniia ekologicheskogo sostoianiia prudov i malykh rek [Engineering solutions of the problem of improving the ecological status of ponds and small rivers], Scientific-technical and production collection "Security of energy facilities", M. , OAO NIIES,publ., 2003, issue 12, pp. 367-377 (in Russian).
15. Volshanik V.V., Rodionov V.B., Peshnin A.G., Amirova N.N., Iurchenko A.N. Inzhenernye sposoby sokhraneniia vodnykh sistem na osobo okhraniaemykh territoriiakh [Engineering methods of maintaining water systems in protected areas], materials of the Ninth all-Russia. scientific. Conf. "The environmen. Problems of preservation of historical. And cultural heritage", M., Heritage insitute,publ., 2005, pp. 326-331 (in Russian).
16. Volshanik V.V., Suzdaleva A.A. Klassifikatciia gorodskikh vodnykh obektov: Ucheb. Posobie dlia studentov vuzov [Classification of urban water bodies: Textbook for University students.], M., ASV,publ., 2008, p. 112 (in Russian).
17. Karelin V.Ia., Borovkov V.S., Volshanik V.V., Galant M.A., Dorkina I.V. Inzhenernaia sistema podderzhaniia kachestva vody prudov Lefortovskogo parka [Engineering system of maintaining of water quality of the Lefortovo Park ponds], Vestnik OSN RAASN,journ., 2001, issue 4, pp. 28-38 (in Russian).
18. Orekhov G.V., Borovkov V.S., Volshanik V.V. Razrabotka metodov i tekhnologii ochistki, vosstanovleniia i podderzhaniia ekologicheskogo sostoianiia vodnykh obektov na gorodskikh territoriiakh [Development of methods and technology of cleaning, recovery and maintenance of ecological status of water bodies in urban areas], collection of reports of the International. Scientific.-pract. Conf. "Critical Technologies in construction", M., MGSU,publ., 1998, pp. 215-217 (in Russian).
19. Pupyrev E.I., Volshanik V.V., Platonova O.A., Suikova N.V., Golubkina E.P. Prioritetnye napravleniia issledovanii v oblasti zashchity gorodskikh vodnykh obektov [Research priorities in the field of urban water protection], Hydraulic engineering,journ., 2010, № 11, pp. 44-46 (in Russian).
20. Rodionov V.B., Beznosov V.N., Volshanik V.V., Suzdaleva A.L. Realnye puti resheniia problem malykh rek Rossii [Real solutions to the problems of small rivers of Russia], Nauka Moskvy i regionov, journ., 2004, № 3, pp. 56-61 (in Russian).
21. Rodionov V.B., Volshanik V.V. Sokhranenie vodnoi sredy na selitebnykh, istoricheskikh territoriiakh [Preservation of water environment in residential, historical territories], collection of works of the 3rd International. scientific.-pract. Symp. "Environment of construction and preservation of the churches of Orthodox Russia", 2008. s. 164-172 (in Russian).
22. Gogina E., Makisha N. Reconstruction of waste water treatment plants in Russia, approaches and solutions // Applied Mechanics and Materials. 2013. T. 361-363, c. 628-631 (in English).
23. Makisha N., Gogina E. Floating feed in ammonium removal // Applied Mechanics and Materials. 2013. T. 361-363, c. 632-635 (in English).
24. E.S. Gogina, O.V. Yantsen, O.A. Ruzhitskaya. Research of Hydrodynamics of Biofilter with Surface Feed // Applied Mechanics and Materials. 2014. T. 580-583, pp. 2354-2357 (in English).
25. Gogina E., Gulshin I. Simultaneous denitrification and nitrification in the lab-scale oxidation ditch with low C/N ratio // Procedia Engineering. 2015. Т. 117. С. 107-113 (in English).
26. E.S. Gogina, O.A. Ruzhitskaya, O.V. Yantsen. Investigation of the processes of nitrification and denitrification in wastewater treatment // Advanced Materials Research. 2014. Т. 919-921, c. 2145-2148 (in English).
27. O.A. Ruzhitskaya, E.S. Gogina. Removal of phosphates from wastewater and intensify the biological wastewater treatment process from organic pollution // Advanced Materials Research. 2014. Т. 919-921, c. 2153-2156 (in English).
28. Gogina E., Makisha N. Information technologies in view of complex solution of waste water problems // Applied Mechanics and Materials. 2014. Т. 587-589, c. 636-639 (in English).
29. Makisha N., Yantsen O. Laboratory modeling and research of waste water treatment processes in biofilters with polymer feed // Applied Mechanics and Materials. 2014. Т. 587-589, c. 640-643 (in English).
30. Makisha N., Gogina E. Methods of biological removal of nitrogen from waste water and ways to its intensification // Applied Mechanics and Materials. 2014. Т. 587-589, c. 644-647 (in English).
31. Ruzhitskaya O.A., Gogina E.S. Intensifying the processes of wastewater purification from phosphates and organic impurities // Advanced Materials Research. 2014. Vols. 919-921, c. 2141-2144 (in English).
32. Gogina E., Gulshin I. The single-sludge denitri-nitrification system in reconstruction of wastewater treatment plants in the Russian Federation // Applied Mechanics and Materials. 2014. Т. 580-583, c. 2367-2369 (in English).
33. Gogina E., Ruzhitskaya O. One-sludge denitri-nitrification system application in reconstruction of biological treatment stations in Russian Federation // Applied Mechanics and Materials. 2015. Т.725-726, c. 1325-1331 (in English).
34. Makisha N, Voronov Yu., Poupyrev E., Volshanik V. Laboratory research of zeolite use for treatment of waste water of different origin // International Journal of Applied Engineering Research. 2015, Т.10, № 21, c. 41919-41922 (in English).
35. Zaletova N., Voronov Yu., Makisha N. Conditions of advanced removal of phosphorus at wastewater treatment plants // International Journal of Applied Engineering Research. 2015. Т.10, № 21, c.42454-42455 (in English).
36. Gulshin I., Kuzina A. Adaptation of nitrifying activated sludge to simultaneous nitrification and denitrification in the lab-scale oxidation ditch // International Journal of Applied Engineering Research. 2015. Т.10, № 21, c.42618-42623 (in English).
37. Gogina E., Yantsen O. Research of biofilter feed properties // International Journal of Applied Engineering Research. 2015, Т.10, № 24, c.44070-44074 (in English).
38. Makisha N., Scherbakov V., Smirnov A., Scherbina E. Percolation units for waste water treatment // International Journal of Applied Engineering Research. 2015, T. 10, №24, c. 44347-44349 (in English).
39. Scherbakov V., Gogina E., Schukina T., Kuznetsova N., Makisha N., Poupyrev E. Calculation of biogas facilities for recycling of organic sewage sludge of breeding factories // International Journal of Applied Engineering Research. 2015, Т.10, № 24, c.44353-44356 (in English).
40. Proekt uluchurnogo naslediia [Cultural heritage project], 12-14 Nov., 2003, Mozhaisk, M., 2004 (in Russian).

№4

Watter Supply

Zhulin A.G., Elizarova O.D., Glushchenko E.S.TO THE CHOICE OF CAPACITY FOR COAGULATION TEST. p. 3-12

The methods of water impurities coagulation tests aimed to identify the optimal dose of reagent are not unique in the world practice. The task of researches was identifying the dependence of optical density of sapropel solution (turbidity) and natural water (chromaticity) from column height of solution during the coagulation of impurities with aluminium sulphate and with the same volume of sample. During the precipitation of coagulating dredge it can be possible to observe clarified-sedimentary separation zones, which change, depending on time of water settling in cylinder, from three-layer structure (including clarified zone, zone of hindered settling and sediment) into two-layer one (including clarified zone and sediment). At first, the turbidity of two upper layers changes from maximum to minimum with further decrease of diffusion-brownian zone and sediment compression at the bottom. The influence of molecular-electric and diffusion forces is high enough, while system doesn’t turn into solid condi-tion of sediment. As sediment compresses, electric forces decrease and only two layers become noticeable, but dif-fusion effects continue acting, depending on solubility of formed sediment. If water column height is small, it is possible to extract the sample, containing not settled but coagulated impurities, during the extraction of solution for analysis. In this case incompleteness of impurities coagulation and not optimal dose of reagent is forcedly stated, that is not exactly correct, because incompleteness of precipitation is possible at middle hindered zone at given moment. The extract of samples can’t be fairly assessed at small water column height, as the submersion of sampler into diffusion zone is not excluded. This article shows the researches’ results of change of water’s optical density, extracted upright in the capacities with the same volume and different initial column height of solution during the coagulation of water impurities with aluminium sulphate.
Key words: colloidal impurities, coagulation, coagulation test, aluminium sulphate.
References: 1. Nicoladze G.I., Somov M.A. Vodosnabzhenie: Uchebnick dlia VUZov [Water supply: Textbook for high schools], M: Stroyizdat, 1995, p. 668 (in Russian).
2. Tekhnicheskiy spravochnik po obrabotke vody: v. 2 tomach, T.1: perevod s frantsuzskogo [Technical refer-ence for water treatment: in 2 volumes, V1: translation from French], SPb.: Novjj zhurnal, 2007 (in Russian).
3. Kemmer I, Frank N. Kniga NALKO o vode [Nalco Water Handbook], М.: Inostannaya literature Publ., 1997. – p. 1117 (in Russian).
4. Vejtser Ju. I., Kolobova Z. A. Osazhdenie koagulirujushchih suspenzij [Precipitation of coagulative suspen-sions], Sbornik nauchnykh trudov AKKh imeni K. D. Pamfilova, iss. 1, Watersupply, ONTI M. 1960, pp. 56-72 (in Russian).
5. Rukovodstvo po khimicheskomu i tekhnologicheskomu analizu vody [Chemical and technological water analysis’s instruction], М.: Stroiizdat, 1973. (VNII VODGEO Gosstroya SSSR), p. 272 (in Russian).
6. Zhulin A.G., Elizarova O.D. Vliyanie sposoba dozirovaniya na protsessy koagulyatsii sapropelya [The influ-ence of dosing way on the processes of sapropel coagulation], International scientific-practical conference “Modern problems and their solutions in science, transport, production and education 2012, Sbornik nauch-nykh trudov Sworld, Odessa, v.48, pp. 47-53 (in Russian).
7. GOST 8.588-2006 Gosudarstvennaya poverochnaya skhema dlya sredstv izmereniy opticheskoy plotnosti materialov [GOST 8.588-2006 State verification scheme for means of measuring the material optical density], М.: Standartinform, 2007, p. 7, (in Russian).

Feofanov Iu.A., Podporin A.V., Gershtein L.M.Improvement of process water supply system of metallurgical plant based on a computer model. p. 13-25

Process water supply system of modern metallurgical plant is a quite complicated, multi-link and multi-level structure. In order to improve and operationally control this system it is necessary to carry out an analysis of its state and functioning, determine the main tendencies of all its elements performance, system capabilities and reserves and construct the model based on which the optimal ways of development, modernization and management of this system can be found. The article presents the main principles of mathematical model construction for reverse water supply of industrial enterprises which were applied for designing of a computer model of process reverse water supply of the metallurgical plant “Severstal”. The gained computer model allows predicting the plant process water supply system state and assessing its reliability in case of emergency and abnormal situations as well as predicting water supply system state when changing the initial parameters. The program can be used for performance control of the system and for its individual parts changing water consumption and quality depending on working mode of departments and manufactures, volumes and characteristics of blow-off and make-up waters. Implementation of the computer model of process water supply at the metallurgical plant “Severstal”, optimization of its performance using treated rain and snow waters for makeup of reverse production cycles, improvement of local treatment plants allowed halving discharge of blow-off waters into water bodies, increasing the circulating water amount up to 99% (of the total water consumption of the plant) and, thus, decreasing the fresh river water consumption. The opportunity of the further reduction of flow discharge volume and transition to closed system of plant process water supply is examined.
Key words: recycling water supply, mathematical model of water supply system, water quality prediction, zero-discharge water system, water supply system control, integrated filtration plant, permissible concentration, fresh make-up water, local waste treatment plants.
References: 1. Vaxler B.L. Vodosnabzhenie i vodootvedenie na metallurgicheskix predpriyatiyax [Water and wastewater in steelworks], guidebook, M., Metallurgiya,publ., 1977, p. 320 (in Russian).
2. Ochistka proizvodstvennyx stochnyx vod [Industrial wastewater treatment], S.V.Yakovlev, Ya.A.Karelin, Yu.M.Laskov, Yu.V. Voronov, M:, Strojizdat,publ., 1979, p. 320 (in Russian).
3. Zhukov A.I., Mongajt I.L., Rodziller I.D. Metody ochistki proizvodstvennyx stochnyx vod [Techniques of industrial wastewater treatment], M:, Strojizdat,publ., 1977, p. 204 (in Russian).
4. Alferova L.A., Nechaev A.P. Zamknutye sistemy vodnogo xozyajstva promyshlennyx predpriyatij, kompleksov i rajonov [Closed systems of water management of industrial enterprises, facilities and areas], M., Strojizdat,publ., 1987 (in Russian).
5. Racional'noe ispol'zovanie i zashhita vodnyx resursov v chyornoj metallurgii [Rational use and protection of water resources in ferrous metallurgy], Krasavcev G. N. Il'ichyov Yu.A., Kashub a A.I., M., Metallurgiya,publ., 1989, p. 288 (in Russian).]
6. Aksenov V. I. Zamknutye sistemy vodnogo xozyajstva metallurgicheskix predpriyatij [Closed systems of water management in metallurgical enterprises], M., Metallurgiya,publ., 1983, p. 98 (in Russian).
7. Belichenko Yu.P. Zamknutye sistemy vodoobespecheniya ximicheskix proizvodstv [Closed water system of chemical production], M:, Ximiya,publ., 1990, p. 208 (in Russian).
8. Kafarov V.V. Principy sozdaniya bezotxodnyx ximicheskix proizvodstv [Principles of creating a waste-free chemical production], M:, Ximiya,publ., 1982, p. 288 (in Russian).
9. Zakgejm A.Yu. Vvedenie v modelirovanie ximiko-texnologicheskix processov [Introduction to modeling of chemical technology processes], M., Ximiya,publ., 1982, p. 288 (in Russian).
10. Kafarov B.E., Doroxov I.N. Sistemnyj analiz processov ximicheskoj texnologii. Osnovy strategii [System analysis of chemical technology. Basic strategies], M:, Nauka,publ., 1976, p. 500 (in Russian).
11. Kogan V.B. Teoreticheskie osnovy tipovyx processov ximicheskoj texnologii [Theoretical basis of the model of chemical technology processes], L:, Ximiya,publ., 1977, p. 592 (in Russian).
12. Feofanov Yu.A., Podporin A.V. Kompleksnoe ispol'zovanie vodnyx resursov [Integrated water resources management], SPb., SPbSUACE, 1999, p. 26 (in Russian).
13. Feofanov Yu.A.Vybor i optimizaciya parametrov oborotnyx sistem vodosnabzheniya [Selection and optimization of circulating water system parameters], SPb., SPbSUACE, 2007, p. 27 (in Russian).
14. Feofanov Yu.A., Podporin A.V., Arxipov A.N., Gershtejn L.M. Sovershenstvovanie sistemy vodosnabzheniya metallurgicheskogo kombinata i ee programmiruemaya model' [Improvement of water supply system of the metallurgical plant and its programmable model], collection of reports of International scientific-practical conference "Reconstruction of Saint Petersburg - 2003", part 2, SPb, SPbSUACE, 2002 (in Russian).

Water Disposal

V.S. Ignatchik P.N. Kuznetsov Optimization of water supply and sewerage systems. p. 26-35

The aims and principles of the state policy in the sphere of water supply and sewerage are stated in the industrial law of the Russian Federation “On water supply and sewerage”; and one of the aim is “improving energy efficiency through economical use of water”. The experience of SUE «Vodokanal of St. Petersburg» shows that this aim is achieved (along with water meter application) by means of network zoning and reducing of working pressure in them. However, along with appeared positive trends in water use there are two opposite tendencies in water disposal system of Saint-Petersburg which cause the growth of water disposal volumes: increase of wastewater inflow as a result of expansion of developed territory areas and frequency of over-estimated rainfalls; increase of general irregularity coefficients of water disposal, change tendencies of which are not regarded carefully in Russia. The latter is proved also by researches carried out by SUE “Vodokanal of Saint-Petersburg” which showed that use of general maximum irregularity coefficients of wastewater inflow adopted from code of rules SP 32.13330.2012 at designing of sewerage pump station brings to understatement of their calculated inflows. Under these circumstances the contradiction between strict requirements of the industrial law on reliability, strict requirements of the environment protection law on emergency waste water discharge, water treatment efficiency, from one side, and changed operating conditions (expanded areas of developed territories, off-design rainfall, and increase of irregularity coefficient), from another side. Due to it, at operation of Saint-Petersburg water disposal systems mainly designed and constructed in last centuries, there is no real opportunity to follow the law requirements and government regulations. Under these circumstances when a large-scale reconstruction of big city water disposal system is impossible, creation of Saint-Petersburg water disposal control system is an optimal solution to the specified contradiction. Its application will allow solving a number of optimization issues which criteria are stated in the industrial law as the indications of reliability, quality and energy efficiency.
Key words: water supply system, water disposal system, sewerage pump station, wastewaters, reliability, surface flow, emergency discharge, irregularity coefficient.
References: 1. Rossijskaya Federaciya. Federal'nyj zakon ot 07.12.2011 g. № 416-FZ «O vodosnabzhenii i vodo-otvedenii» [Russian Federation. Federal law of 07.12.2011 № 416-FL “On water supply and sewerage” (in Russian).
2. Rossijskaya Federaciya. Federal'nyj zakon RF ot 10.01.2002 goda (v redakcii ot 29.12.2015 goda) № 7-FZ «Ob oxrane okruzhayushhej sredy» [Russian Federation. Federal law of 10.01.2002 (last updated 29.12.2015) № 7-FL “On environment protection” (in Russian).
3. Karmazinov F.V., Pankova G.A., Ipatko M.N., Ignatchik V.S., Ignatchik S.Yu., Sarkisov S.V,
4. Putilin P.A. Metodika optimizacii zonal'nyx sistem vodosnabzheniya [Optimization of zonal water supply systems], Water supply and sanitary technique,journ., № 2, Moscow, 2016, pp. 64-70 (in Russian).
5. Karmazinov F.V., Mel'nik E.A., Probirskij M.D., Il'in Yu.A., Ignatchik V.S., Ignatchik S.Yu. Sistema diagnostiki pritoka vody [Water flow diagnostic system], patent for invention № 2596029, Russian Federation, IPC G01F 1/66, G01L 1/00; publ. 27.08.2016, bulletin № 24 10 (in Russian).
6. Karmazinov F.V., Truxin Yu.A., Probirskij M.D., Ignatchik V.S., Ignatchik S.Yu. et al. Sistema vodootvedeniya megapolisa [Sewerage system of big cities], patent for invention №2438984, Ros. Federaciya: IPC C02F1/00 (2006.01); publ. 10.01.2012, bulletin № 10 (in Russian).

Shatalaev I.F., Rascvetova N.V., Bykova N.S.Multiple molecular forms of microcenosis catalase in model and natural hydroecosystems. p. 36-43

The article presents the data on structural organization and dynamics of the activity of the activated sludge catalase molecular forms in models at the functioning wastewater biological treatment plant of refinery, production association “Nefteorgsintez” and soil microcenosis of Saratov water reservoir, small rivers of Saratov Oblast at differet hydrochemical modes.
Key words: catalase, microcenosis, hydroecosystems, activated sludge.
References: 1. Mixlin D.M. Bioximiya kletochnogo dyxaniya [Biochemistry of cellular respiration], M., Izd-vo Akademii nauk SSSR,publ., 1960, p. 446 (in Russian).
2. Timofeeva S.S. Okislitel'no-vosstanovitel'nye fermenty aktivnyx ilov, sposoby opredeleniya i ix znachenie v ochistke stochnyx vod [Redox enzymes of active sludge, methods of determination and their significance in wastewater treatment], Journal of Water Chemistry and Technology,journ., 1984, vol. 6, № 4, pp. 367–370 (in Russian).
3. Timofeeva S.S. E'nzimoindikaciya kachestva ochistki stochnyx vod v ae'rotenkax [Enzyme indication of sewage treatment quality in aerotanks], Journal of Water Chemistry and Technology,journ., 1987. , vol. 9, № 5, pp. 445–448 (in Russian).
4. Ambranis J.J., Webster D.A. Purification, partial characterization and possible role of catalase in the bacterium vitreoscilla. // Arh. Biochem. аnd Biophys. –1990. – 279, №1. – Р. 54–59 (in English).
5. Mittler Ron, Tel-Or Elicha. Oxidative stress responses and shock proteins in the unicellular cyanobacterium Syntchococcus R2. // Arch. Microbiol. – 1991. – 155, №2. – Р.125-130 (in English).

Iu.V.Voronov, N.A.Zaletova, G.Sh. ChembulatovaBIOLOGICAL OXIDANTS. p. 44-47

The article presents a brief history of development of an organic compound oxidation theo-ry and use of biological oxidants both of aeration and filtration types which was proved in 17th century on the basis of the essence of the processes of combustion and respiration. In 18th century the theory of slow combustion processes with air oxidation of organic sub-stances and formation of water and carbon dioxide was taken as a basis for respiratory processes. The further researches allowed moving on to practical implementation and creation of ef-fective structures of biological oxidants and flow chart of their performance. The works on their improvement were carried out in Moscow, Leningrad, Novocherkassk, Minsk, Odessa, Poltava and others. The flow charts of both aeration and filtration types, their operation features, loading material types and material placement methods are examined. The flow charts of performance of aeration tanks, rotating biological contactors and their modifications are analyzed. A broad experience of their use for waste water treatment of potato processing factory, meat processing plant and others in a wide range of flow rates from 40m3/day up to 10 thousand m3/day is marked. The biofilters constructions with a flow rate of 40 m3/day 200 m3/day and a treatment fa-cility complex of 700 m3/day as well as a wide range of loading material types such as filling, block, soft roll and tubular types are presented as an example. The article reflects the problem related to meeting the requirements on waste water fine cleaning both from organic suspended substances and compounds of nitrogen and phos-phorus. Currently there is a broad range of equipment of low-capacity and high degree of treatment such as Kontus R, Tekhnosfera, Ekostok and others.
Key words: activated sludge, aeration, aeration tank, biooxidation, biofilm, biotank, biofilters, biofiltration, respiration, loading material, oxygen, oxidation, waste water, filtration.
References: 1. Atkinson B. Biokhimicheskie reaktory [Biochemical reactors], M., Pishchevaya prom.,publ., 1979, p. 280 (in Russian).
2. Biotekhnologiya. Protsessy i primenenie [Biotechnology. Processes and applica-tion], edited by I.Khiggensa, D. Besta, Dzh. Dzhons, M., Mir, publ., 1988, p. 480 (in Russian).
3. Yakovlev S.V., Voronov Yu.V., Biologicheskie fil'try [Biological filters], 2nd edi-tion, M., Stroyizdat, publ., 1982, p. 120 (in Russian).
4. Voronov Yu.V., Zhurov V.N. Biologicheskie okisliteli [Biological oxidizers], M., ASV,publ., 2009, p. 104 (in Russian).
5. Voronov Yu.V., Kudin A.V. i dr. Biologicheskaya ochistka stochnykh vod malykh naselennykh punktov i ob"ektov sel'skokhozyaystvennogo naznacheniya [Biological wastewater treatment of small settlements and objects of agricultural purpose], part 2, M., Center of scientific and technical information, propaganda and advertising,publ., 1991, p. 56 (in Russian).
6. Voronov Yu.V. K voprosu rekonstruktsii biologicheskikh okisliteley [On the re-construction of biological oxidants], Vestnik MGSU, journ., № 8, 2011, pp. 288-292 (in Russian).
7. Tavarkiladze I.M., Tarasyuk T.P., Dotsenko M.I. Ochistnye sooruzheniya vo-dootvedeniya [Water disposal treatment facilities], K., Budivel'nyk,publ., 1988, p. 256 (in Russian).
8. Voronov Yu.V., Salomeev V.P., Ivchatov A.L. Rekonstruktsiya i intensifikatsiya raboty kanalizatsionnykh ochistnykh sooruzheniy [Reconstruction and intensifi-cation of wastewater treatment plant performance], M., Stroyizdat, publ., 1990, p. 224 (in Russian).
9. Voronov Yu.V. Vodootvedenie i ochistka stochnykh vod [Water disposal and wastewater treatment], M., Izdatel'stvo Assotsiatsii stroitel'nykh vuzov,publ., 2009, p. 760 (in Russian).
10. Zaletova N.A., Voronov Yu.V. Novye tekhnologii dlya resheniya zadach ochistki stochnykh vod [New solution technologies for wastewater treatment problems], M., Vestnik MGSU, journ., № 2, 2012, pp. 109-111 (in Russian).
11. Zaletova N.A., Zaletov S.V. Modul'naya sistema «KONTUS»® dlya ochistki sto-chnykh vod [Modular system "KONTUS"® for wastewater treatment], M., Wa-ter supply and sanitary techniques,journ., № 3, 2013, pp. 39-45 (in Russian).
12. Zaletova N.A., Zaletov S.V. «Kontus®» - ustanovka polnoy zavodskoy gotovnosti dlya glubokoy ochistki stochnykh vod» [«Kontus®» -ready-to-operate facility for fine waste water treatment], Vodosnabzhenie i kanalizatsiya, journ., № 5-6, 2014, pp. 72 – 76 (in Russian).
13. Gerasimenko I.A., Kiseleva Yu.A., Musinova N.L., Stantsii biologicheskoy ochistki stochnykh vod modul'nogo tipa [Modular type plant of biological waste water treatment], Vodosnabzhenie i kanalizatsiya,journ., № 2, 2008, pp. 17 – 20 (in Russian).
14. El' Yu.F., Reshetilov Yu.I. Kontseptual'nye izmeneniya v tekhnologiyakh ochistki stochnykh vod [Conceptual changes in wastewater treatment technologies], Vodosnabzhenie i kanalizatsiya, № 5, journ., 2009, pp. 57 – 63 (in Russian).

Manuilov M.B., Moskovkin V.M.INFLUENCE OF THE SURFACE FLOW (RAINWATER AND MELTWATER) ON THE ECOLOGICAL AND INDUSTRIAL SITUATION IN CITIES. p. 48-74

The experience of the Soviet scientific school on studying the problems of discharge and treatment of the urban surface flow in the city of Kharkov (All Union Research Institute of Water Conservation) is presented and the further development of its main basics is accomplished. The complex of design formulae for estimation of the road dust load formation by means of aerosol deposition, tire abrasion on the road surface, pollutant transfer by vehicles, road surface deterioration by cargo transportation, pavement destruction by atmospheric precipitation and sand accumulation in winter at deicing is presented. Beside these physical-chemical components of the road dust, including the road dust fractions with particles size of both less than 250 μm (first three types of the load) and more than 250 μm (last three types of the load), two types of the biological components of the road dust were thoroughly examined. The structural logical schemes of the actual effect of the urban surface flow on water objects, formation of pollutants on the urbanized territories during the annual cycle, main sources of the pollutant chemical composition formation and possible effects of the urban surface flow on the water object siltation are constructed. The experience of the All Union Research Institute of Water Conservation (Kharkov) in solving problems of the polluted surface flow effect on water objects as well as the cost minimization at the technology adaption of the surface flow discharge and treatment is described. As a conclusion, the calculated methods of assessment of the water object environmental damage by the surface flow based on the mathematical and physical modeling of the pollutant formation process in the build-up territories and their removal during the rain are offered.
Key words: urban surface flow, road dust, water objects, ecological damage, mathematical modeling, physical modeling, discharge and treatment of urban surface runoff, All Union Research Institute of Water Conservation( Kharkov, USSR).
References: 1. Vremennye rekomendacii po proektirovaniju sooruzhenij dlja ochistki poverhnostnogo stoka s territorii promyshlennyh predprijatij i raschetu uslovij vypuska ego v vodnye obekty [Interim guidelines for the design of facilities for surface runoff removal from the territory of industrial enterprises and calculating the conditions of its discharge into water bodies], M., VNIIVODGEO, VNIIVO, 1983, p. 47 (in Russian).
2. Manujlov M.B., Moskovkin V.M. Vlijanie zagrjaznenij, formirujushhihsja na urbanizirovannyh territorijah, na jepidemiologicheskuju i jekologicheskuju situacii [The impact of pollutants formed in urban areas on epidemiological and environmental situation], Ecology of Urban Areas, journ., № 1, 2010, pp. 18-31 (in Russian).
3. Manujlov M.B., Moskovkin V.M., Martynov A.V., Kukovickij N.N. Vozdejstvie zagrjaznenij, formirujushhihsja na urbanizirovannyh territorijah, na jekologicheskuju i jepidemiologicheskuju situacii [The impact of pollutants formed in urban areas on epidemiological and environmental situation], Investigated in Russia, journ., MIPT, publ., 2009, vol. 12, pp. 204-226 (in Russian).
4. Kalicun V.I. Vodootvodjashhie sistemy i sooruzhenija [Drainage systems and structures], M., Strojizdat,publ., 1987, p. 335 (in Russian).
5. Molokov M.V., Shifrin V.N. Ochistka poverhnostnogo stoka s territorij gorodov i poromyshlennyh ploshhadok [Removal of surface runoff from the territories of cities and industrial sites], M.: Strojizdat, publ., 1977, p. 67 (in Russian).
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7. Manujlov M.B., Shutinskij A.G., Avin V.M., Skomoroha O.P. Novaja tehnologija otvedenija i ochistki poverhnostnogo stoka, obrazujushhegosja na selitebnyh territorijah i promyshlennyh ploshhadkah predprijatij [New technology for disposal and treatment of surface runoff generated in residential areas and industrial sites], Vestnik Nacionalʹnogo tehničeskogo universiteta "HPI", journ., 2003, № 3, pp. 49-57 (in Russian).
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Ecology

Olkova A.S.Biotesting using Daphnia magna: peculiarities of cultivation and variety of response reactions. p. 75-80

Crustacean Daphnia magna Straus has become one of the first test-organisms used for water medium toxicity estimation. The Crustacean response reaction is influenced by such factors as model population density, temperature housing conditions, chemical composition of cultivation water. The article presents significance of these factors for test-organism toxic response and test-culture fertility variation. The analysis of variety of biotesting methods using test-organism D. magna is carried out. The most common techniques suppose accounting of crustacean death in model populations. In tests with model water solutions and natural waters it is presented that when implementing this technique, the situations of illegal recognition of samples as harmless may occur. For example, many of heavy metal compounds have a range of operation with less average lethal concentrations but resulting to infertility of test-organisms. The sublethal effects investigated by Russian and foreign scientists such as heart rate, changes of biochemical parameters, body linear size and model population biomass are examined. In the set of the researches the effects diagnosed in conditions of long-term experiment are presented. The authors offer to quantify the set of test-functions available for accounting without special equipment, thus, easily implemented in practice of many environmental laboratories: mortality and fertility of adult D. magna, species aging time, number of abortive eggs and number of still-born fries. The experiments on toxic effect estimation revealing in several generations of D. magna are offered to be carried out for more detailed investigation of performance of separate substance or their combinations. It allows defining a compatibility of chemical pollution level with a long-term population existence that is particularly important at extrapolation of biotesting results at natural ecosystems.
Key words: Biotesting, Daphnia magna Straus, test-function, mortality, fertility, toxic effects, contaminants, natural waters.
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