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Antonova E. S., Sazonov D. V.INCREASING WASTEWATER TREATMENT EFFICIENCY IN PNEUMOHYDRAULIC FLOTATORS
Basic parameters affecting efficiency of flotation wastewater
treatment, such as bubble size and their quantity, are considered. Main types of aeration methods used for flotation water treatment are briefly described. Special attention is paid to pneumohydraulic flotation. Two ways of efficiency increase in pneumohydraulic flotators are considered. The first one is air supply upstream of the pump, the second one is the use of a disperser. A laboratory setup for investigation of those methods is described. Probability density functions of bubble size for different experimental conditions and gas volume fraction of 2 %, 5 %, 7.5 % are presented. In conventional pneumohydraulic aeration systems, the major portion of air is released in the form of large bubbles (in size more than 500 μm). When air was supplied upstream of the pump, normal distribution with bubble average size of 75 μm was obtained. The use of a disperser allows significantly decreasing the fraction of bubbles in size more than 500 μm and obtaining polymodal distribution with two peaks (60–70 and 90–120 μm). The aeration method should be chosen with the consideration of bubble size, needed for different types of contamination, that is better to be defined experimentally.
Key words: flotation, wastewater treatment, pneumohydraulic aeration system, bubble size, disperser, aerator, pneumohydraulic flotator, gas volume fraction.
References: 1. Alekseeva, T. V. (2003). Razrabotka tekhnologii ochistki zamazuchennykh stochnykh vod TETs s ispolzovaniyem metoda beznapornoy flotatsii [Development of a technology for CHP plant oily wastewater treatment using free-flow flotation]. PhD Thesis in Engineering. Penza: Penza State Academy of Architecture and Construction (in Russian).
2. Andreev, S. Yu., Garkina, I. A. and Petrunin, A. A. (2014).
Sovershenstvovaniye flotatsionnoy ochistki proizvodstvennykh stochnykh vod [Improvment of waste water flotation purification]. Regional Architecture and Engineering, No. 2, pp. 157–162. (in Russian).
3. Andreev, S. Yu., Grishin, B. M., Shirshin, I. B., Shisterov, A. S., Davydov, G. P., Kulapin, V. I. and Koldov, A. S. (2011). Ispolzovaniye novoy tekhnologii generirovaniya tonkodispersnoy vodovozdushnoy smesi dlya intensifikatsii flotatsionnoy ochistki stochnykh vod [Application of a new technology for generation of finely dispersed water-air mixture to intensify flotation wastewater treatment]. In: Trudy Mezhdunarodnogo simpoziuma “Nadezhnost i kachestvo” [Proceedings of the International Symposium “Reliability and Quality”], May 23–31, 2011. Penza: Penza State University, vol. 1, pp. 347–350 (in Russian).
4. Bochkaryov, G. R. and Kondratyev, S. A. (2005). Ustanovka dlya flotatsionnoy ochistki vody [Device for flotation purification of water]. Patent RU No. 2251530 (in Russian).
5. Grishin, L. B. (2009). Sovershenstvovaniye ochistki neftesoderzhashchikh proizvodstvennykh stochnykh vod [Enhancement of oil-containing industrial wastewater treatment]. PhD in Engineering. Penza: Penza State University of Architecture and Construction (in Russian).
6. Kazakov, V. D., Polkanov, A. G., Ratiner, M. M. and Tolstoy, M. Y. (2009). Eksperimentalnye i teoreticheskiye issledovaniya vrashchayushchegosya pnevmogidravlicheskogo aeratora [Experimental and theoretical studies of the rotating pneumohydraulic aerator]. Proceedings of Irkutsk State Technical University, No. 2 (38), pp. 163–167 (in Russian).
7. Ksenofontov, B. S. (2010). Flotatsionnaya obrabotka vody, otkhodov i pochvy [Flotation wastewater treatment of water, waste and soil]. Moscow: Novye tekhnologii, 272 p. (in Russian).
8. Ksenofontov, B. S. and Antonova, E. S. (2014). Flotatsionnaya mashina dlya ochistki stochnykh vod [Flotation machine for sewage]. Patent RU No. 149273 (in Russian).
9. Maksimova, S. V. (2006). Sovershenstvovaniye sistem aeratsii sooruzheniy biologicheskoy ochistki stochnykh vod s ispolzovaniyem vikhrevykh erliftnykh ustroystv [Improvement of aeration systems at biological wastewater treatment plants using vortex airlift devices]. PhD in Engineering. Penza: Penza State University of Architecture and Construction (in Russian).
10. Matsnev, A. I. (1976). Ochistka stochnykh vod flotatsiey [Flotation wastewater treatment]. Kiev: Budivelnik, 132 p. (in Russian).
11. Melnikova, S. A., Shekhirev, D. V. and Dumov, A. M. (2013). Issledovaniye zakonomernosti raboty pnevmogidravlicheskogo struyno-ezhektornogo aeratora [Investigation of functioning regularity of the pheumohydraulic stream-ejection aerator]. Nauchny Vestnik Moskovskogo Gosudarstvennogo Gornogo Universiteta, No. 4, pp. 64–69 (in Russian).
12. Orlov, A. V. (2010). Intensifikatsiya raboty ochistnykh sooruzheniy s ispolzovaniyem pnevmogidravlicheskikh aeratorov [Intensification of treatment plant operation using pneumohydraulic aerators]. PhD in Engineering. Irkutsk: Irkutsk State Technical University (in Russian).
13. Sazonov, D. V. and Antonova, E. S. (2018). Podbor sistem aeratsii dlya flotatsionnoy ochistki vody razlichnogo sostava [The selection of aeration system for the flotation treatment of different kinds of water]. Water: Chemistry and Ecology, № 1-3 (114), pp. 62–67 (in Russian).
14. Chen, F.-T., Peng, F.-X., Wu, X.-Q. and Luan, Z.-K. (2004). Bubble performance of a novel dissolved air flotation (DAF) unit. Journal of Environmental Sciences, vol. 16, issue 1, pp. 104–107.
15. Cheng, G., Shi, C., Yan, X., Zhang, Z., Xu, H., and Lu, Y. (2017). A study of bubble-particle interactions in a column flotation process. Physicochemical Problems of Mineral Processing, vol. 53 (1), pp.17–33. doi: 10.5277/ppmp170102.
16. Kazuo, A., Matsuo, K. and Saito, S. (2005). Apparatus and method for removing unburned carbon from fly ash. U.S. Patent No. 889389B2.
17. Li, P. (2006). Development of advanced water treatment technology using microbubbles. PhD Thesis. Tokyo: Keio University.
18. Li, P. and Tsuge, H. (2006). Water treatment by induced air flotation using microbubbles. Journal of Chemical Engineering of Japan, vol. 39, issue 8, pp. 896–903. doi: 10.1252/jcej.39.896.
19. Lima Neto, I. E., Zhu, D. Z. and Rajaratnam, N. (2008). Horizontal injection of gas-liquid mixtures in a water tank. Journal of Hydraulic Engineering, vol. 134, issue 12, pp. 1722–1731. doi: 10.1061/(ASCE)0733-9429(2008)134:12(1722). 20. Parhizkar, M., Edirisinghe, M. and Stride, E. (2013) Effect of operating conditions and liquid physical properties on the size of monodisperse microbubbles produced in a capillary embedded T-junction device. Microfluidics and Nanofluidics, vol. 14, issue 5, pp. 797–808. doi: 10.1007/s10404-012-1098-0.
21. Prakash, R., Majumder, S. K. and Singh, A. (2018). Flotation technique: its mechanisms and design parameters. Chemical Engineering and Processing — Process Intensification, vol. 127, pp. 249–270. doi: 10.1016/j.cep.2018.03.029.
22. Serizawa, A., Inui, T., Yahiro, T. and Kawara, Z. (2003) Laminarization of micro-bubble containing milky bubbly flow in a pipe. Available at: http://aura-tec.com/pdf/03-milky.pdf.
23. Yianatos, J. B. (2007). Fluid flow and kinetic modelling in flotation related processes. Columns and mechanically agitated cells — a review. Chemical Engineering Research and Design, vol. 85, issue 12, pp. 1591–1603. /doi: 10.1016/S0263-8762(07)73204-5.
Belyaev A. N., Degterev B. I., Kuts E. V.IMPROVING EFFICIENCY OF SILICA REMOVAL FROM WATER USING MAGNESIUM OXIDE
Frequent need for silica removal from water represents one
of the issues preventing large-scale use of underground water
sources both for drinking water supply and to satisfy the needs
of industrial consumers. Definite imperfection of the methods
used calls for ways to upgrade the existing technologies of silica
removal from water, and improve efficiency of reagent treatment
related to the technologies used. The purpose of the present
study is to intensify the process of silica removal from water
of underground sources using magnesium oxide by additional
exposure to hydrodynamic cavitation in a flow-type reactor. To
assess the impact of the cavitation component in the process of
silica removal from water using magnesium oxide, a series of
field experiments was carried out. Cavitation water treatment
was performed in a cyclic mode, with the number of cycles
from 1 to 30. A dependence between the silica removal rate and
temperature, the gradient of which decreases with increasing
number of cavitation flow treatment cycles, is revealed. Areas
of temperature and cavitation components of the silica removal
process are determined. It is established that the rate of silica
removal from water using magnesium oxide with additional
cavitation treatment increases by 17.1%. The results of the study
can be useful for specialists in the field of water treatment at
thermal power facilities, chemical and pharmaceutical as well as
pulp and paper enterprises, and for drinking water supply.
Key words: water treatment, silica removal from water, hydrodynamic cavitation.
References: 1. Iler, R. (1982). Khimiya kremnezyoma: rastvorimost, polimerizatsiya, kolloidnye i poverkhnostnye svoystva, biokhimiya [The chemistry of silica: solubility, polymerization, colloid and surface properties and biochemistry of silica]. Moscow: Mir, 416 p. (in Russian).
2. Alekseev, V. S., Tesla, V. G. and Boldyrev, K. A. (2011). O neobkhodimosti peresmotra normativnogo soderzhaniya kremniya v pitevoy vode [About necessity of revision of standard silicon content in potable water]. Water Supply and Sanitary Technique, No. 5, pp. 56–60 (in Russian).
3. Belyaev, A. N. and Flegentov, I. V. (2012). Sposob obezzarazhivaniya vody sinergeticheskim vozdeystviyem [Method of decontaminating water with synergetic action]. Patent No. 2445272 (in Russian).
4. Belyaev, A. N. and Flegentov, I. V. (2014). Gidrodinamicheskaya kavitatsionnaya obrabotka kak instrument intensifikatsii reagentnykh processov v promyshlennykh tekhnologiyakh [Hydrodynamic cavitation treatment as a tool for intensification of reagent processes in commercial technologies]. Russian Journal of Applied Chemistry, vol. 87, No. 8, pp. 1092–1100 (in Russian).
5. Beliaev, A. N., Flegentov, I. V., Lysov, D. S., Kostarev, V. V., Banaev, D. E., Lutavaia, O. A (2014). Kavitatsionnaya intensifikatsiya protsessa magnezialnogo obeskremnivaniya pri vodopodgotovke [Cavitational intensification of magnesia desiliconization in water treatment]. Water: Chemistry and Ecology, No. 12, pp. 25–30 (in Russian).
6. Gimranov, F. M., Belyaev, A. N., Flegentov, I. V., Vahrusheva, O. M. and Lysov, D. S. (2016). Aktualizatsiya voprosa obeskremnivaniya podzemnykh vodoistochnikov dlya g. Kirova i perspektivnye napravleniya ego resheniya [Foregrounding the issue of silica removal from underground water sources in Kirov and promising directions of its solution]. Herald of Kazan Technological University, vol. 19, No. 6, pp. 141–144 (in Russian).
7. Chief Public Health Officer of the Russian Federation (2002). SanPiN 184.108.40.2064-01. Pitevaya voda. Gigienicheskiye trebovaniya k kachestvu vody tsentralizovannykh sistem vodosnabzheniya. Kontrol kachestva [Sanitary Regulations SanPiN 220.127.116.114-01. Drinking water. Hygienic requirements for water quality of centralized water supply systems. Quality control]. Moscow: Ministry of Health of the Russian Federation, 90 p. (in Russian).
8. Gorbunov, A. V., Lyapunov, S. M., Okina, O. I. and Seregina, I. F. (2012). Rol pitevoy vody v obespechenii organizma cheloveka mikroelementami [Estimation of drinking water role in microelements supply of human body]. Human Ecology, No. 2, pp. 3–8 (in Russian).
9. Gurvich, S. M. and Kostrikin, Yu. M. (1974). Operator vodopodgotovki [Water treatment operator]. Moscow: Energiya, 359 p. (in Russian).
10. Deputy Head of Soyuzglavenergo (1961). SO 34.37.513 (RD 34.37.513). Rukovodyashchie ukazaniya po magnezialnomu obeskremnivaniyu vody [Corporate Standard SO 34.37.513 (Regulatory Documents RD 34.37.513). Guidelines on silica removal from water using magnesium oxide]. Moscow: Gosenergoizdat, 100 p. (in Russian).
11. Klyachko, V. A. and Kastalsky, A. A. (1950). Ochistka vody dlya promyshlennogo vodosnabzheniya [Water treatment for industrial water supply]. Moscow: Stroyizdat, 336 p. (in Russian).
12. Knapp, R., Daily, J. and Hammit, F. (1974). Kavitatsiya [Cavitation]. Moscow: Mir, 688 p. (in Russian).
13. Lysov, D. S., Belyaev, A. N. and Flegentov, I. V. (2015). Otsenka perspektiv ispolzovaniya gidrodinamicheskoy kavitatsii v tekhnologii magnezialnogo obeskremnivaniya vody [Assessment prospects for application of hydrodynamic cavitation in the technology of silica removal from water using magnesium oxide]. In: All-Russian Annual Scientific and Practical Conference “Society, Science, Innovations”. Kirov: Vyatka State University, pp. 378–379 (in Russian).
14. Piteva, K. E. (1988). Gidrogeokhimiya (uchebnoye posobiye dlya vuzov po spetsialnosti “Gidrogeologiya i inzhenernaya geologiya”) [Hydrogeochemistry (study guide for students majoring in hydrogeology and engineering geology)], 2nd edition. Moscow: Publishing House of the Moscow State University, 315 p. (in Russian).
15. Prigun, I. V. and Krasnov, M. S. (2009). Tekhnologii ochistki vody ot kremniya. Problemy i osobennosti [Technologies of silica removal from water. Problems and main features]. In: Proceedings of the 3rd Scientific and Practical Conference “Modern technologies of water treatment and equipment protection against corrosion and scaling”, Moscow: Travers, part 1, pp. 70–81 (in Russian).
16. Stepanov, R. V. (1992). Materialy k izucheniyu prichinnosledstvennykh svyazey infarkta miokarda s vodnym faktorom [Materials to study cause-effect relations between myocardial infarction and the water factor]. PhD in Medicine. Kazan Medical Institute (in Russian).
17. Suslikov, V. L. (1979). K gigienicheskoy otsenke roli kremniya v pitevoy vode [Concerning hygienic assessment of the silicon role in drinking water]. Hygiene and Sanitation, No. 7, pp. 101–103. (in Russian).
18. Fesenko, L. N., Fedotov, R. V. and Ignatenko, S. I. (2012). Obeskremnivaniye pitevoy vody filtrovaniyem cherez modifitsirovannuyu zagruzku [Desiliconization of drinking water by modified media filtration]. Water Supply and Sanitary Technique, No. 11, pp. 20–29 (in Russian).
19. Frog, B. N. and Levchenko, A. P. (1996). Vodopodgotovka [Water treatment]. Moscow: Moscow State University, 680 p. (in Russian).
20. Shifrin, S. M. and Dmitriev, V. D. (1981). Spravochnik po ekspluatatsii sistem vodosnabzheniya, kanalizatsii i gazosnabzheniya [Reference book for operation of water and gas supply, sewerage systems]. Leningrad: Stroyizdat, 271 p. (in Russian).
21. Bergna, H. and Roberta, W (2006). Colloidal silica. Fundamentals and applications. New York: CRC/Taylor & Francis, 912 p.
Evdokimov A. A., Kiss V. V.TWO-STAGE METHOD FOR DEWATERING OF WATERED HYDROCARBONS
During combustion of watered (30–40 %) viscous fuel, it
is possible to dispose of not more than 60 % hydrocarbons.
Incomplete combustion of watered hydrocarbons affects not only
air quality and climate. The major part of incomplete combustion
products is brought back to soil and water with precipitations as
hydrocarbon pollutions. To avoid environmental contamination,
it is suggested to dewater watered fuel in advance. The separated
water shall be re-used in the same industrial cycle where the
watered hydrocarbons were generated. A station for dewatering
of watered hydrocarbons, developed by the authors, will allow
resolving the issue and making a nice profit.
Key words: combustion of watered fuel, environmental contamination, combustion gases, hydrocarbons, dewatering station, combustion temperature and completeness.
References: 1. Ahmetova, R. V., Kuvshinov, N. E., Sungatullin, R. G. and Tajmarov, M. A.(2016). Osobennosti khimicheskikh reaktsiy goreniya metano-vodorodnoy fraktsii v radiantnykh topkakh [Especially the chemical reactions of combustion of methane-hydrogen fraction in radiant furnaces]. Proceedings of the Higher Educational Institutions. Energy Sector Problems, No. 11-12, pp. 124–128. doi: 10.30724/1998-9903-2016-0-11- 12-124-128 (in Russian).
2. Bogachev, A. P., Katin, V. D. and Petrova, S. I. (2016). Povysheniye ekologicheskoy bezopasnosti szhiganiya mazuta v kotelnykh ustanovkakh [Increase of ecological security of fuel oil burn in boilers]. Scientists Notes PNU, vol. 7, No. 2, pp. 70–72 (in Russian).
3. Geller, S. V. (2010). Vodomazutnaya emulsiya — osnova ustoyichivoy i ekonomichnoy raboty kotloagregatov na lyubykh vidakh topochnogo mazuta [Water-mazut emulsion as the basis of steady and efficient functioning of boilers with any kind of fuel oil and oil-slimes]. Ecology and Industry of Russia, No. 2, pp. 10–12 (in Russian).
4. Evdokimov, A. A. (2007). Otgonny plyonochny apparat [Film-type distillation apparatus]. Patent No. 2300408 (in Russian).
5. Evdokimov, A. A. (2008). Sposob obezvozhivaniya nefteproduktov [Petroleum product dehydration process]. Patent No. 2315803 (in Russian).
6. Evdokimov, A. A. (2010). Kratkiy analiz metodov i sredstv obezvozhivaniha vyazkikh nefteproductov [Short analysis of the methods and means purification of the viscous oil products from water]. Ecology and Industry of Russia, No. 3, pp. 20–23. (in Russian).
7. Yevdokimov, A. A. (2010). Ochistka neftenalivnogo i neftetransportnogo oborudovaniya: problemy i resheniya [Bulk-oil and oil-transport equipment washing: problems and solutions]. Ecology and Industry of Russia, No. 2, pp. 7–9 (in Russian).
8. Evdokimov, A. A. (2012). Obvodnyonnye nefteotkhody — znachitelny energetichesky resurs Rossii [Watered oil wastes are significant power resource of Russia]. Ecology and Industry of Russia, No. 11, pp. 19–21 (in Russian).
9. Evdokimov, A. A. (2015). Teoriya i praktika zashchity vodoyomov ot uglevodorodnykh zagryazneniy. Monografiya [Theory and practice of water body protection against hydrocarbon pollution. Monograph]. Saarbrucken: Lambert Academic Publishing, 126 p. (in Russian).
10. Evdokimov, A. A., Evdokimov, V. A. and Evdokimov, E. A. (2005). Sposob ochistki poverkhnosti ot uglevodorodnykh zagryazneniy [Method of a surface cleaning from hydrocarbon pollutions]. Patent No. 2262396 (in Russian).
11. Evdokimov, A. A., Zhuravlev, F. V., Novoseltsev, D. V. and Smolyanov, V. M. (2003). Sposob ochistki poverkhnostey ot uglevodorodnykh zagryazneniy [Method of hydrocarbon impurities removal from surfaces]. European Patent No. EP1389229B1.
12. Evdokimov, A. A., Zhuravlev, F. V., Novoseltsev, D. V. and Smolyanov, V. M. (2003). Sposob ochistki poverkhnosti ot uglevodorodnykh zagryazneniy [Method of cleaning surfaces from hydrocarbon contamination]. Patent No. 2200637 (in Russian).
13. Yevdokimov, A. A., Yoffe, O. B. (2010). Rezultaty ispytaniy pilotnoy ustanovki obezvozhivaniya vyazkikh nefteproductov [The results of trials of pilot installation for dehydration of viscous oil products]. Ecology and Industry of Russia, No. 2, pp. 22–25 (in Russian).
14. Evdokimov, A. A., Yoffe, O. B. and Matveev, V. I. (2008). Stantsiya obezvozhivaniya nefteproduktov [Station of oil products dehydration]. Patent No. 2327504 (in Russian).
15. Evdokimov, A. A., Kiss, V. V. (2013). Kak utilizirovat obvodnyonnoye toplivo [How to utilize the watered fuel]. Ekonomika i ekologichesky menedzhment, No. 1, p. 14 (in Russian).
16. Evdokimov, A. A. and Kiss, V. V. (2016). Kak my mozem zashchitit atmosferu [How we can protect atmosphere]. In: Mezhdunarodnaya nauchno-prakticheskaya konferentsiya “Aktualnye problemy nauki XXI veka” [International Scientific and Practical Conference “Scientific problems of the 21st century”]. Moscow – Saint-Petersburg: International Research Organization “Cognitio”, pp. 31–35 (in Russian).
17. Evdokimov, A. A. and Kiss, V. V. (2016). Tonkosloynaya separatsiya emulsiy [Thin-layer emulsion separation]. Water and Ecology, No. 1, pp. 52–62 (in Russian).
18. Evdokimov, A. A. and Kiss, V. V. (2016). O tekhnologii otmyvki i sostave rabochikh tel [About washing technology and the working liquids content]. Water and Ecology, No. 3, pp. 63- 67. doi: 10.23968/2305–3488.2018.20.3.63–67 (in Russian).
19. Eskin, A. A., Rudinkov, A. S. and Tkach, N. S. (2014). Eksperimentalnoye issledovaniye vliyaniya vlagosoderzhaniya na teplotekhnicheskiye kharakteristiki topochnogo mazuta [Experimental research the influence of moisture content on fuel oil thermal characteristics]. Tekhnicheskiye Nauki — ot Teorii k Praktike, No. 39, pp. 63–71 (in Russian).
20. Zabrodin, A. G. and Zabrodina, N. A. (2017). Podgotovka k szhiganiyu obvodnyonnykh vysokovyazkikh mazutov [Preparation for combustion of watered highly viscous mazut]. Nauchnomu Progressu — Tvorchestvo Molodykh, No. 2, pp. 125–126 (in Russian).
Ignatchik V. S., Ignatchik S. Yu., Kuznetsova N. V., Spivakov M. A.PROBABILISTIC AND STATISTICAL METHOD FOR ESTIMATING THE VOLUME OF WASTE WATER DISCHARGES THROUGH STORM WATER OUTLETS OF COMBINED SEWERAGE SYSTEMS
Wastewater disposed by combined sewerage systems are
characterized by high irregularity and random character caused
by the random nature of rainfall and intensity of snow melting.
Therefore, it is impossible to prevent situations when, during
intense and over-estimated rainfall, a mixture of untreated urban
(domestic and industrial) wastewater and surface runoff will be
discharged through storm water outlets. However, according
to legislative and regulatory documents, such conditions
are unacceptable for combined sewerage systems. The first
direction in reducing discharges is introduction of flow control
units designed for transfer of wastewater between sewage catch
basins in the event of emergencies or in case when the actual
wastewater flow in one of them exceeds their available capacity,
e.g. during over-estimated rainfall. The second direction is
introduction of “virtual” regulatory tanks, the volume of which
is equal to the free volume of tunnel sewage collectors. The third
direction is associated with an increase in the actual capacity
of the main pumping stations, which ensure pumping of water
from the drainage system. However, the existing methods for
design of combined sewerage systems do not allow accounting
for the influence of each of those factors on the volume of
wastewater discharged through storm water outlets. Therefore,
it is necessary to develop such method. The purpose of the study
is to improve methods to design combined sewerage systems
with the aim to reduce discharges of untreated wastewater to
the environment through storm water outlets. As a result, a
probabilistic and statistical method is developed to determine the
volume of wastewater discharged through storm water outlets of
combined sewerage systems depending on the capacity of the
main pumping station located in the sewage catch basin, total
capacity of its “virtual” regulatory tanks and designed capacity
of inter-basin flow control units. Practical significance of the
study lies in providing grounds for decisions with the minimum
impact on the environment upon adjustment of master plans for
Key words: combined sewerage system, flow control units, sewage pumping station, capacity, probabilistic and statistical methods, non-stationary random flow.
References: 1. Vereshchagina, L. M. and Shvetsov, V. N. (2016). Razyasneniye otdelnykh polozheniy Rekomendatsiy po raschetu sistem sbora, otvedeniya i ochistki poverkhnostnogo stoka s selitebnykh territoriy i ploshchadok predpriyatiy [Explanation of separate provisions of the Recommendations for designing the systems of the surface runoff from residential areas and industrial sites collection, disposal and treatment]. Water Supply and Sanitary Technique, No. 1, pp. 50–58 (in Russian).
2. Gosstroy of the USSR (1986). SNiP 2.04.03–85. Kanalizatsiya. Naruzhnye seti i sooruzheniya [Public sewer systems and facilities]. Moscow: Central Institute of Standard Designing, Gosstroy of the USSR, 85 p (in Russian).
3. Grinev, A. P., Ignatchik, V. S., Ivanovsky, V. S., Ignatchik, S. Yu. and Kuznetsova, N. V. (2015). Rezultaty eksperimentalnogo issledovaniya neravnomernostey postupleniya stochnykh vod [Results of experimental studies of sewage water irregular inflow]. Proceedings of the Mozhaisky Military Space Academy, No. 649, pp. 153–158 (in Russian).
4. Ivanovsky, V. S., Grinev, A. P., Ignatchik, V. S., Ignatchik, S. Yu. and Kuznetsova, N. V. (2015). Metodika otsenki riska i obyemov avariynykh sbrosov stochnykh vod v okruzhayushchuyu sredu [A method of estimating the risk and volume of emergency wastewater discharges into the environment]. Proceedings of the Mozhaisky Military Space Academy, № 649, pp. 167–174 (in Russian).
5. Ivanovsky, V. S., Kuznetsova, N. V., Penkina, N. N. and Spivakov, M. A. (2018). Metodika generirovaniya sluchaynykh protsessov izmeneniya raskhodov stochnykh vod obshchesplavnykh sistem vodootvedeniya [A method of generating random processes of change in wastewater discharge of combined sewerage systems]. Proceedings of the Mozhaisky Military Space Academy, № 660, pp. 197–203 (in Russian).
6. Ignatchik, C. Y. and Kuznetsov, P. N. (2017). Metody otsenki i puti snizheniya sbrosov stochnykh vod v okruzhayushchuyu sredu. Chast 1. Metody otsenki i puti snizheniya sbrosov stochnykh vod pri zasoreniyakh ili avariyakh na uchastkakh vodootvodyashchikh setey [Estimating methods and ways of reducing waste water decrease in the environment. Part 1. Assessment methods and ways of reducing wastewater discharges when clogging or accidents at drainage network sites]. Water and Ecology, No. 1 (69), pp. 13–23. doi: 10.23968/2305- 3488.2017.19.1.13-23 (in Russian).
7. Ignatchik, V. S., Sarkisov, S. V. and Obvintsev, V. A. (2017). Issledovaniye koeffitsientov chasovoy neravnomernosti vodopotrebleniya [Research of water consumption hour inequality coefficients]. Water and Ecology, No. 2 (70), pp. 27–39. doi: 10.23968/2305-3488.2017.20.2.27–39 (in Russian).
8. Ignatchik, V. S., Sedih, N. A. and Grinev, A. P. (2017). Eksperimentalnoye issledovaniye neravnomernosti pritoka stochnykh vod [Experimental study of imperfect periodicity of sewage water]. Military Engineer, No. 4 (6), pp. 22–28 (in Russian).
9. Ignatchik, S. Yu. and Feskova, A. Ya. (2017). Issledovaniye zakonomernostey vypadeniya dozhdey v Sankt-Peterburge. Nauchno-issledovatelskiy otchet po NIR [Studying rainfall patterns in Saint Petersburg. Report on research project]. Saint Petersburg: Saint Petersburg State University of Architecture and Civil Engineering, 44 p (in Russian).
10. Karmazinov, F. V., Zhitenev, A. I., Shunto, I. P., Kuz’min, V. A., Spivakov, M. A., Pulin, O. V., Ignatchik, V. S., Ignatchik, S. Yu. and Kuznetsova, N. V. (2018). Primeneniye veroyatnostnostatisticheskikh metodov pri opredelenii trebuyemoy proizvoditelnosti uzlov regulirovaniya obshchesplavnykh sistem vodootvedeniya [The use of stochastic methods in determining the required capacity of regulating units in combined sewers]. Water Supply and Sanitary Technique, No. 11, pp. 4–11 (in Russian).
11. Karmazinov, F. V., Ignatchik, S. Yu., Kuznecova, N. V., Kuznecov, P. N. and Fes’kova, A. Ya. (2018). Metody otsenki raskhodov poverkhnostnogo stoka [Methods for calculating the surface run-off]. Water and Ecology, No. 2 (74), pp. 17–24. doi: 10.23968/2305–3488.2018.20.2.17–24 (in Russian).
12. Karmazinov, F. V., Pankova, G. A., Probirsky, M. D., Mikhaylov, D. M., Ignatchik, V. S., Ignatchik, S. Yu. and Kuznetsova, N. V. (2017). Sposob veroyatnostnoy otsenki podachi nasosnoy stantsii [Method of probabilistic assessment of pumping station supplying]. Patent No. 2620133. (in Russian).
13. Melnik, E. A., Probirski, M. D., Il’in Iu. A., Ignatchik, V. S. and Ignatchik, S. Iu. (2011). Vliyaniye iznosa vertikalnykh nasosov na nadezhnost, bezopasnost i energopotrebleniye kanalizatsionnykh nasosnykh stantsiy [Influence of tear-and-wear of vertical pumps on reliability, safety and power consumption of sewerage pumping stations]. Water Supply and Sanitary Technique, No. 4. pp. 10–18 (in Russian).
14. NII VODGEO (2014). Rekomendatsii po raschetu sistem sbora, otvedeniya i ochistki poverkhnostnogo stoka s selitebnykh territoriy, ploshchadok predpriyatiy i opredeleniyu usloviy vypuska ego v vodnyye obyekty [Recommendations for designing the systems of the surface runoff from residential areas and industrial sites collection, disposal and treatment, as well as defining conditions for its discharge in water bodies]. Moscow: Rosstroy of the Russian Federation, 89 p. (in Russian).
15. OOO “ROSEKOSTROY”, OAO “NITs Stroitelstvo” (2012). Svod pravil SP 32.13330.2012. Kanalizatsiya. Naruzhnye seti i sooruzheniya [Set of Rules SP 32.13330.2012. Sewerage. Pipelines and wastewater treatment plants]. Moscow: Ministry or Regional Development of the Russian Federation, 85 p. (in Russian).
16. President of the Russian Federation (2011). Federalny zakon ot 07.12.2011 g. № 416-FZ “O vodosnabzhenii i vodootvedenii” [Federal Law No. 416-FZ “On Water Supply and Wastewater Disposal” dated 07.12.2011]. Moscow: Rossiyskaya Gazeta, pp. 1–4 (in Russian).
17. Chernikov, N. A. (2013). Kommentarii k novym normativnym dokumentam v oblasti vodootvedeniya [Comments on new regulatory documents in the field of wastewater disposal]. In: Mezhdunarodnaya nauchno-tekhnicheskaya internet-konferentsiya v Kharkovskoy natsionalnoy akademii gorodskogo khozyaystva (KhNAGKh) “Resursosberezheniye i energoeffektivnost inzhenernoy infrastruktury urbanizirovannykh territoriy” [International Scientific and Practical Online-Conference, Kharkiv National Academy of Urban Economy, “Resource Saving and Energy Efficiency of Engineering Infrastructure in Urbanized Areas”]. Kharkiv, pp. 184–191 (in Russian).
18. Chernikov, N. A., Ivanov, V. G. and Dyuba, K. M. (2012). Ispolzuya vse rychagi. Resheniye problem okhrany vodnykh obyektov v Rossii vozmozhno tolko pri uslovii realizatsii kompleksnoy dolgosrochnoy programmy [Using all levers. Solving problems related to protection of water bodies in Russia is possible only under a long-term comprehensive program]. Voda Magazine. Zhurnal dlya professionalov vodnogo rynka, No. 8 (60), pp. 42–46 (in Russian).
Smirnov A. F.ENGINEERING SOLUTIONS REDUCING THERMAL POLLUTION OF WATER WITH SEWER DRAINS
Measures reducing thermal pollution of water bodies during
discharge of treated sewage are considered in the article. The
ecological state of the Neva Bay is analyzed, where plumes of
discharges from the south-west treatment facilities, northern and
central aeration stations in St. Petersburg are observed.
It is suggested to decrease the temperature of sewage discharged
using thermal pumps. At temperature decrease, qualitative
indicators of sewage do not change. Utilizable heat of sewage
is used to heat the heat carrier in heat consumptions (heating,
ventilation and hot water supply) systems up to 50–60°C.
Average monthly utilizable heat flux for the northern aeration
station in St. Petersburg is assessed.
Use of thermal pumps to cool water discharged allows
preventing occurrence of thermal plumes in the Neva Bay. The
difference between the temperature of water discharged and
the temperature of surrounding background waters during cold
season will not exceed 8–10°C.
Key words: sewage, thermal pollution, thermal pump.
References: 1. Bolshakov, V. N., Kachak, V. V., Kobernichenko, V. G., Lobanov, V. I., Ostrovskaya, A. V., Sovetkin, V. L., Strukova, L. V., Tygunov, G. V., Kharlampovich, G. D., Khodorovskaya, I. Yu., Shakhov, I. S. and Yaroshenko, Yu. G. (2005). Ekologiya [Ecology]. 2nd revision. Moscow: Logos, 504 p. (in Russian).
2. Vasilyev, G. P., Zakirov, D. G., Abuyev, I. M. and Gornov, V. F. (2009). O teplovom resurse stochnyh vod i ego ispolzovanii [Concerning thermal resource of sewage and its use]. Vodosnabzhenie i kanalizatsiya, No. 7, pp. 50–53 (in Russian).
3. Gosstandart of the USSR (1977). GOST 17.1.1.01–77. Okhrana prirody. Gidrosfera. Ispolzovaniye i okhrana vod. Osnovnye terminy i opredeleniya [State Standard GOST 17.1.1.01–77. Nature protection. Hydrosphere. Utilization of water and water protection. Basic terms and definitions]. Moscow: Publishing House of Standards, 31 p. (in Russian).
4. Danilovich, D. A. (2011). Energosberezheniye i alternativnaya energetika na ochistnykh sooruzheniyakh kanalizatsii [Energy conservation and alternative power sources at the wastewater treatment facilities]. Water Supply and Sanitary Technique, No. 1, pp. 9–20 (in Russian).
5. Didikov, A. E. (2016). Analiz ekonomicheskikh i ekologicheskikh aspektov primeneniya teplovykh nasosov dlya utilizatsii nizkopotentsialnogo tepla ochistnykh sooruzheniy [Analysis of economic and environmental aspects of the use of heat pumps for disposal of low-grade heat treatment facilities]. Scientific Journal NRU ITMO. Series “Economics and Environmental Management”, No. 1, pp. 92–98 (in Russian).
6. Malinin, V. N., Gordeeva, S. M., Mitina, Iu. V., and Pavlovsky, A. A. (2018). Negativnye posledstviya shtormovykh nagonov i “vekovogo” rosta urovnya v Nevskoy gube [The negative consequences of storm surges and the “age-old” level rise in the Neva Bay]. Water and Ecology, No 1 (73), pp. 48–58. doi: 10.23968/2305–3488.2018.23.1.48–58. (in Russian).
7. Martynovsky, V. S. (1979). Tsikly, skhemy i kharakteristiki termotransformatorov [Cycles, schemes and characteristics of thermotransformers]. Moscow: Energiya, 288 p. (in Russian).
8. Porompka, S. and Makhov, L. M. (2011). Dozhdevaya voda kak faktor povysheniya energeticheskoy effektivnosti teplovykh nasosov [Rain water as a factor of enhancement of power efficiency of heat pumps]. Water Supply and Sanitary Technique, No. 8, pp. 57–60 (in Russian).
9. Pupyrev, E. I. (2015). Energoeffektivnost ochistnykh sooruzheniy [Energy efficiency of treatment facilities]. Santechnika, No. 1, pp. 24–31 (in Russian).
10. Pukhkal, V. A. (1994). Ispolzovaniye teplovykh nasosov dlya teplosnabzheniya [Use of thermal pumps for heat supply]. In: Tezisy dokladov XXXIV yubileynoy NTK DVGTU [Abstracts of the XXXIV anniversary Scientific and Practical Conference of the Far Eastern Federal University, Vladivostok: Far Eastern Federal University, pp. 59 (in Russian).
11. Reay, D. and MacMichael, D. (1982). Teplovye nasosy. [Heat pumps]. Moscow: Energoizdat, 224 p. (in Russian).
12. Slesarenko, V. V., Knyazev, V. V., Wagner, V. V. and Slesarenko, I. V. (2012). Perspektivy primeneniya teplovykh nasosov pri utilizatsii teploty gorodskikh stokov [Prospects of using heat pumps when utilizing heat of municipal wastewater]. Energysaving and Watertreatment, No. 3 (77), pp. 28–33 (in Russian).
13. Tronin, A. A., Gornyy, V. I., Gruzdev, V. N. and Shilin, B. V. (2017). Mnogoletnie aerokosmicheskie nablyudeniya temperatury zemnoy poverhnosti Severo-Zapadnogo regiona RF [Long-term remote observations of land surface temperature of the North- Western region of Russia]. Current Problems in Remote Sensing of the Earth From Space, vol. 14, No. 6, pp. 73–96 (in Russian).
14. Tronin, A. A. and Shilin, B. V. (2008). Monitoring shleyfov gorodskikh ochistnykh sooruzheniy Sankt-Peterburga aerokosmicheskoy teplovoy syomkoy [Monitoring plumes from urban treatment facilities of St. Petersburg by means of thermal GPS survey]. Current Problems in Remote Sensing of the Earth From Space, issue 5, vol. 2, pp. 586–594 (in Russian).
15. Federal Agency on Technical Regulation and Metrology (2015). ITS 10-2015. Ochistka stochnykh vod s ispolzovaniyem tsentralizovannykh sistem vodootvedeniya poseleniy, gorodskikh okrugov [Information and technical reference book ITS 10-2015. Wastewater treatment using centralized water disposal systems of settlements, urban districts]. Moscow: Byuro NDT, 377 p. (in Russian).
16. Chaplygin, V. A. (2018). Opyt primeneniya teplovykh nasosov v municipalnykh energosistemakh Leningradskoy oblasti [Experience in application of heat pumps in municipal power supply systems of the Leningrad Region]. Available at: https://www.c-o-k. ru/articles/opyt-primeneniya-teplovyh-nasosov-v-municipalnyhenergosistemah- leningradskoy-oblasti (in Russian).
Dregulo A. M.IDENTIFICATION AND PREDICTION OF CLIMATIC LOADS FOR DESIGN AND OPERATION OF DRYING BEDS
Anthropogenic load, changes in physical and climatic factors
result in degradation of sanitary and technical systems for
wastewater sludge treatment in drying beds. An increase in
precipitation, neglected in design of drying beds, results in
an additional load manifesting in flushing of loaded and piled
wastewater sludge, drainage clogging in drying beds and, as
a consequence, their complete performance loss. Arrays of
meteorological stations located in the territory of the Russian
Federation are analyzed. Proposed algorithms for calculating the
climatic coefficient μ during the effective periods of regulations
are assessed in terms of their adequacy and compared. Dynamics
of climate changes, i.e. changes in air temperature and
precipitation amount in the territory of the Russian Federation,
shows that the previously introduced regulations related to
determination of the climatic coefficient μ are not adequate and
should be revised. In the previous 50 years, designs of drying
beds might have errors in terms of territory gradation according
to climatic characteristics (coefficient μ), which resulted in a
significant decrease in operation and efficiency of drying beds
and could cause their cluttering and eventually lead to their
transformation into objects of accumulated environmental
Key words: drying beds, wastewater sludge treatment, climatic factor μ, building codes.
References: 1. Voronov, Yu. V. and Yakovlev, S. V. (2006) Vodootvedeniye i ochistka stochnykh vod. Uchebnik dlya vuzov [Wastewater disposal and treatment. Textbook for higher educational institutions]. Moscow: ASV Publishing House, 704 p. (in Russian).
2. Gosstroy of the USSR (1986). SNiP 2.04.03–85. Kanalizatsiya. Naruzhnye seti i sooruzheniya [Public sewer systems and facilities]. Moscow: Central Institute of Standard Designing, Gosstroy of the USSR, 85 p (in Russian).
3. State Duma of the Russian Federation (1998). Federalny zakon “Ob otkhodakh proizvodstva i potrebleniya” ot 24.06.1998 № 89-FZ (red. 31.12.2017) [Federal law “Concerning wastes of production and consumption” No. 89-FZ dated 24.06.1998 (revision as of 31.12.2017)]. Available at: http://docs.cntd.ru/ document/901711591 (in Russian).
4. Dregulo, A. M. and Kudryavtsev, A. V. (2018) Transformatsiya antropogennykh sistem v obyektakh proshlogo ekologicheskogo ushcherba: problemy zakonodatelnoy bazy [Transformation of techno-natural systems of water treatment to objects of past environmental damage: peculiarities of the legal and regulatory framework]. Water and Ecology, No. 3, pp. 54–62. doi: 10.23968/2305–3488.2018.20.3.54–62 (in Russian).
5. Evilevich, A. Z. (1957). K raschetu ilovykh kart [Concerning design of drying beds]. Water Supply and Sanitary Technique, No. 10, pp. 30–32 (in Russian).
6. Zolina, O. G. (2011). Izmeneniye dlitelnosti sinopticheskikh dozhdevykh periodov v Evrope s 1950 po 2008 gody i ikh svyaz s ekstremalnymi osadkami [Change in the duration of synoptic rainy periods in Europe from 1950 to 2008 and their relation to extreme precipitation]. Doklady Akademii Nauk, vol. 436, No. 5, pp. 690–695 (in Russian).
7. Zolina, O. G. (2018). Statisticheskoye modelirovaniye ekstremalnykh osadkov i ikh rol v regionalnom gidrologicheskom tsikle [Statistical modeling of extreme precipitation and its role in the regional hydrological cycle]. PhD in Physics and Mathematics (extended abstract of the PhD Thesis). Moscow: Hydrometeorological Centre of Russia, 54 p. (in Russian).
8. Zolina, O. G. and Bulygina, O. N. (2016). Sovremennaya klimaticheskaya izmenchivost ekstremalnykh kharakteristik osadkov v Rossii [Current climatic variability of extreme precipitation in Russia]. Fundamental and Applied Climatology, vol. 1, pp. 84–103. doi: 10.21513/2410-8758-2016-1-84-103 (in Russian).
9. Matveeva, T. A., Gushchina, D. Y. and Zolina, O. G. (2015). Krupnomasshtabnye pokazateli ekstremalnykh osadkov v pribrezhnykh prirodnykh i ekonomicheskikh zonakh yevropeyskoy territorii Rossii [Large-scale indicators of extreme precipitation in coastal natural-economic zones of the European part of Russia]. Meteorologiya i Gidrologiya, No. 11, pp. 20–32 (in Russian).
10. OOO “ROSEKOSTROY”, OAO “NITs Stroitelstvo” (2012). Svod pravil SP 32.13330.2012. Kanalizatsiya. Naruzhnye seti i sooruzheniya [Set of Rules SP 32.13330.2012. Sewerage. Pipelines and wastewater treatment plants]. Moscow: Ministry or Regional Development of the Russian Federation, 85 p. (in Russian).
11. President of the Russian Federation (2009). Utverzhdena Klimaticheskaya doktrina Rossiyskoy Federatsii [Climate Doctrine of the Russian Federation has been approved]. Available at: http://kremlin.ru/events/president/news/6365 (in Russian).
12. Roshydromet (2005). Strategicheskiy prognoz izmeneniya klimata v Rossiyskoy Federatsii na period do 2010– 2015 gg. i yego vliyaniye na ekonomiku [Strategic forecast of climate change in the Russian Federation for the period up to 2010–2015 and its impact on the economy]. Moscow. Roshydromet, 30 p. (in Russian).
13. Federal State Statistics Service (2017). Osnovnye pokazateli okhrany okruzhayushchey sredy — 2017 [Main indicators of environmental protection — 2017]. Available at: http://www.gks.ru/bgd/regl/b_oxr17/Main.htm (in Russian).
14. Federal Service for Hydrometeorology and Environmental Monitoring (2018). Avtomatizirovannaya informatsionnaya sistema dlya obrabotki rezhimnoy informatsii (AISORI) [Automated information system for processing regime information (AISORI)]. Available at: http://meteo.ru/it/178- aisori (in Russian).
15. Chernokulsky, A. V., Kozlov, F. A., Zolina, O. G., Bulygina, O. N., Semenov, V. A. Klimatologiya osadkov raznogo genezisa v Severnoy Yevrazii [Climatology of precipitation of different genesis in Northern Eurasia]. Meteorologiya i Gidrologiya, No. 7, pp. 5–18 (in Russian).
16. O’Kelly, B. C. (2005). Sewage sludge to landfill: some pertinent engineering properties. Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association, vol. 55, issue 6, pp. 765–771. doi: 10.1080/10473289.2005.10464670.
17. United Nations Population Division (2018). Revision of World Urbanization Prospects. World Urbanization Prospects 2018. Available at: https://population.un.org/wup/Country- Profiles/.
Ermolaevа V. A.STUDY OF SEASONAL CHANGES IN HARDNESS AND ALKALINITY OF DRINKING WATER
Within the framework of the present study, quality of drinking
water (tap water and spring water) is analyzed. Water hardness
and alkalinity were analyzed under laboratory conditions
using the titrimetric method. Hardness and alkalinity trends in
different seasons of the year (in autumn and spring) are studied.
The water hardness values range from 3.4 to 9.89 mg-eq/L
in autumn, from 3.25 to 9.8 mg-eq/L in spring. Moderately
hard and hard water amounts to 92.9% of the total number of
samples, which indicates the need for water softening. The
values of water alkalinity range from 0.6 to 5.6 mg-eq/L in
spring, from 0.8 to 5.7 mg-eq/L in autumn. In all samples, water
alkalinity lies within the MAC limits. Graphic comparison of the
analysis results is carried out. A dependence between the values
of water hardness, obtained in autumn and spring, is observed:
hardness of most water samples in autumn is somewhat greater
than that in spring. A dependence between the values of water
alkalinity, obtained in autumn and spring, is observed: alkalinity
of most water samples in autumn is somewhat lower than that in
spring. Methods for hardness and alkalinity removal are briefly
Key words: water hardness, alkalinity, titrimetric analysis.
References: 1. Bystrykh, V. V. (2001). Gigienicheskaya otsenka vliyaniya pitevoj vody na zdorovye naseleniya [Hygienic assessment of the impact of drinking water on public health]. Hygiene and Sanitation, No. 2, pp. 20–22. (in Russian).
2. Vorobyeva, L. V., Semenova, V. V., Selyuzhitsky, G. V. and Bokina, L. I. (2001). Regionalnye problemy ekologogigienicheskoy bezopasnosti usloviy pitevogo vodosnabzheniya [Regional problems of environmental and hygienic safety of drinking water supply conditions]. Vestnik Sankt-Peterburgskoy gosudarstevennoy meditsinskoy akademii imeni I. I. Mechnikova, No. 1, pp. 56–61 (in Russian).
3. Chief Public Health Officer of the Russian Federation (2011). SanPiN 18.104.22.1684–01. Pitevaya voda. Gigienicheskiye trebovaniya k kachestvu vody tsentralizovannykh sistem pitevogo vodosnabzheniya. Kontrol kachestva. Gigienicheskiye trebovaniya k obespecheniyu bezopasnosti sistem goryachego vodosnabzheniya [Sanitary Regulations SanPiN 22.214.171.1245–02. Hygienic requirements for water quality of centralized drinking water supply systems. Quality control. Hygienic requirements for safety of hot-water supply systems]. Moscow: Ministry of Health of the Russian Federation, 54 p. (in Russian).
4. Greyser, E. L. and Ivanova, N. G. (2005). Presnye podzemnye vody: sostoyanie i perspektivy vodosnabzheniya naselennykh punktov i promyshlennykh obyektov [Fresh groundwater: state and prospects of water supply to populated areas and industrial facilities]. Prospect and Protection of Mineral Resources, No. 5, pp. 36–42 (in Russian).
5. Dzhamalov, R. G., Nikanorov, A. M., Reshetnyak, O S. and Safronova, T. I. (2017). Vody basseyna Oki: khimichesky sostav i istochniki zagryazneniya [The water of the Oka River basin: chemical composition and sources of pollution]. Water and Ecology, No. 3, pp. 114–132 (in Russian).
6. Ermolaeva, V. A. (2011). Issledovaniye vozmozhnosti povysheniya effektivnosti funktsionirovaniya stantsii obezzhelezivaniya pitevoj vody [Research of an opportunity of increase of efficiency of functioning of station of removal of connections of iron in potable water]. Bezopasnost’ Zhiznedeatel’nosti, No. 11 (131), pp. 24–30 (in Russian).
7. Zubrilov, S. P. (2018). Mikrozagryazniteli v pitevoj vode gorodov [Micropollutants in city’s drinking water supply]. Water and Ecology, No. 3, pp. 9–18. doi: 10.23968/2305– 3488.2018.20.3.9–18 (in Russian).
8. Krasovsky, G. N., Rakhmanin, Yu. A., Egorova, N. A., Malysheva, A. G. and Mikhailova, R. I. (2010). Gigienicheskiye osnovy formirovaniya perechney pokazateley dlya otsenki i kontrolya bezopasnosti pitevoj vody [Hygienic bases for listing indicators for evaluation and control of the safety of drinking water]. Hygiene and Sanitation, No. 4, pp. 8–12 (in Russian).
9. Interstate Council for Standardization, Metrology and Certification (2014). GOST 31954–2012. Voda pitevaya. Metody opredeleniya zhestkosti [State Standard GOST 31954–2012. Drinking water. Methods of hardness determination]. Moscow: Standartinform, 18 p. (in Russian).
10. Interstate Council for Standardization, Metrology and Certification (2014). GOST 31957–2012. Voda. Metody opredeleniya shchelochnosti i massovoy kontsentratsii karbonatov i gidrokarbonatov [State Standard GOST 31957- 2012. Water. Methods for determination of alkalinity and mass concentration of carbonates and hydrocarbonates]. Moscow: Standartinform, 30 p. (in Russian).
11. Interstate Council for Standardization, Metrology and Certification (2015). GOST 31861–2012. Voda. Obshchiye trebovaniya k otboru prob [State Standard GOST 31861– 2012. Water. General requirements for sampling]. Moscow: Standartinform, 35 p. (in Russian).
12. Rahmanin, Yu. A. and Doronina, O. D. (2010). Strategicheskiye podkhody upravleniya riskami dlya snizheniya uyazvimosti cheloveka vsledstviye izmeneniya vodnogo faktora [Strategic approaches to risk management to reduce human vulnerability due to water factor changes]. Hygiene and Sanitation, No. 2, pp. 8–13 (in Russian).
13. Ryabchikov, B. E. (2004). Sovremennye metody podgotovki vody dlya promyshlennogo i bytovogo ispolzovaniya [Modern methods of water treatment for industrial and domestic use]. Moscow: DeLi print, 328 p. (in Russian).
14. Technical Committee for Standardization (2015). GOST R 51232–98 Voda pitevaya. Obshchiye trebovaniya k organizatsii i metodam kontrolya kachestva [State Standard GOST R 51232– 98. Drinking water. General requirements for organization and quality control methods]. Moscow: Gosstandart Rossii, 21 p. (in Russian).
15. Brazovskiy, I. I., Katibnikova, G. I., Salnikova, I. A., Samoylenko, V. V. (2005). Study of the efficiency of a new reagent composition hydro-phos to decrease water hardness and scale formation. Chemistry for Sustainable Development, No. 5, pp. 599–602.
16. Dvurechenskaya, S. Ya. (2012). Analysis of consequences of contribution from major sources of chemical matter in water of Novosibirsk Reservoir. Contemporary Problems of Ecology, vol. 5, issue 4, pp. 347–351.
17. Gorbacheva, T. T., Mazukhina, S. I. and Cherepanova, T. A. (2017). Physicochemical modelling of element speciation as an addition to a biotesting method of melted snow water. Chemistry for Sustainable Development, No. 2, pp. 161–168.
18. Trusey, I. V., Gurevich, Yu. L., Ladygin, V. P., Lankin, Yu. P. and Fadeev, S. V. (2017). Analysis of the content of nitrate and ammonium ions at bioremediation of ground water polluted by oil products. Chemistry for Sustainable Development, No. 2, pp. 199–205.
Ivanyutin N. M., Podovalova S. V.ASSESSMENT OF THE BIYUK-KARASU RIVER CURRENT ECOLOGICAL STATE
The article presents results of comprehensive assessment of the
Biyuk-Karasu River pollution degree based on hydrochemical
indices of water quality, results of bio-assay using crop seeds,
and calculation of the water pollution index (WPI). Dynamics
of watercourse pollution throughout its full length, including
its main tributary — the Kuchuk-Karasu River, as well as
trends of spatial and temporal changes in river water quality
are analyzed. The choice of the river was triggered by the
following fact: its waters, earlier used for irrigation of areas
related to the Taigan irrigation system, are nowadays used for
water supply of the south-east part of the Crimea through the
system of the North Crimean Canal, since water resources in this
region are insufficient to satisfy the needs of local population.
Comprehensive researches showed elevated concentrations of
sulfates, which reached 2.4 MAC (section No. 4) and 1.45 MAC
(section No. 13). The elevated content of heavy metals in waters
of the Biyuk-Karasu River was also observed: lead — up to 4
MAC, zinc — up to 3.6 MAC (section No. 3), copper — up
to 2.73 MAC (section No. 2). Heavy metals in waters of the
Kuchuk-Karasu River were not found. Bio-assay of Biyuk-
Karasu and Kuchuk-Karasu Rivers’ waters did not reveal such
acute toxic effects like stimulation or inhibition of root system
development in test cultures. However, in river water samples,
selected in the lower courses at section No. 6 (Biyuk-Karasu
River) and section No. 14 (Kuchuk-Karasu River), an increase
in root system development in test cultures, which amounts to
116–121% (at the limit up to 120%), is observed. The water
pollution index (WPI) shows that the ecological state of the
watercourse has deteriorated and now it is at the threshold stage
of transition from class III (“moderately polluted”) to class IV
Key words: Biyuk-Karasu River, ecological state, bio-assay, anthropogenic effect, water pollution index.
References: 1. Volkova, N. Ye. and Zakharov, R. Yu. (2017). Osobennosti vodokhozyaystvennoy ekosistemy reki Maly Salgir [Features of water management ecosystem of the river Small Salgir]. Puti povysheniya effektivnosti oroshayemogo zemledeliya, No. 2 (66), pp. 11–17 (in Russian).
2. All-Russian Research Center for Standardization, Information and Certification of Raw Materials, Materials and Substances (2015). GOST 32627–2014. Metody ispytaniy khimicheskoy produktsii, predstavlyayushchey opasnost dlya okruzhayushchey sredy. Nazemnyye rasteniya. Ispytaniye na fitotoksichnost [State Standard GOST 32627–2014. Testing of chemicals of environmental hazard. Terrestrial plant test: vegetative vigour test]. Moscow: Standartinform, 20 p. (in Russian).
3. Galiakberov, V. V., Dementyev, D. G. and Belozerova E. A. (2017). Fitotoksichnost poverhnostnykh vod reki Maly Kizil [Phytotoxicity of the surface waters of the Maly Kizil River]. In: Sbornik materialov XXVIII mezhdunarodnoy nauchnoprakticheskoy konferentsii “International scientific news 2017” [Proceedings of the 28th International Scientific Conference “International scientific news 2017”], Moscow: Olimp, pp. 95–98 (in Russian).
4. Hydrochemical Institute (2002). RD 52.24.643–2002. Metodicheskiye ukazaniya. Metod kompleksnoy otsenki stepeni zagryazneyonnosti poverkhnostnykh vod po gidrokhimicheskim pokazatelyam [Regulatory Document RD 52.24.643–2002. Methodical guidelines. Method of comprehensive assessment of the pollution rate of surface waters using hydrochemical indicators]. Rostov-on-Don: Rosgidromet, 50 p. (in Russian).
5. Hydrochemical Institute (2016). RD 52.24.309–2016. Organizatsiya i provedeniye rezhimnykh nablyudeniy za sostoyaniyem i zagryazneniyem poverkhnostnykh vod sushi [Regulatory Document RD 52.24.309–2016. Organization and implementation of monitoring observations of the state and pollution of land surface waters]. Rostov-on-Don: Rosgidromet, 100 p. (in Russian).
6. Chief Public Health Officer of the Russian Federation (2003). SanPiN 126.96.36.1995–02. Gigiyenicheskiye trebovaniya k kachestvu vody netsentralizovannogo vodosnabzheniya. Sanitarnaya okhrana istochnikov [Sanitary Rules and Regulations SanPiN 188.8.131.525–02. Hygienic requirements for water quality of non-centralized water supply systems. Sanitary protection of sources]. Moscow: Ministry of Health of the Russian Federation, 20 p. (in Russian).
7. State Committee on Sanitary and Epidemiological Surveillance of the Russian Federation (1997). SanPiN 184.108.40.2063– 96. Gigiyenicheskiye trebovaniya k ispolzovaniyu stochnykh vod i ikh osadkov dlya orosheniya i udobreniya [Sanitary Regulations SanPiN 220.127.116.113–96. Hygienic requirements for wastewater and sewage sludge which is used for land irrigation and fertilization]. Moscow: Ministry of Health of the Russian Federation, 55 p. (in Russian).
8. Dan, E. L. and Kapustin, A. E. (2016). Indeks zagryazneniya vody kak pokazatel ekologicheskogo sostoyaniya vodoyemov g. Mariupolya [Water pollution index as an indicator of the ecological state of Mariupol water bodies]. In: Aktualnyye problemy sovremennoy nauki. Sbornik tezisov nauchnykh rabot XIV Mezhdunarodnoy nauchno-prakticheskoy konferentsii [Actual Problems of Modern Science: Abstracts of XІV International Scientific-Practical Conference]. Kiev: International Scientific Center, pp. 28–30 (in Russian).
9. Devyatova, T. A., Yablonskikh, L. A., Chuvychkin, A. L. and Titova, N. V. (2016). Ekologichesky monitoring malykh rek basseyna Srednego Dona (na primere reki Devitsa) [Environmental monitoring of small rivers in the Central Don basin (case study of the Devitsa River).] In: Materialy zaochnoy mezhdunarodnoy nauchno-prakticheskoy konferentsii “Sovremennye ekologicheskiye problemy Tsentralno-Chernozemnogo regiona [Proceedings of the International Scientific and Practical Conference with Virtual Participation “Modern Environmental Problems of the Central Chernozem Region”], Saint Petersburg: Roza Vetrov, pp. 66–72 (in Russian).
10. Ermakova, N. Yu. (1993). Biologicheskoye testirovaniye sostoyaniya geologicheskoy sredy v sfere vliyaniya krupnykh promyshlennykh predpriyatiy Kryma [Bio-assay techniques for determination of the geological environment state in the sphere of influence of large industrial enterprises in Crimea]. In: Ekologicheskaya gidrogeologiya stran Baltiyskogo morya. Tezisy dokladov mezhdunarodnogo seminara [Ecological hydrogeology of Baltic Sea countries. Proceedings of the International Scientific Seminar. Saint Petersburg: Saint Petersburg State University, 139 p. (in Russian).
11. Ermakova, N. Yu. (2000). Rekomendatsii po primeneniyu biotestirovaniya dlya ekspressnykh geotoksikologicheskikh issledovaniy podzemnoy gidrosfery i drugikh obyektov geologicheskoy sredy [Recommendations for use of bio-assay in express geo-toxicological studies of the underground hydrosphere and other objects of the geological environment]. Mineralnyye resursy Ukrainy [Mineral Resources of Ukraine], 2, pp. 41–42 (in Russian).
12. Ermakova, N. Yu. (2017). Vyyavleniye ochagov zagryazneniya prirodnykh vod metodom biologicheskogo testirovaniya i aktualnost ego primeneniya v ekologicheskom monitoringe gidrosfery Kryma [Identification of natural waters’ pollution points using bio-assay techniques and relevance of their use in ecological monitoring of the hydrosphere in Crimea]. In: Arkadyev V. V. (ed.) Sbornik “Polevyye praktiki v sisteme vysshego obrazovaniya. Materialy Pyatoy Vserossiyskoy konferentsii. Posvyashchayetsya 65-letiyu Krymskoy uchebnoy praktiki po geologicheskomu kartirovaniyu Leningradskogo-Sankt- Peterburgskogo gosudarstvennogo universiteta” [Collection of articles “Field practices in the system of higher education. Proceedings of the 5th All-Russian Conference dedicated to the 65th anniversary of practical training in geological mapping in Crimea, arranged by the (Leningrad) Saint Petersburg State University”], pp. 150–152 (in Russian).
13. Ivanova, V. V. (2012). Osobennosti gidrografii reki Kuban i stepen eyo zagryazneniya [Kuban River hydrography peculiarities and degree of its pollution]. The North Caucasus Ecological Herald, vol. 8, No. 1, pp. 80–84 (in Russian).
14. Ivanyutin, N. M. and Podovalova, S. V. (2018). Izucheniye transformatsii kachestva vod reki Alma pod vliyaniyem antropogennoy deyatelnosti [Studying Alma River water quality transformation under the influence of anthropogenic activity]. Water and Ecology, No. 4 (76), pp. 9–19. doi: 0.23968/2305- 3488.2018.23.4.9-19 (in Russian).
15. Lopareva, T. Ya. and Sharipova, O. A. (2013). Otsenka kachestva vody ozera Balkhash soglasno kompleksnym indeksam zagryazneniya [Estimation of the Balkhash Lake water quality by complex indexes of pollution]. Hydrometeorology and Ecology, No. 1 (68), pp. 145–149 (in Russian).
16. Klepov, V. I. and Ragulina, I. V. (2017). Otsenka kachestva vodnykh resursov v verkhney chasti basseyna reki Moskvy [Qualitative assessment of water resources in the upper part of the Moscow River basin]. Environmental Engineering, No. 3, pp. 14–21 (in Russian).
17. Ministry of Agriculture of the Russian Federation (2016). Prikaz No. 552 ot 13.12.2016 “Ob utverzhdenii normativov kachestva vody vodnykh obyektov rybokhozyaystvennogo znacheniya, v tom chisle normativov predelno dopustimykh kontsentratsiy vrednykh veshchestv v vodakh vodnykh obyektov rybokhozyaystvennogo znacheniya [Order No. 552 dd. 13.12.2016 “Concerning approval of water quality standards for fishery water bodies, including maximum allowable concentrations of hazardous substances in waters of fishery water bodies”]. Moscow: Ministry of Agriculture of the Russian Federation, 153 p. (in Russian).
18. Timchenko, Z. V. (2002). Vodnyye resursy i ekologicheskoye sostoyaniye malykh rek Kryma [Water resources and ecological state of minor rivers in Crimea]. Simferopol: Dolya, 152 p. (in Russian).
19. Shabanov, V. V. and Markin, V. N. (2014). Metodika ekologo-vodokhozyaystvennoy otsenki vodnykh obyektov [Method of ecological and water economic assessment of water bodies]. Monograph. Moscow: Russian State Agrarian University — Moscow Timiryazev Agricultural Academy, 166 p. (in Russian).
20. Shaikhutdinova, A. A., Trubnikova, A. S. and Kadyrgulova, A. F. (2017). Biotestirovaniye prirodnoy vody r. Beloy po prorostkam rasteniy-indikatorov [Biotesting of natural water in the river Belaya by means of plant sprout indicators]. IZVESTIA Orenburg State Agrarian University, No. 6 (68), pp. 204–207 (in Russian).
21. Peltier, W. H. (1986). Impact of an industrial effluent on aquatic organisms: EPA region IV case history. Environmental Hazard Assessment of Effluents. Proceedings of the Pellston Environmental Workshop. Cody, Wyoming, pp. 216–227. United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) (2002). Methods for measuring the acute toxicity of effluents and receiving waters to freshwater and marine organisms. Fifth Edition. U. S. Environmental Protection Agency. Office of Water (4303T). Washington. DC20460. 266 p.
Maksimova Yu. G., Burlutskaya E. Yu., Maksimov A. Yu.BACTERIAL COMMUNITIES OF ACTIVATED SLUDGE AT TREATMENT PLANTS IN PERM (RUSSIA)
Studying activated sludge biodiversity can serve as a basis
for choosing alternative ways for disposal of excess activated
sludge. The purpose of the study was to explore diversity of the
activated sludge bacterial community at municipal and industrial
biological wastewater treatment plants (BWWTPs) in Perm
using the method of metagenomic sequencing and determine
the possibility of accumulating polyhydroxyalkanoates with a
biomass of mixed cultures. The following methods were used:
metagenomic sequencing of 16S rRNA genes, epifluorescence
microscopy, atomic absorption method for determination
of heavy metals concentration. As a result, biodiversity of
activated sludge at municipal BWWTPs, an oil refinery (OR)
and a pulp-and-paper mill (PPM) (Perm, Russia) was analyzed.
It was shown that Proteobacteria, Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes
were the dominant phyla of the Bacteria domain in all samples
studied, with Proteobacteria in activated sludge at the municipal
BWWTPs being 55 %, industrial BWWTPs — from 26 (OR)
to 62% (PPM). Activated sludge at OR treatment facilities was
dominated by Firmicutes (45 %), and the dominant family
was Peptostreptococcaceae (61 %). In activated sludge of
the anaerobic and aerobic zones of the aerotank at municipal
BWWTPs, the Acinetobacter genus dominated — 12 and 44 %,
respectively, at PPM treatment facilities — Sulfuricurvum sp.
(17 %), OR treatment facilities — Romboutsia sp. (50 %). It
was shown that after growing the biomass of activated sludge
in the nitrogen-limited medium with sodium butyrate, the cells
of all samples contained inclusions of polyhydroxyalkanoates.
Polyhydroxyalkanoates production can be considered as an
option for the use of excess activated sludge.
Key words: activated sludge, metagenomics, bacterial diversity, polyhydroxyalkanoates.
References: 1. Glover, D. (1988). Klonirovaniye DNK. Metody [DNA cloning. Methods]. Moscow: Mir, 538 p. (in Russian)
2. Federal Agency on Technical Regulation and Metrology (2001). GOST R 17.4.3.07–2001. Okhrana prirody. Pochvy. Trebovaniya k svoystvam osadkov stochnykh vod pri ispolzovanii ikh v kachestve udobreniy [State Standard GOST R 17.4.3.07– 2001. Nature protection. Soil. Requirements for sewage sludge use for fertilization]. Moscow: Standartinform, 5 p. (in Russian).
3. Ivanov, V. A., Perevedencev, S. V. and Tiger, L. M. (2015). Sovershenstvovaniye tekhnologiy pererabotki organicheskoy chasti bioshlama stochnykh vod ZhKH [Improvement of technologies processing of organic part bioslime of sewage]. Available at: http://naukovedenie.ru/PDF/139TVN115.pdf (in Russian).
4. Federal Service for Surveillance on Consumer Rights Protection and Human Wellbeing (2006). GN 18.104.22.1681–06. Predelno dopustimye kontsentratsii (PDK) khimicheskikh veshchestv v pochve [Hygienic Standards GN 22.214.171.1241–06. Maximum allowable concentrations (MAC) of chemicals in soil]. Moscow: Federal Hygiene and Epidemiology Center of the Federal Service for Surveillance on Consumer Rights Protection and Human Wellbeing, 15 p. (in Russian).
5. Bratina, B., Sorgo, A., Kramberger, J., Ajdnik, U., Zemljič, L. F., Ekart, J. and Šafarič, R. (2016). From municipal/ industrial wastewater sludge and FOG to fertilizer: a proposal for economic sustainable sludge management. Journal of Environmental Management, vol. 183, part 3, pр. 1009–1025. doi: 10.1016/j.jenvman.2016.09.063.
6. Cavaillé, L., Grousseau, E., Pocquet, M., Lepeuple, A. S., Uribelarrea, J.-L., Hernandez-Raquet, G. and Paul, E. (2013). Polyhydroxybutyrate production by direct use of waste activated sludge in phosphorus-limited fed-batch culture. Bioresource Technology, vol. 149, рp. 301–309. doi: 10.1016/j. biortech.2013.09.044.
7. Cha, S.-H., Son, J.-H., Jamal, Y., Zafar, M. and Park, H.-S. (2016). Characterization of polyhydroxyalkanoates extracted from wastewater sludge under different environmental conditions. Biochemical Engineering Journal, vol. 112, рp. 1–12. doi: 10.1016/j.bej.2015.12.021.
8. Delforno, T. P., Lacerda, G. V. Jr., Sierra-Garcia, I. N., Okada, D. Y., Macedo, T. Z., Varesche, M. B. A. and Oliveira, V. M. (2017). Metagenomic analysis of the microbiome in three different bioreactor configurations applied to commercial laundry wastewater treatment. Science of the Total Environment, vol. 587–588, pр. 389–398. doi: 10.1016/j. scitotenv.2017.02.170.
9. Fernández-Dacosta, C., Posada, J. A., Kleerebezem, R., Cuellar, M. C. and Ramirez, A. (2015). Microbial communitybased polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) production from wastewater: techno-economic analysis and ex-ante environmental assessment. Bioresource Technology, vol. 185, pр. 368–377. doi: 10.1016/j.biortech.2015.03.025.
10. Ferrera, I. and Sánchez, O. (2016). Insights into microbial diversity in wastewater treatment systems: how far have we come? Biotechnology Advances, vol. 34, issue 5, pр. 790–802. doi: 10.1016/j.biotechadv.2016.04.003.
11. Gomes, N. C. M., Landi, L., Smalla, K., Nannipieri, P., Brookes, P. C. and Renella, G. (2010). Effects of Cd- and Zn-enriched sewage sludge on soil bacterial and fungal communities. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, vol. 73, issue 6, pр.1255–1263. doi: 10.1016/j.ecoenv.2010.07.027.
12. Guerra, A. B., Oliveira, J. S., Silva-Portela, R. C. B., Araújo, W., Carlos, A. C., Vasconcelos, A. T. R., Freitas, A. T., Domingos, Y. S., de Farias, M. F., Fernandes, G. J. T. and Agnez- Lima, L. F. (2018). Metagenome enrichment approach used for selection of oil-degrading bacteria consortia for drill cutting residue bioremediation. Environmental Pollution, vol. 235, рp. 869–880. doi: 10.1016/j.envpol.2018.01.014.
13. Guo, J., Ni, B.-J., Han, X., Chen, X., Bond, P., Peng, Y. and Yuan, Z. (2017). Data on metagenomic profiles of activated sludge from a full-scale wastewater treatment plant. Data in Brief, vol. 15, pр. 833–839. doi: 10.1016/j.dib.2017.10.048.
14. Guo, J., Ni, B.-J., Han, X., Chen, X., Bond, P., Peng Y. and Yuan Z. (2017). Unraveling microbial structure and diversity of activated sludge in a full-scale simultaneous nitrogen and phosphorus removal plant using metagenomic sequencing. Enzyme and Microbial Technology, vol. 102, pр. 16–25. doi: 10.1016/j.enzmictec.2017.03.009.
15. He, S., Ding, L., Li, K., Hu, H., Ye, L. and Ren, H. (2018). Comparative study of activated sludge with different individual nitrogen sources at a low temperature: Effluent dissolved organic nitrogen compositions, metagenomic and microbial community. Bioresource Technology, vol. 247, pр. 915–923. doi: 10.1016/j. biortech.2017.09.026.
16. Ibarbalz, F. M., Figuerola, E. L. M. and Erijman, L. (2013). Industrial activated sludge exhibit unique bacterial community composition at high taxonomic ranks. Water Research, vol. 47, issue 11, pр. 3854–3864. doi: 10.1016/j. watres.2013.04.010.
17. Imhoff, J. F. (2014). The Family Chromatiaceae. In: Rosenberg, E., DeLong, E. F., Lory, S., Stackebrandt, E. and Thompson, F. (eds) The Prokaryotes. Gammaproteobacteria. 4th edition. Berlin, Heidenberg: Springer-Verlag, pр. 151–178. doi: 10.1007/978-3-642-38922-1_295.
18. Kodama, Y. and Watanabe, K. (2004). Sulfuricurvum kujiense gen. nov., sp. nov., a facultatively anaerobic, chemolithoautotrophic, sulfur-oxidizing bacterium isolated from an underground crude-oil storage cavity. International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology, vol. 54, pр. 2297–2300. doi: 10.1099/ijs.0.63243-0.
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20. Lee, W. S., Chua, A. S. M., Yeoh, H. K., Nittami, T. and Ngoh, G. C. (2015). Strategy for the biotransformation of fermented palm oil mill effluent into biodegradable polyhydroxyalkanoates by activated sludge. Chemical Engineering Journal, vol. 269, рp. 288–297. doi: 10.1016/j. cej.2015.01.103.
21. Ma, Q., Qu, Y., Shen, W., Zhang, Z., Wang, J., Liu, Z., Li, D., Li, H. and Zhou, J. (2015). Bacterial community compositions of coking wastewater treatment plants in steel industry revealed by Illumina high-throughput sequencing. Bioresource Technology, vol. 179, pp. 436–443. doi: 10.1016/j. biortech.2014.12.041.
22. Ma, Q., Qu, Y.-Y., Zhang, X.-W., Shen, W.-L., Liu, Z.-Y., Wang, J.-W., Zhang, Z.-J. and Zhou, J.-T. (2015). Identification of the microbial community composition and structure of coalmine wastewater treatment plants. Microbiological Research, vol. 175, pр. 1–5. doi: 10.1016/j.micres.2014.12.013.
23. Mesquita, D. P., Amaral, A. L., Leal, C., Oehmen, A., Reis, M. A. M. and Ferreira, E. C. (2015). Polyhydroxyalkanoate granules quantification in mixed microbial cultures using image analysis: Sudan Black B versus Nile Blue A staining. Analytica Chimica Acta, vol. 865, pр. 8–15. doi: 10.1016/j. aca.2015.01.018.
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25. Morgan-Sagastume, F., Valentino, F., Hjort, M., Cirne, D. G., Karabegovic, L., Gerardin, F., Johansson, P., Karlsson, A., Magnusson, P., Alexandersson, T., Bengtsson, S., Majone, M. and Werker, A. G. (2014). Polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) production from sludge and municipal wastewater treatment. Water Science and Technology, vol. 69, issue 1, pр. 177–184. doi: 10.2166/wst.2013.643.
26. Pittmann, T. and Steinmetz, H. (2017). Polyhydroxyalkanoate production on waste water treatment plants: process scheme, operating conditions and potential analysis for German and European Municipal waste water treatment plants. Bioengineering, vol. 4, issue 2, 54. doi: 10.3390/bioengineering4020054.
27. Raheem, A., Sikarwar, V. S., He, J., Dastyar, W., Dionysiou, D. D., Wang, W. and Zhao, M. (2018). Opportunities and challenges in sustainable treatment and resource reuse of sewage sludge: a review. Chemical Engineering Journal, vol. 337, pр. 616–641. doi: 10.1016/j.cej.2017.12.149.
28. Serafim, L. S., Lemos, P. C., Oliveira, R. and Reis, M. A. M. (2004). Optimization of polyhydroxybutyrate production by mixed cultures submitted to aerobic dynamic feeding conditions. Biotechnology Bioengineering, vol. 87, issue 2, pр. 145–160. doi: 10.1002/bit.20085.
29. Slobodkin, A. (2014). The Family Peptostreptococcaceae. In: Rosenberg, E., DeLong, E. F., Lory, S., Stackebrandt, E., Thompson, F. (eds). The Prokaryotes. Firmicutes and Tenericutes. 4th edition. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer-Verlag, pp. 291–302. doi: 10.1007/978-3-642-30120-9_217.
30. Tian, M., Zhao, F., Shen, X., Chu, K., Wang, J., Chen, S., Guo, Y. and Liu, H. (2015). The first metagenome of activated sludge from full-scale anaerobic/anoxic/oxic (A2O) nitrogen and phosphorus removal reactor using Illumina sequencing. Journal of Environmental Sciences, vol. 35, pp. 181–190. doi: 10.1016/j.jes.2014.12.027.
31. Vlasova, M., Parra, A. P., Aguilar, P. A. M, Estrada, A. T., Molina, V. G., Kakazey, M., Tomila, T. and Gómez-Vidales, V. (2018). Closed cycle of recycling of waste activated sludge. Waste Management, vol. 71, pр. 320–333. doi: 10.1016/j. wasman.2017.10.051.
32. Wang, Y., Song, J., Zhai, Y., Zhang, C., Gerritsen, J., Wang, H., Chen, X., Li, Y., Zhao, B., Zhao, B., and Ruan, Z. (2015). Romboutsia sedimentorum sp. nov., isolated from an alkaline-saline lake sediment and emended description of the genus Romboutsia. International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology, vol. 65, issue 4, pр. 1193–1198. doi: 10.1099/ijs.0.000079.
33. Yadav, T. C., Khardenavis, A. A. and Kapley, A. (2014). Shifts in microbial community in response to dissolved oxygen levels in activated sludge. Bioresource Technology, vol. 165, pр. 257–264. doi: 10.1016/j.biortech.2014.03.007.
34. Yadav, T. C., Pal, R. R., Shastri, S., Jadeja, N. B. and Kapley, A. (2015). Comparative metagenomics demonstrating different degradative capacity of activated biomass treating hydrocarbon contaminated wastewater. Bioresource Technology, vol. 188, pр. 24–32. doi: 10.1016/j.biortech.2015.01.141.
35. Yang, Q., Zhao, H. and Du, B. (2017). Bacteria and bacteriophage communities in bulking and non-bulking activated sludge in full-scale municipal wastewater treatment systems. Biochemical Engineering Journal, vol. 119, pр. 101–111. doi: 10.1016/j.bej.2016.12.017.
Naumova M. E., Bukharina I. L., Vedernikov K. E.DEVELOPMENT OF METHODS TO DETERMINE THE MAXIMUM INPUT OF POLLUTANTS FROM THE PODBORENKA RIVER INTO THE IZHEVSK RESERVOIR (in terms of Nickel, Copper and Zinc)
Degradation of water quality in the Izhevsk Reservoir
constitutes an important problem. Pollutants enter the reservoir
both with wastewater from industrial enterprises and through
the catchment area of the water body. Intensive construction
at sites related to the reservoir catchment area started a while
ago, leading to significant deterioration in water quality and
eutrophication enhancement. Unfortunately, there is no unified
system for monitoring over the state of the Izhevsk Reservoir
and its catchment area, and the impact of the catchment area
on the reservoir is not assessed. The purpose of the study is to
analyze geo-ecological indicators of minor rivers in the basin
(case study of the Podborenka River) under conditions of the
urbanized environment to assess the impact of heavy metals’
input into the Izhevsk Reservoir and set corresponding limits.
The Podborenka River flows into the Izhevsk Reservoir,
forming a local pollution focus. Hydrological characteristics,
water quality in the Podborenka River and its influence on the
state of the reservoir are studied. Maximum excess (multiplicity)
of allowable concentrations of heavy metals is determined, the
water pollution level in the river is estimated from different
observation points. Anthropogenic impact on the Podborenka
River is caused by commercial activity both within the catchment
area and in the watercourse itself. An algorithm is proposed to
determine the maximum permissible inputs of heavy metals
from the Podborenka River into the Izhevsk Reservoir.
Key words: minor river, heavy metals, observation points, pollution volumes, water quality, maximum permissible inputs of heavy metals, Izhevsk Reservoir.
References: 1. Amosov, D. V., Akhmetzyanova, N. Sh. et al. (2003). Ekologicheskiye problemy malykh rek Respubliki Tatarstan (na primere Meshi, Kazanki i Sviyagi) [Ecological problems of minor rivers in the Republic of Tatarstan (case study of the Mesha River, Kazanka River and Sviyaga River)]. Kazan: Fen, 289 р. (in Russian).
2. Bykov, V. D. and Vasilyev, A. V. (1977). Gidrometriya: uchebnoye posobiye [Hydrometry: textbook]. Leningrad: Gidrometeoizdat, 448 p. (in Russian).
3. Hydrochemical Institute (2011). RD 52.24.309–2011. Organizatsiya i provedeniye rezhimnykh nablyudeniy za sostoyaniyem i zagryazneniyem poverkhnostnykh vod sushi: [Regulatory Document RD 52.24.309–2011. Organization and implementation of monitoring observations of the state and pollution of land surface waters]. Rostov-on-Don: Rosgidromet, Hydrotechnical Institute, 104 p. (in Russian).
4. Hydrochemical Institute (2012). R 52.24.353–2012. Otbor prob poverkhnostnykh vod sushi i ochishchennykh stochnykh vod [Recommendations R 52.24.353–2012. Sampling of land surface water and treated wastewater]. Rostov-on-Don: Rosgidromet, Hydrochemical Institute, 36 p. (in Russian).
5. Chief Public Health Officer of the Russian Federation (2000). SanPin 126.96.36.1990–00. Gigiyenicheskiye trebovaniya k okhrane poverkhnostnykh vod [Sanitary Rules and Regulations SanPiN 188.8.131.520–00. Hygienic requirements for surface water protection]. Moscow: Ministry of Health of the Russian Federation, 18 p. (in Russian).
6. Levin, A. V. (2007). Geoekologicheskiy analiz territorii vodosbora maloy reki: na primere basseyna Ugry [Geoecological analysis of the catchment area of a minor river: case study of the Ugra basin]. PhD in Geography. Moscow: Moscow Region State University, 191 p. (in Russian).
7. Ministry of Natural Resources of the Russian Federation (2007). Prikaz Ministerstva prirodnykh resursov RF ot 17 dekabrya 2007 g. N 333 “Ob utverzhdenii metodiki razrabotki normativov dopustimykh sbrosov veshchestv i mikroorganizmov v vodnye obyekty dlya vodopolzovateley” [Order of the Ministry of Natural Resources of the Russian Federation No. 333 dd. 17.12. 2007 “On approval of a method for determination of permissible discharges of substances and microorganisms into water bodies for water users”] (in Russian).
8. Nagornova, N. N. (2012). Geoekologicheskaya otsenka sostoyaniya malykh vodotokov Kaliningradskoy oblasti [Geoecological assessment of the state of minor watercourses in the Kaliningrad Region]. PhD in Geography. Kaliningrad: Kaliningrad State Technical University (in Russian).
9. Naumova, M. E., Bukharina, I. L. (2015). Dinamika soderzhaniya medi v poverkhnostnykh vodakh reki Podborenka [Dynamics of the copper content in the Podborenka River surface water]. Water Sector of Russia: Problems, Technologies, Management, No. 4, pp. 110–119 (in Russian).
10. Naumova, M. E. and Bukharina, I. L. (2017). Otsenka kachestva vody malykh rek Podborenka i Pazelinka vodosbornoy ploshchadi Izhevskogo vodokhranilishcha [Assessment of the Izhevsk Reservoir cathcment Podborenka and Pazelinka small water quality]. Water Sector of Russia: Problems, Technologies, Management, No. 4, pp. 48–59 (in Russian).
11. Potapova, E. V., Pshenichnikova, M. E. and Sokolova, O. E. (2016). Issledovaniye sostoyaniya vodookhrannykh zon rek g. Irkutska [Investigation of the water protection zones of rivers Irkutsk]. The Bulletin of Irkutsk State University. Series “Earth Sciences”, vol. 15. pp. 89–103 (in Russian).
12. Sidorova, M. Yu. (2012). Geoekologicheskaya otsenka zagryazneniya territorii Novosibirska i ego malykh rek [Geoecological assessment of pollution in the territory of Novosibirsk and its minor rivers]. PhD in Geography. Barnaul: Institute for Water and Environmental Problems of the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences (in Russian).
13. Technical Committee for Standardization TK 343 “Kachestvo Vody” (2008). GOST R 51592–2000 Voda. Obshchiye trebovaniya k otboru prob vody [State Standard GOST R 51592–2000. Water. General requirements for sampling]. Moscow: Standardinform, 45 p. (in Russian).
14. Timchenko, Z. V. (2000). Otsenka geoekologicheskogo sostoyaniya vodnykh resursov malykh rek (na primere malykh rek severnogo makrosklona Krymskikh gor) [Assessing the geoecological state of water resources of minor rivers (case study of minor rivers on the northern macro slope in the Crimean mountains)]. PhD in Geography. Simferopol: Taurida National University.
15. Tuganaev, V. V. (2002). Izhevsky prud: sbornik statey [Izhevsk Pond: collection of articles]. Izhevsk: Publishing House “Udmurtsky Universitet”, 187 p. (in Russian).
16. Federal Agency for Fisheries (2010). Prikaz No. 20 ot 18 yanvarya 2010 g. “Ob utverzhdenii normativov kachestva vody vodnykh obyеktov rybokhozyaystvennogo znacheniya, v tom chisle normativov predelno dopustimykh kontsentratsiy vrednykh veshchestv v vodakh vodnykh obyеktov rybokhozyaystvennogo znacheniya” [Order No. 20 dd. 18.01.2010 “Concerning approval of water quality standards for fishery water bodies, including maximum permissible concentrations of hazardous substances in waters of fishery water bodies”]. Moscow: Rosrybolovstvo, 369 p. (in Russian).
17. Center for Environmental Monitoring and Water Analysis (2002). PND F 14.1:2:4.183–02. Metodika izmereniy massovoy koncentratsii tsinka v probakh prirodnykh, pitevykh i stochnykh vod fluorimetricheskim metodom na analizatore zhidkosti “FLYUORAT-02” [Regulatory document for nature protection (federative) PND F 14.1:2:4.183–02. Method for measurement of zinc mass concentration in samples of natural, drinking and waste water by means of fluorimetric method using liquid analyzer “FLYUORAT-02”]. Moscow: Rosstandart, 18 p. (in Russian).
18. Center for Environmental Monitoring and Water Analysis (2003). PND F 14.1:2:4.202–03. Metodika izmereniy massovoy koncentratsii nikelya v probakh prirodnykh, pitevykh i stochnykh vod fotometricheskim metodom na analizatore zhidkosti “FLYUORAT-02” [Regulatory document for nature protection (federative) PND F 14.1:2:4.202–03. Method for measurement of nickel mass concentration in samples of natural, drinking and wastewater by means of photometric method using liquid analyzer “FLYUORAT-02”]. Moscow: Rosstandart, 14 p. (in Russian).
19. Center for Environmental Monitoring and Water Analysis (2010). PND F 14.1:2:4.257–10. Metodika izmereniy massovoy koncentratsii medi v probakh prirodnykh, pitevykh i stochnykh vod fluorimetricheskim metodom na analizatore zhidkosti “FLYUORAT-02” [Regulatory document for nature protection (federative) PND F 14.1:2:4.257–10. Method for measurement of copper mass concentration in samples of natural, drinking and waste water by means of the fluorimetric method using liquid analyzer “FLYUORAT-02”]. Moscow: Rosstandart, 13 p. (in Russian).
20. Chernyaev, A. M. (2001). Voda Rossii. Malye reki [Waters of Russia. Small rivers]. Yekaterinburg: AKVA-PRESS, 804 p. (in Russian).
21. Naumova, M. and Bukharina, I. (2015). The impact of human activities on the oil content in the water of the river Podborenka. Japanese Educational and Scientific Review, No. 1 (9), pp. 423–427.
22. Vannote, R. L., Minshall, G. W., Cummins, K. W., Sedell, J. R. and Cushing, C. E. (1980). The river continuum concept. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, vol. 37, No. 1, pp. 130–137. doi: 10.1139/f80-017.
Sorokovikova E. G., Tikhonova I. V., Podlesnaya G. V., Belykh O. I.EVALUATION AND PREDICTION OF TOXIC CYANOBACTERIAL BLOOMING IN PHYTOPLANKTON OF THE BOGUCHANY RESERVOIR
Boguchany HPP is one of the largest Russian economic
projects and a part of the Boguchany Energy and Metallurgical
Association. Due to assessment of environmental damage, it is
especially relevant to analyze the ecosystem of the regulated
Angara River. The purpose of the present study is to obtain data
on the composition and development of cyanobacteria in the
Boguchany Reservoir at the design filling level in summer, as
well as assess risks of toxic blooming in the reservoir. Classical
methods for determining the trophic status of the reservoir and
abundance of cyanobacteria were combined with detection of
gene markers for cyanobacteria toxin synthesis — fragments
of the mcyE and sxtA genes. In July 2016, three species of
potentially toxic cyanobacteria, Aphanizomenon flos-aquae,
Dolichospermum lemmermannii and D. flos-aquae, dominated
the composition of phytoplankton. The phytoplankton population
in the 0–15 m layer was 2.97 million cells/L and the biomass was
2.75 g/m3. The proportion of cyanobacteria in the total abundance
of phytoplankton was 27 % (0.79 million cells/L); however,
due to small cell size their contribution to the phytoplankton
biomass was only 2 % (78 mg/m3). The maximum concentration
of chlorophyll a was 12.6 μg/L which corresponded to that in
a eutrophic reservoir. PCR-screening revealed cyanobacteria
producing microcystins as well as saxitoxin and its analogues
(paralytic shellfish toxins). The concentration of microcystins
in water was 0.3 μg/L. Those results indicate that monitoring
and strategies of control over toxic cyanobacteria blooming
are necessary. It also will be important to assess the ecological
state of the Boguchany Reservoir, with the focus on toxic
cyanobacteria, in summer of 2020.
Key words: cyanobacteria, toxic blooming, paralytic shellfish toxins, microcystins, Boguchanу Reservoir, environmental management.
References: 1. Belykh, O. I., Gladkikh, A. S., Sorokovikova, E. G., Tikhonova, I. V., Potapov, S. A. and Fedorova, G. A. (2013). Mikrotsistin-produtsiruyushchiye tsianobakterii v vodoyomakh Rossii, Belarusi i Ukrainy [Microcystine-producing cyanobacteria in water reservoirs of Russia, Belarus and Ukraine]. Khimiya v Interesakh Ustoychivogo Razvitiya, vol. 21, No. 4, pp. 363–378 (in Russian).
2. Belykh, O. I., Gladkikh, A. S., Tikhonova, I. V., Kuzmin, A. V., Mogilnikova, T. A., Fedorova, G. A. and Sorokovikova, E. G. (2015). Identifikatsiya tsianobakteriy produtsentov paraliticheskikh toksinov mollyuskov v ozere Baykal i vodokhranilishchakh reki Angary [Identification of сyanobacterial producers of shellfish paralytic toxins in Lake Baikal and reservoirs of the Angara River]. Microbiologiya, vol. 84, No. 1, pp. 98–99. doi: 10.7868/S0026365615010036 (in Russian).
3. Boguchany HPP (2007). Boguchanskaya GES moshchnostyu 3000 MVt. Sotsialnaya i ekologicheskaya otsenka v ramkakh bankovskogo TEO [Boguchany HPP with a capacity of 3000 MW. Social and environmental assessment in the framework of the banking feasibility study]. Available at: http:// boges.ru/eko/social_ecological_estimation.pdf (in Russian).
4. Borodulin, I. V., Milyutkin, V. A. and Rosenberg, G. S. (2016). Razrabotka tekhnologiy i tekhnicheskikh sredstv dlya sbora i utilizatsii sine-zelenykh vodorosley [Development of technology and equipment for collection and disposal of blue-green algae]. Samarskaya Luka: Problemy Regionalnoy i Globalnoy Ekologii, vol. 25, No. 4, pp. 123–129 (in Russian).
5. Vorobyeva, S. S. (1995). Fitoplankton vodoyomov Angary [Phytoplankton of Angara reservoirs]. Novosibirsk: Nauka, 123 p. (in Russian).
6. Rakhmanin, A. Yu. (2012). Aktualizirovannye problemy zdorovya cheloveka i sredy yego obitaniya i problemy ikh resheniya [Updating the problems of human ecology and environmental health and the ways of solving them]. Hygiene and Sanitation, vol. 91, No. 5, pp. 4–8 (in Russian).
7. Tekhekspert (2017). Tekhnichesky reglament Yevraziyskogo ekonomicheskogo soyuza “O bezopasnosti ryby i rybnoy produktsii” (TR YeAES 040/2016). Prilozheniye 4 “Gigiyenicheskiye trebovaniya bezopasnosti k pishchevoy produktsii” [Technical Regulations of the Eurasian Economic Union “On the safety of fish and fish products” (EEU TR 040/2016). Appendix 4 “Hygienic requirements for food safety”]. Available at: http://docs.cntd.ru/document/456089790 (in Russian).
8. Sheveleva, N. G. and Vorobyeva, S. S. (2009). Sostoyaniye i razvitiye fito- i zooplanktona nizhnego uchastka Angary, prognoz formirovaniya planktona v Boguchanskom vodokhranilishche [State and development of phyto- and zooplankton in lower reach of the Angara River: prognosis for forming plankton in Boguchanskoe Reservoir]. Journal of Siberian Federal University. Biology, vol. 2, No. 3, pp. 313–326 (in Russian).
9. Capelli, C., Ballot, A., Cerasino, L., Papini, A. and Salmaso, N. (2017). Biogeography of bloom-forming microcystin producing and non-toxigenic populations of Dolichospermum lemmermannii (Cyanobacteria). Harmful Algae, vol. 67, pp. 1–12. doi: 10.1016/j.hal.2017.05.004.
10. Chernova, E., Sidelev, S., Russkikh, I., Voyakina, E., Babanazarova, O., Romanov, R., Kotovshchikov, A. and Mazur- Marzec, H. (2017). Dolichospermum and Aphanizomenon as neurotoxins producers in some Russian freshwaters. Toxicon, vol. 130, pp. 47–55. doi: 10.1016/j.toxicon.2017.02.016.
11. Chorus, I. (ed.) (2012). Current approaches to cyanotoxin risk assessment, risk management and regulations in different countries. Dessau-Roßlau: Federal Environmental Agency, 151 p.
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13. Cires, S. and Ballot, A. (2016). A review of the phylogeny, ecology and toxin production of bloom-forming Aphanizomenon spp. and related species within the Nostocales (cyanobacteria). Harmful Algae, vol. 54, pp. 21–43. doi: 10.1016/j.hal.2015.09.007.
14. González-Piana, M., Fabian, D., Delbene, L., Chalar, G. (2011) Toxics blooms of Microcystis aeruginosa in three Rio Negro reservoirs, Uruguay, Harmful Algae News, vol. 43, pp. 16–17.
15. González-Piana, M., Fabián, D., Piccardo, A. and Chalar G. (2017) Dynamics of total microcystin LR concentration in three subtropical hydroelectric generation reservoirs in Uruguay, South America. Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, vol. 99, pp. 488–492. doi: 10.1007/s00128-017-2158-7.
16. Henriques, M., Silva, A. and Rocha, J. (2007). Extraction and quantification of pigments from a marine microalga: a simple and reproducible method. In: Mendez-Vilas, A. (ed.) Communicating Current Research and Educational Topics and Trends in Applied Microbiology. Badajoz: Formatex, vol. 2, pp. 586–593.
17. Kellmann, R., Michali, T. K., Jeon, Y. J., Pickford, R., Pomati, F. and Neilan, B. A. (2008). Biosynthetic intermediate analysis and functional homology reveal a saxitoxin gene cluster in cyanobacteria. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, vol. 74, No. 13, pp. 4044–4053. doi: 10.1128/AEM.00353-08.
18. Kramer, B., Davis, T., Meyer,K., Rosen, B., Goleski, J., Dick, G., Oh, G. and Gobler, C. (2018). Nitrogen limitation, toxin synthesis potential, and toxicity of cyanobacterial populations in Lake Okeechobee and the St. Lucie River Estuary, Florida, during the 2016 state of emergency event. PLoS ONE, 13 (5), e0196278. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0196278.
19. Rouhiainen, L., Vakkilainen, T., Siemer, B. L., Buikema, W., Haselkorn, R. and Sivonen, K. (2004). Genes coding for hepatotoxic heptapeptides (microcystins) in the cyanobacterium Anabaena strain 90. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, vol. 70, No. 2, pp. 686–692. doi: 10.1128/AEM.70.2.686- 692.2004.
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Astafiyev S. A., Bonnet V. V., Doenin M. Y.METHOD FOR BIOLOGICAL CLEANING OF HEATING AND WATER SUPPLY SYSTEMS FROM VARIOUS CHEMICAL DEPOSITS: ECOLOGICAL AND ECONOMIC EFFICIENCY
Introduction: In all regions of Russia, the chemical composition
of water varies significantly and in most cases includes a
substantial amount of salts and impurities accumulating on walls
of boilers, in radiators and heating and water supply pipes during
their operation. Methods: Currently, one of the most common
methods to clean equipment as well as heating and water supply
systems is the chemical method. However, such method has
essential shortcomings including the use of aggressive chemical
reagents, obligatory neutralization and utilization, high risk
of damage to the environment and human health. Reagentless
methods of cleaning (mechanical, hydropneumatic, ultrasonic,
etc.) are also widely used, but, despite their low cost, they
are inefficient in extensive closed-loop systems and often
result in significant damage to the equipment during cleaning.
Results: When it comes to boilers, heat exchangers and
heating systems, lack of cleaning leads to their contamination,
and, therefore, power losses related to increasing hydraulic
resistance, decreasing heat transfer ability of components,
disbalance of systems and other negative consequences. It
also results in regular accidents in the networks that are worn
out for more than 70 %. Considering the shortcomings of the
chemical and reagentless methods, stated above, it is required
to use an alternative, safe and efficient method of cleaning —
the bioorganic method for deposit removal. Conclusion: The
proposed technology is especially relevant for the water area of
Lake Baikal as it has been affected by the operation of the pulp
and paper mill located on its coast and by drains from the cities
and villages nearby. The patented method for cleaning of heating
and water supply systems, using BONAKА biocomposition,
suggested for consideration, allows not only for their cleaning
but for environment protection as well.
Key words: water supply, biological cleaning of pipes, energy saving, ecology, lactic acid bacteria, economic efficiency.
References: 1. Astrahanceva, O. Yu., Belozerceva, I. A. and Palkin, O. Yu. (2018). The selection in the matter of the waters of lake Baikal areas natural physical and chemical equilibrium with matter the environmental. Water: Chemistry and Ecology, No. 7–9, pp. 3–14.
2. Astrahanceva, O. Yu., Belozerceva, I. A. and Palkin, O. Yu. (2017). Calculation of the forms of existence of components and the nature of the geochemical environment (EH, PH, mineralization) in the deep waters of the reservoirs of lake Baikal. Water: Chemistry and Ecology, No. 5, pp. 12–22.
3. Bonaka (2019). Bonaka — a solution based on innovations and biotechnology. Operating principle. [online] Available at: https://bonaka.ru/technology/# [Date accessed 01.03.2019].
4. Vinokurov, M. A., Sukhodolov, A. P., Rusetskaya, G. D. and Gorbunova, O. I. (2012). Problems of environment pollution and people’s health. Izvestiya of Irkutsk State Economics Academy (Baikal State University), No. 5, p. 33.
5. Vlasova, A. Yu., Chichirova, N. D., Chichirov, A. A., Filimonova, A. A. and Vlasov, S. M. (2017). Resource-saving technology for neutralization and purification of acidic and hard-concentrated, liquid waste of the ion-exchange water treatment plant of TPPScomplex of water for drinkable small settlements. Water and Ecology, No. 2, pp. 3–17. DOI:10.23968/2305- 3488.2017.20.2.3-17.
6. Kanitskaya, L. V., Mokryy, A. V., Belykh, O. A. and Smirnova, E. V. (2015). Environmental assessment of Baikalsk area rivers for tourism and recreation development. Fundamental Research, No. 7 (part 3), pp. 463–467.
7. Kravchenko, A. (2014). Economic rationale for replacement of reagents at thermal power plants. Saarbrucken: LAP Lambert Academic Publishing, 76 p.
8. Maryanovsky, Ya., Nalikovskyj, A., Petshkovskaya, A. and Kuryakov, A. (2014). Chemical cleaning of steam boilers from deposits and corrosion products using traditional methods and “in operation” method. Novosti Teplosnabzheniya (News of Heat Supply), No. 1 (161). [online] Available at: http://www. rosteplo.ru/Tech_stat/stat_shablon.php?id=3193 [Date accessed 01.03.2019].
9. Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment of the Irkutsk Region (2017). National report “On the environment state and protection in the Irkutsk region in 2016”. Irkutsk: OOO Megaprint, 274 p.
10. Nikolaeva, E. (2014). Bacteria against scale and dirt. Expert, No. 47(924). [online] Available at: http://expert.ru/ expert/2014/47/bakterii-protiv-nakipi-i-gryazi/ [Date accessed 01.03.2019].
11. OOO Innovatsii-Evroservis (2017). Mechanical cleaning of E, DE and DKVR boilers. [online] Available at: http://inev.ru/ sposoby-ochistki/mekhanicheskaya-ochistka-trub-kotlov-e-de-dkvr-i-ke [Date accessed 01.05.2019].
12. OOO Innovatsii-Evroservis (2017). Features of steam boilers cleaning using electric-discharge method. [online] Available at: http://inev.ru/articles/2019-04-02-osobennosti-ochistki-parovykh-kotlov-elektrorazryadnym-sposobom [Date accessed 01.05.2019].
13. Pilyugin, Yu. V. and Cherevik, O. O. (2016). In-place cleaning of heating equipment and heating systems using biotechnologies. Novosti Teplosnabzheniya (News of Heat Supply), No. 9 (193), pp 52–54. [online] Available at: http:// www.rosteplo.ru/Tech_stat/stat_shablon.php?id=3596 [Date accessed 01.03.2019].
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16. Starchak, V. G., Tsybulia, S. D., Ivanenko, K. N., Buialska, N. P. and Kostenko, I. A. (2018). Improving water purification efficiency as a way to environmental safety and resource saving. Water and Ecology, No. 3, pp. 48-53. DOI: 10.23968/2305–3488.2018.20.3.48–53.
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Gorbacheva T. T., Evshin P. N., Gorbachev A. A., Artemkina N. A.REVISITING APPLICABILITY OF BIOLOGICAL METHODS FOR DEPHOSPHOTATION OF MUNICIPAL WASTEWATER IN FAR NORTH
Introduction: The article reviews retechnologization of
wastewater treatment facilities of medium capacity (26,000 m3/day vs design capacity of 47,000 m3/day) under conditions of Far
North. Due to the entry of purified water in a fishery reservoir,
key parameters of the clarified wastewater are compared with
the optimum values accepted in the international practice
regarding deep biological cleaning of municipal wastewater
from phosphorus. Methods: For the purposes of comparison,
long-term (2006–2018) dynamics of water consumption as well
as temperature, pH, BOD5/P, COD/P in wastewater downstream
of primary settlers were assessed. The content of organic
matter available for microbiota in the clarified wastewater was
prioritized. Results: Parameters of water downstream of primary
settlers are favorable for reconstruction of the existing aerotanks
and introduction of biological dephosphotation in the treatment
process. The ion balance of the clarified wastewater indicates
a high share of low-molecular aliphatic acids (LMAA) anions
in their composition. The technique for analytical determination
of LMAA in the clarified wastewater using the HPLC method
was tried and tested; the dominating role of the acetate fraction
was shown. Conclusion: The carried-out assessment shows
that it is worthwhile to use the biological method for removal
of phosphorus from municipal wastewater in the north without
fresh sludge acidification.
Key words: dephosphotation, clarified wastewater, biological methods, COD, pH, temperature, VFA, LMAA, HPLC
References: 1. Artemkina, N. A., Gorbacheva, T. T. and Lukina, N. V. (2008) Low-molecular organic acids in soil water in forests of the Kola Peninsula. Russian Journal of Forest Science (Lesovedenie), No. 6, pp. 37–44.
2. Boulion, V.V. (2016). A new insight into the paradigm of phosphorus control in limnology. Uspekhi Sovremennoi Biologii, vol. 136, No. 3, pp. 311–318.
3. Gorbacheva, T. T. and Mayorov, D. V. (2018). Trial coagulation of the clarified municipal sewage in reagent phosphorus removal. Vestnik Sovremennykh Issledovaniy, No. 12.1 (27), pp. 504–508.
4. Gorbacheva, T. T. and Mayorov, D. V. (2018). Speed of flocculation in the clarified municipal sewage during reagent phosphorus removal. Vestnik Sovremennykh Issledovaniy, No. 12.15 (27), pp. 83–87.
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7. Danilovich, D. A., Epov, A. N. and Kanunnikova, M. A. (2015). Analysis of treatment facilities’ operation in Russian cities as a basis for technological standardization. Best Available Technologies (NDT) Journal, No. 3–4, pp. 18–28.
8. Kell, L. S., Sereda, M. V. and Kazakov, A. V. (2016). Advanced technology for deep biological reagentless removal of phosphorus. Best Available Technologies (NDT) Journal, No. 4, pp. 10–14.
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20. Randall, А. А, Chen, Y. and McCue, T. (2004). The efficiency of enhanced biological phosphorus removal from real wastewater affected by different ratios of acetic to propionic acid. Water Research, vol. 38, issue 1, pp. 27–36. DOI: 10.1016/j. watres.2003.08.025.
21. Schaaf, W., Weisdorfer, M. and Huettl, R. F. (1995). Soil solution chemistry and element budgets of three Scots pine ecosystems along a deposition gradient in north-eastern Germany. Water, Air, and Soil Pollution, vol. 85, issue 3, pp. 1197–1202. DOI: 10.1007/BF00477144.
Dobromirov V. N., Avramov D. V., Martynov N. V.TECHNOLOGY OF LIQUID DISINFECTION BASED ON THE ELECTROHYDRAULIC EFFECT
Introduction: The article reviews main problems of current
water consumption, showing that the issue of wastewater
treatment and water recycling is quite relevant. General
principles of applying the electrohydraulic effect to disinfect
liquids, as well as prospects of its use to disinfect various
bacterial media are outlined. Methods: A model unit for water
disinfection, developed on the basis of this effect, is described.
A methodology and results of experimental studies to provide
a rationale for operation modes of a high-voltage electric pulse
installation, which allow achieving maximum disinfection, are
presented. Results: It has been established that the dependence
of the disinfection degree on energy put into the liquid is close
to linear. Hard mode of installation operation, corresponding to
high discharge voltage and relatively small capacity of the pulse
capacitor, ensures the greatest bactericidal effect.
Key words: water strategy, water consumption, liquid disinfection, electrohydraulic effect, equipment operation modes, disinfection efficiency.
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Ivanenkо I. I., Novikova А. М., Dukhovskoi V. D.VARIABLE OXIDATION ELEMENTS IN MICROBIAL OXIDATION OF ORGANIC WATER POLLUTION
Introduction: Due to significant changes in the composition
of municipal and industrial wastewater, observed in the last
decade, traditional biological treatment with activated sludge,
which has been used for almost 100 years, does not cope with
the task of removing numerous substances. Therefore, such
technologies need to be improved. Methods: The paper analyzes
the experience in application of variable oxidation elements as
terminal electron acceptors in microbial oxidation of organic
water pollution. Results: Replacing oxygen (traditionally
used for biological treatment) with transition elements will
allow arranging and conducting treatment under oxygen-free
conditions and, thus, reducing energy consumption and, as a
result, the cost of treatment. For the purposes of simultaneous
mineralization of sewage organic components having different
chemical composition, when using various transition elements
(present or specially introduced in sewage) as oxidizers, it
is required to use mixed cultures of bacteria, maintaining for
each of them a range of optimal values of the environment
redox potential. Conclusion: Knowledge of principles and
mechanisms of oxygen-free transformation of substances is
necessary for development of efficient and reliable systems for
treatment of sewage and solid wastes from various industrial
plants. Experiments and investigations show that studying the
existing metabolic possibilities of microorganisms, rather than
designing new artificial genetically modified bacteria to be used
in biological treatment of water in aerotanks, is a promising
Key words: biological treatment, xenobiotics, pollution resistant to oxidation, oxygen, terminal electron acceptors, microorganisms, redox potential, immobilization of microorganisms.
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Kachalova G. S.COAGULATION AND SORPTION TREATMENT OF WASTEWATER
Introduction: The paper analyzes model wastewater with
composition and properties as close as possible to actual wastewater
from the Tyumen Battery Plant. The purpose of the study is to
examine the process of advanced sorption treatment with account
for optimal reagents and their doses for coagulation and flocculation.
Methods: Photocolorimetric analysis to determine turbidity and
content of lead cations, titrimetric analysis to determine acidity, and
pH-metry were used. Results: During the experiment, optimum
doses of five coagulants were determined (FeSO4·7H2O ferrous
sulfate heptahydrate — 300 mg/l, FeCl3·6H2O ferric chloride
hexahydrate — 250 mg/l, Al2(SO4)3·18H2O dialuminum sulfate
octadecahydrate — 300 mg/l, mixed coagulant of FeCl3 and
Al2(SO4)3 (1:1) — 150 mg/l, and Al2(OH)5Cl·6H2O polyaluminum
chloride under the Aqua-Aurat-30 trademark — 200 mg/l). Among
those, polyaluminum chloride Aqua-Aurat-30 was chosen as the
most effective coagulant. In the course of the studies on efficiency of
three different flocculants (Praestol 2530 TR, Flopam 4350 SH and
polyacrylamide gel (technical grade) by the Federal State Unitary
Enterprise “Sverdlov Plant” (PAA)), PAA (2 mg/l) in combination
with coagulant polyaluminum chloride Aqua-Aurat-30 (150 mg/l)
was found to be the most effective flocculant for wastewater under
consideration and allowed decreasing its turbidity to 10 FTU, and
lead content — to 1.5 mg/l. The sorption process was carried out in
dynamic conditions using KFGM-7 sorbent. As a result, turbidity
decreased to 1 FTU, lead content — to 0.03 mg/l, which does
not exceed the maximum allowable lead content in a sample of
wastewater to be discharged into domestic and combined sewage
systems (0.25 mg/l). Conclusion: In the course of analysis of model
wastewater from the Tyumen Battery Plant, the most effective
coagulants and flocculants were specified. The optimal reagent doses
were determined. The process of dynamic sorption for advanced
treatment of wastewater to clean it from lead ions was carried out. As
a result, the content of lead ions in the treated wastewater decreased
by more than 98 %. The present study is especially important as its
results can be used to improve wastewater treatment processes at the
Tyumen Battery Plant.
Key words: coagulants, flocculants, reagent doses, model wastewater, turbidity, lead content, sorbent, advanced treatment.
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10. Kachalova, G. S. (2018). Use of modern coagulants and flocculants in the process of waste water coagulation. International Journal of Applied and Fundamental Research, No. 2, pp. 23–27.
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13. Koyeva, A. Yu., Maksimova, S. V. and Kachalova, G. S. (2014). Processing of wash waters at the station of water treatment in Kurgan on the Tobol River. Modern High Technologies, No. 5, pp. 47–50.
14. Leykin, Yu. A. (2011). Physical and chemical foundations of polymeric sorbents’ synthesis: study guide. Moscow: BINOM. Laboratoriya Znaniy (BINOM. Laboratory of Knowledge), 413 p.
15. Interstate Council for Standardization, Metrology and Certification (1996). State Standard GOST 6981-94. Green vitriol for industrial use. Specifications. Moscow: Publishing and Polygraphic Complex Publishing House of Standards, 13 p.
16. Pazenko, T. Ya. and Kolova, A. F. (2010). Processing of wash waters of water treatment filters. News of Higher Educational Institutions. Construction, No. 9, pp. 65–68.
17. Petrova, L. V. and Kalyukova, Ye. N. (2004). Water chemistry: study guide. Ulyanovsk: Ulyanovsk State Technical University, 48 p.
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20. Kadooka, H., Jami, M. S., Tanaka, T. and Iwata, M. (2016). Mechanism of clarification of colloidal suspension using composite dry powdered flocculant. Journal of Water Process Engineering, vol. 11, рр. 32–38. DOI: doi.org/10.1016/j. jwpe.2016.03.004.
21. Lin, J., Couperthwaite, S. J. and Millar, G. J. (2017). Effectiveness of aluminium based coagulants for pre-treatment of coal seam water. Separation and Purification Technology, vol. 177, рр. 207–222. DOI: 10.1016/j.seppur.2017.01.010.
22. Wang, W., Shui, Y., He, M. and Liu, P. (2017). Comparison of flocs characteristics using before and after composite coagulants under different coagulation mechanisms. Biochemical Engineering Journal, vol. 121, рр. 107–117. DOI: 10.1016/j.bej.2017.01.020.
Matyushenko E. N.PHOSPHORUS REMOVAL FROM RETURN FLOWS OF A WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANT
Introduction: The paper reviews an issue associated with
negative consequences resulting from discharge of treated
wastewater with residual phosphorus concentrations. The
known methods of phosphorus removal are briefly assessed.
The purpose of the study was to identify places of wastewater
phosphorization at Novosibirsk wastewater treatment plants
(WWTPs) and suggest a simple method for its reduction to
obtain nitrogen and phosphorus-containing sludge suitable for
reuse. Methods: The studies were carried out using natural
wastewater. Basic physical and chemical wastewater quality
indicators were defined with the help of modern laboratory
equipment. Results: The waste liquid entering the WWTPs
has several sources of phosphorus saturation: wastewater from
residential buildings and industrial enterprises, sludge water
from thickeners of excess activated sludge, sludge water from
thickeners for joint thickening of raw sludge and excess activated
sludge, sludge water from thickeners of washed sludge used
with methane tanks and vacuum filters, as well as sludge water
of sludge beds, centrifuge centrate and filtrate of filter presses.
It has been found that discharge of such wastewater into the
WWTP inlet chamber for retreatment leads to an increase in the
concentrations of suspended substances, organic substances, and
nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorus) in the primary wastewater,
depending on the facilities structure and season. As a result, their
concentrations in treated wastewater, discharged into a water
reservoir, increase as well. Our studies involved phosphorus
removal using sodium hydroxide only. They were conducted in
a chemical laboratory at the Department of Water Supply and
Disposal of the Novosibirsk State University of Architecture
and Civil Engineering (Sibstrin). The centrate and sludge water
from thickeners were analyzed. Data on the volume of nutrients
in return flows of the sludge processing units and workshop of
mechanical sludge dewatering were received. The paper shows
results of studies on phosphorus removal from the wastewater
of the on-site sewage by means of calcium and magnesium ions
present in the waste liquid in an alkaline medium. It has been
founded that at phosphorus concentrations less than 30 mg/
dm3 in the primary stream, it is possible to reduce phosphorus
at pH = 11 to 1 mg/dm3, and at higher values, the phosphorus
concentration can reach 10–20 mg/dm3 at the same pH values.
Conclusion: An easy-to-use process scheme for phosphorus
removal from the wastewater of the on-site sewage has been
developed. It allows reducing phosphorus in treated wastewater,
discharged into a water reservoir, to 0.5–0.7 mg/dm3 at
phosphorus concentrations up to 30 mg/dm3 using only sodium
hydroxide. At high phosphorus concentrations, it is possible to introduce lime with the ratio P:Ca2+ = (1–1.5) and sodium
hydroxide, required to raise the pH level to 10.5–11. Based on the
obtained results, a scheme for phosphorus removal and sludge
obtaining has been developed and proposed for implementation.
After stabilization and neutralization, the sludge can be used as
an organic-mineral fertilizer in agriculture.
Key words: wastewater, phosphorus, return flow, on-site sewage.
References: 1. Ambrosova, G. Т. (2017). Efficiency of a compact unit for treatment of highly concentrated effluents from a food industry enterprise. In: 3rd All-Russian Scientific Conference With International Participation “Energy and Resource Efficiency of Low-Rise Residential Buildings”. Novosibirsk: Kutateladze Institute of Thermophysics, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, pp. 244–253.
2. Ambrosova, G. T., Matyushenko, Е. N. and Sineeva, N. V. (2017). Places of dephosphorization of urban wastewater and effect of removing phosphorus by reagents. Water and Ecology, No. 4 (72), pp. 13–25. DOI: 10.23968/2305–3488.2017.22.4.13–25.
3. Ambrosova, G. T., Merkel, О. М., Boyko, Т. А., Khvostova, Е. V. and Perminov, А. А. (2003). Regularities in the process of phosphate removal from activated sludge under anaerobic conditions. News of Higher Educational Institutions. Construction, No. 6 (534), pp. 73–78.
4. Ambrosova, G. T., Funk, А. А, Ivanova, S. D. and Ganzorig, Sh. (2016). Comparative evaluation of the methods of phosphorus removal from wastewater. Water Supply and Sanitary Technique, No. 2, pp. 25–36.
5. Ambrosova, G. T., Funk, А. А. and Matyushenko, Е. N. (2016). Phosphorus in wastewater - analysis of the removal methods. Water Magazine, No. 7 (107), pp. 32–35.
6. Ambrosova, G. T., Matyushenko, Е. N., Belozerova, Е. S., Geysaddinov, Т. I., Nagornaya, Т. V. and Funk А. А. (2018). Method of phosphorus removal from the liquid effluents. Patent No. RU2654969C1.
7. Vilson, Е. V. and Romanenko, E. Yu. (2015). Methodological aspects of physical and chemical phosphorus removal from wastewater at different stages of treatment. Symbol of Science, No. 11–1, pp. 16–20.
8. Voronov, Yu. V., Alekseev, Е. V., Pugachev, Е. А. and Salomeev, V. P. (2014). Wastewater disposal. Moscow: INFRAM, 415 p.
9. Galantseva, L. F. and Fridland, S. V. (2010). Studying efficiency of phosphate removal from sewage in Chistopol. Herald of Kazan Technological University, No. 2, pp. 311–314.
10. Gogina, E. S. (2010). Removal of nutrients from wastewater. Moscow: Moscow State University of Civil Engineering, 120 p.
11. Denisov, А. А., Bazhenov, V. I. and Korenkov, А. D. (2011). Phosphorus removal from wastewater at pig-breeding farms of using the biological method. Industrial & Pure-Bred Pig Breeding, No. 3, pp. 34–37.
12. Doskina, E.P., Moskvicheva, А.V., Moskvicheva, Е.V. and Gerashhenko, А.А. (2018). Treatment and disposal of municipal sewage sludge. Volgograd: Volgograd State Technical University, 186 p.
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14. Zilov, Е. А. (2008). Hydrobiology and water ecology (organization, operation and pollution of aquatic ecosystems). Irkutsk: Irkutsk State University, 138 p.
15. Ivanenko, I. I. (2014). Assessment of nitrogen and phosphorus removal from sludge treatment unit with deep biological nutrient removal at the WWTP of the city of Pushkin. Water and Ecology, No. 3 (59), pp. 51–62.
16. Ivanenko, I. I. (2015). Research of pollution resulting from sewage-sludge treatment at purification facilities with deep biological nutrient removal. Bulletin of Civil Engineers, No. 1 (48), pp. 165–171.
17. Kolova, A. F., Pazenko, T. Y. and Chudinova, Е. М. (2013). Phosphate reagent removal from waste water. Proceedings of Irkutsk State Technical University, No. 10 (81), pp. 161–163.
18. Federal Agency on Technical Regulation and Metrology (2015). Information and technical reference book ITS 10-2015. Wastewater treatment using centralized water disposal systems of settlements, urban districts. Moscow: Byuro NDT, 377 p.
19. Yushchanka, V. D., Haluza, A. V. and Kupryianchyk, T. S. (2015). Analysis of work for removal of structures phosphorus compounds from wastewater aeration station the city of Vitebsk. Vestnik of Polotsk State University. Part B. Industry. Applied Sciences, No. 3, pp. 115–119.
20. Yushchanka, V. D. and Haluza, A. V. (2015). Description and selection of reagents for removal phosphorus compounds from wastewater. Vestnik of Polotsk State University. Part F. Constructions. Applied Sciences, No. 16, pp. 121–125.
21. Guadie, A., Xia, S., Zhang, Z., Guo, W., Ngo, H. H. and Hermanowicz, S. W. (2013). Simultaneous removal of phosphorus and nitrogen from sewage using a novel combo system of fluidized bed reactor-membrane bioreactor (FBRMBR). Bioresource Technology, vol.149, pp. 276–285. DOI: 10.1016/j.biortech.2013.09.007.
Smolyaninov V. M., Ovchinnikova T. V., Аshikhmina T. V., Kuprienko P. S.FORECASTING CHANGES IN HYDROLOGAL AND HYDROGEOLOGICAL CONDITIONS IN THE WATER INTAKE AREA THROUGH THE EXAMPLE OF WATER SUPPLY IN VORONEZH
Introduction. Public and industrial water supply is a key
aspect in functioning of urban territories, requiring special
attention. Water supply of Voronezh — the largest city in the
Central Black Earth Region — is carried out using groundwater
aquifers, worsening hydrological and geological conditions of
the local environment. The purpose of the study is to forecast
changes in hydrological and hydrogeological conditions in
the area of the existing and designed water intakes. Methods.
The geoecological research was conducted using methods of
mathematical modeling for the ecological and hydrogeological
system as well as analysis of natural and anthropogenic
factors. Results. It has been established that the territory of
Voronezh city is characterized by high anthropogenic load on
the environment, where groundwater withdrawal represents its
essential component. Long-term exploitation of main infiltration
water intakes resulted in formation of a cone of depression with
the area of 35 km2 and local phreatic decline to 20–30 m. It
also caused reduction of river runoff, deformation of natural
underground streams, detachment of the groundwater level
from river beds. These negative geoecological consequences
shall be considered when constructing and exploiting new
water intakes. Conclusion. The conducted studies allow
determining hydrotechnical and environmental measures,
suggesting environmentally-friendly operation mode. It can be
recommended to consider and solve geoecological problems
using the specified algorithms and methods in urban areas.
Key words: groundwater, water supply, infiltration water intake, forecasting hydrological changes, aquifer, modeling of hydrological processes, cone of depression, groundwater pollution.
References: 1. Ashikhmina, T. V. (2011). Groundwater contamination as a result of operation of solid household waste range. Ecology and Industry of Russia, No. 6, pp. 42–43.
2. Ashikhmina, T., Ovchinnikova, T. and Kupriyenko, P. (2014). Issues of solid waste influence on the environment. Saarbrucken: LAMBERT Academic Publishing, 204 p.
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4. GIDROSPETSGEOLOGIYA (2017). Information bulletin on the state of the subsoil in the territory of the Russian Federation in 2016. Issue 40. Saint Petersburg: Mayer Print & Production, 336 p.
5. Dolgov, S. V. and Sentsova, N. I. (2003). Current changes in anthropogenic load and water resources in the Voronezh Region. Problems of Regional Ecology, No. 6, pp. 25–36.
6. Zhabina, A. A. (2014). Hydrogeological problem of drinking water supply in Voronezh. Proceedings of Voronezh State University. Series: Geology, No. 4, pp. 120–123.
7. Kupriyenko, V. Yu. and Kurolap, S. A. (2005). Integral evaluation of economic activities influence on environment and population health in the Voronezh Oblast. Proceedings of Voronezh State University. Series: Geography. Geoecology, No. 2, pp. 114–120.
8. Ovchinnikova, T. V. (2008). Assessment of negative influences of economic activities of the human in territory of the Voronezh Oblast. Problems of Regional Ecology, No. 4, pp. 8–12.
9. Ovchinnikova, T. V. and Frolova, N. N. (2006). The influencing of water withdrawal for state environment. Bulletin of Voronezh State Technical University, vol. 2, No. 4, pp. 88–89.
10. Popov, E. V. (2000). Methods of solving ecological and hydrogeological problems using the information approach: case study of Moscow and the Moscow Region. PhD Thesis in Geology and Mineralogy. Moscow: Moscow State Geological Prospecting Academy, 155 p.
11. Poryadin, A. M. (2003). Water factor in ensuring environmental safety of populated areas. Water Sector of Russia: Problems, Technologies, Management, special issue, pp. 137–143.
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13. Prozhorina, T. I. and Khruslova, I. P. (2013). Assessment of the quality of centralized drinking water supply in Voronezh city. Proceedings of Voronezh State University. Series: Geography. Geoecology, No. 1, pp. 142–144.
14. Smolyaninov, V. M. (2003). Groundwaters of the Central Black Earth Region: conditions of their formation, use. Voronezh: Istoki, 240 p.
15. Smolyaninov, V. M., Grebtsov, S. N., Letin, A. L. and Nemykin, A. Ya. (2003). Groundwater in the natural system. Bulletin of the Voronezh Department of the Russian Geographical Society, vol. 2, pp. 53–57.
16. Smolyaninov, V. M., Degtyarev, S. D. and Shcherbinina, S. V. (2007). Ecological and hydrological assessment of river catchments in the Voronezh Region. Voronezh: Istoki, 127 p.
17. Smolyaninov, V. M. and Ovchinnikova, T. V. (2010). Geographical approaches to land use design in regions with intensive development of natural and man-made emergencies. Voronezh: Istoki, 230 p.
18. Chelidze, Yu. B. (2008). Mapping of the subsurface hydrosphere state under the influence of natural processes and anthropogenic factors. Prospect and Protection of Mineral Resources, No. 6, pp. 12–15.
19. Chuvychkin, A. L., Yablonskikh, L. A. and Devyatova, T. A. (2018). Quality of surface water of the Voronezh reservoir and its impact on the health of the population of the city of Voronezh. Proceedings of Voronezh State University. Series: Chemistry. Biology. Pharmacy, No. 2, pp. 270–277.
20. Kuprienko, P. S., Ashikhmina, T. V., Ovchinnikiva, T. V. and Ashikhmin, A. M. (2017). Geoecological problems near landfills. In: Ecological education and ecological culture of the population: Materials of the V International Scientific Conference on February 25–26, 2017. Prague: Science Publishing Centre Sociosphere-CZ, pр. 89–92.
Belousova A. P., Rudenko E. E., Minyaeva Yu. V.METHODOLOGY FOR ASSESSMENT OF THE TOTAL TECHNOGENIC LOAD ON THE ENVIRONMENT IN THE AREA OF CHERNOBYL TRACE
Introduction: The risk of environment pollution is determined
by intensity of the total technogenic load on its individual
components. The purpose of the study was to assess the total
technogenic load on the environment in the zone of Chernobyl
trace through the example of industrial areas of the Tula Region
characterized by well-developed manufacturing, agriculture,
mining and other economic activities. Methods: To achieve
the purpose, methods to assess the risk of environment and
groundwater pollution by point sources (industrial enterprises,
individual mines, power plants, etc.), diffuse and point/area
sources were used; a resultant methodology for assessing the
overall rating of conditional risk of environment pollution from
various sources was developed. Results: With account for the
developed and assessed rating, the technogenic load in some
cities and other populated areas of the Tula Region was analyzed.
The risk of environment and groundwater by area-diffuse and
point-area sources of pollution (agricultural pollution, coal
industry pollution and radioactive contamination) was assessed.
Conclusion: Comparing the results of studies at the time of the
Chernobyl accident and 30 years after, it can be noted that the
environment state has improved significantly, although some
areas are still characterized by a challenging environmental
situation, and in the territory of mining industry development,
a high risk of environment pollution remains. Despite the fact
that almost all mines are already closed, their impact on the
environment is still quite significant.
Key words: environment, pollution sources, technogenic load, pollution risk, pollution risk rating.
References: 1. Belousova, A. P. (2005). Groundwater resources and their protection against pollution in the Dnieper River basin and its individual areas: Russian territory. Moscow: LENAND, 168 p.
2. Belousova, A. P. (2012). Radionuclide pollution of groundwater — security assessment. Water: Chemistry and Ecology, No 5, pp. 11–17.
3. Belousova, A. P. and Proskurina, I. V. (2010). Technogenic load as risk factor of groundwater contamination process. Water: Chemistry and Ecology, No. 12, pp. 2–11.
4. Belousova, A. P. and Rudenko, E. E. (2018). Features of a unified methodology for assessing the protection of groundwater from pollution. Nedropolzovanie XXI vek, No. 2, pp. 154–161.
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Volkova N. E., Zakharov R. Yu.WATER MANAGEMENT IN SMALL WATER-ACCUMULATING FACILITIES IN THE REPUBLIC OF CRIMEA
Introduction: Despite the relatively small amounts of
accumulated water, ponds are an integral part of the water
industry. However, improper operation of these hydraulic
structures can negate the benefits from their construction,
increase the accident risk, decrease recreational attractiveness,
deteriorate water quality, worsen sanitary and epidemiological
conditions, etc. Currently, the Republic of Crimea needs to
develop an approach that would allow allocating ponds (at
the basin level) requiring priority measures to improve their
technical condition and ecological state in order to reduce the
negative effect of their inefficient use and strengthen their
attractiveness for water users. Methods: To solve the problem,
in 2018–2019, using the case study of the Maly Salgir River,
visual inspection of small water-accumulating facilities, water
sampling, and assessment of water suitability for irrigation were
conducted. Main indicators to be considered when analyzing the
current situation in these water bodies were determined. Based
on those indicators, the corresponding integral vulnerability
index was calculated. Results: According to the results of the
study, the most unfavorable situation developed in ponds: 64r,
65r, 151k, 191k, and 252k. Development and implementation
of actions aimed to stabilize the current situation shall be started
with these small water-accumulating facilities. Conclusion:
Although the proposed approach will not eliminate all problems,
it will allow assessing the current situation in full, preventing
possible accidents, and making these water bodies more
attractive for water users.
Key words: pond, technical condition, ecological state, water quality, integral estimate, vulnerability level, water management.
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4. Volkova, N. E. and Zaharov, R. Yu. (2017). Features of water management ecosystem of the river Small Salgir. Puti Povysheniya Effektivnosti Oroshayemogo Zemledeliya, No. 2 (66), pp. 11–17.
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8. Kaganov, G. M., Volkov, V. I., Chernykh, O. N. and Altunin, V. I. (2008). About the experience of visual control over the hydrotechnical complexes of the metropolitan ponds. Prirodoobustroystvo, No. 4, pp. 29–36.
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25. Dunaieva, I., Popovych, V. V., Vecherkov, V. V., Golovastova, E. S., Pashtetsky, V. S., Melnichuk, A. Yu., Mirschel, W., Terleev, V. V., Nikonorov, A. O., Togo, I. A., Volkova, Yu. V. and Shishov, D. A. (2019). Water quality analysis and simulation. In: MATEC Web of Conferences, p. 06005.
Evstigneeva I. K., Evstigneev V. P., Tankovskaya I. N.STRUCTURAL AND FUNCTIONAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE BLACK SEA MACROPHYTOBENTHOS INREGIONS WITH DIFFERENT WIND-WAVE CONDITIONS
Introduction: Macroflora of the Black sea coastal zone and
its sustainability under the action of external abiotic factors
remains poorly studied. Macroalgae growth, development,
morphology, dissemination, etc. are mainly conditioned by
constant water moving in waves. The aim of the present study
was to examine the influence of this factor. Methods: In order
to get an insight into this problem, we performed all-year studies
of the structural and functional organization of Cystoseira
phytocenosis in regions with different wind-wave conditions
(open coast near Chersonesus cape vs. landlocked Martynova
Bay near Sevastopol) using the discount areas method adopted in
hydrobotany. Results: As for the open coast (Chersonesus cape),
phytocenosis species diversity for Rhodophyta and Ochrophyta,
the number of species with regard to subdominant taxons and
permanence groups as well as the mean monthly phytomass
for Rhodophyta are higher. Phytocenosis of the bay features
high structural and functional diversity of Chlorophyta and
dominance of species indicating medium and high desalination
and organic pollution of the marine environment. Cenogenous
species Cystoseira barbata plays a dominant role in the water
area of the cape and a role of the absolute dominant in the
bay forming the major fraction of phytomass. The determined
general tendency for phytocenosis diversity of the cape water
area not only reflects the biocycle of macrophytes but indicates
that intense wind waves can affect its community structure.
Drastic summer decrease of the index of species diversity in the
bay can be related to solar irradiation excess and seawater mass
overheating in August. Most proportions of flora, quantitative
relations in various permanence groups and dominant species
appeared to be independent of these conditions. A qualitative
coincidence was determined for basic ecological groups and
leading taxons. Conclusions: For the open coast, action of
intense wind waves manifests itself in extra tendencies of
macroflora diversity. A number of stable features providing
integrity of the phytocenosis structure in labile conditions of
coastal shallow water were revealed.
Key words: Black Sea, wind waves, macrophytobenthos, ecological and taxonomic composition, occurrence, phytomass, variability.
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Lyubimova T. P., Parshakova Ya. N.MODELING PROPAGATION OF THERMAL POLLUTION IN LARGE WATER BODIES
Introduction: The study analyzes propagation of thermal
pollution, resulting from removal of heated water from
thermal power plants using a direct cooling system, in large
water bodies. In coastal areas (e.g. river mouths), where water
exchange is limited to the scale of a receiving reservoir, the
discharge of heated water from industrial facilities and power
plants can lead to a significant increase in water temperature.
Such increase affects the state of flora and fauna and threatens
the vital activity of living organisms in the water. Therefore, it is
important to assess the effect of heated water masses depending
on meteorological and technological conditions. Methods: The
paper reviews a case study of the Perm CHP (Permskaya TPP) —
one of the largest thermal power plants in Europe. Various
anthropogenic and meteorological conditions are considered.
Since the vertical temperature distribution in such water bodies
is very inhomogeneous, the calculations are performed within
a three-dimensional model. The calculation method is based
on the k–ε turbulence model, with account for the buoyancy
related to the dependence of the fluid density on temperature.
Results: The effect of variable wind is calculated for the most
unfavorable conditions in terms of both environmental and
technological indicators. According to the analysis of the results
of numerical simulation, the flow structure near the surface
is fairly uniform and determined mainly by the wind effect.
Significant non-uniformity of heated water at varying depths
is observed. The thickness of the layer of heated water making
impact is 4–6 m. Сonclusion: The results of calculations are
relevant for assessment of pollution during operation of thermal
power plants using a direct cooling system.
Key words: large water bodies, thermal pollution, 3D numerical simulation, k–ε turbulence model.
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7. Issakhov, A. (2016). Mathematical modeling of the discharged heat water effect on the aquatic environment from thermal power plant under various operational capacities. Applied Mathematical Modelling, vol. 40, issue 2, pp. 1082–1096. DOI: 10.1016/j.apm.2015.06.024.
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13. Lyubimova, T., Lepikhin, A., Parshakova, Ya. and Tiunov, A. (2016). The risk of river pollution due to washout from contaminated floodplain water bodies during periods of high magnitude floods. Journal of Hydrology, vol. 534, pp. 579–589. DOI: 10.1016/j.jhydrol.2016.01.030.
14. Lyubimova, T., Lepikhin, A., Parshakova, Ya., Lyakhin, Yu. and Tiunov, A. (2018). The modeling of the formation of technogenic thermal pollution zones in large reservoirs. International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, vol. 126, part A, pp. 342–352. DOI: 10.1016/j.ijheatmasstransfer.2018.05.017.
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Mahanova E. V.DIAGNOSTICS OF THE WATER BODY ECOLOGICAL STATE: COMPARING RESULTS OF CHEMICAL ANALYSIS, BIOASSAY AND BIOINDICATION
Introduction: In the European Union, the Water Framework
Directive (WFD) provides a legislative opportunity for an
integrated approach to diagnosing the ecological state of
water bodies, including chemical control, water bioassay,
bioindication of pollution in terms of characteristics of
aquatic communities and biomarkers in individual species. In
the Russian Federation, we also use an integrated approach
to conduct state environmental monitoring of water bodies.
However, not all water bodies are covered by state monitoring
points. Information on most of them comes from water users
conducting industrial environmental monitoring, which does
not include assessment of biota condition in the water body
used. In this paper, we show that in some instances perennial
observations of the chemical composition of wastewater (and
natural waters it is discharged into) are not informative from
an environmental point of view. Comparison of the results of
industrial monitoring and researches in the field of reservoir
bio-diagnostics will allow defining the ecological state of the
water body and, in future, its transformation trend. Methods
and materials: We examined Ivanovskoye Lake (Russia, Kirov
Region) of bayou type, receiving wastewater from a thermal
power plant (TPP) and simultaneously communicating with
the Vyatka River — a source of drinking-water supply. The
chemical composition of wastewater from the TTP and surface
waters of the lake was analyzed. The results were compared
with the bioassay data regarding response of Daphnia magna,
Scenedesmus quadricauda, Paramecium caudatum, Escherichia
coli and bioindication data regarding the species composition
of the coastal aquatic vegetation. Results: Ammonium ions
and organic substances (according to biochemical oxygen
consumption for 20 days) turned out to be priority pollutants.
The maximum concentration of ammonium ions reached
3.17 mg/dm3, which is 6 times higher than the standard value
in Russia. In one of the wastewater sources, water is alkaline
(pH — up to 9.01). In the bioassay for the mortality of D. magna,
toxicity was not established. Most samples had no effect on
test organisms or were moderately toxic. The water samples
from the lake had a stimulating effect on S. quadricauda,
P. caudatum, E. coli, which indicates eutrophication of the
reservoir. According to the analysis of coastal aquatic vegetation
indicator species, Ivanovskoye Lake is of mesotrophic type. The number of pollution indicator species increases when
approaching wastewater sources. Conclusion: In general, the
bioindication results show deeper anthropogenic changes than
those revealed using chemical methods and bioassay. Such data
demonstrate both feasibility of combining industrial monitoring
with scientific research, and changes in the list of the chemical
as well as physical and chemical parameters observed.
Key words: aquatic pollution, bioassay, bioindication, chemical analysis, ammonium ions, coastal aquatic vegetation.
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8. Olkova, A. S. and Dabakh, E. V. (2014). On some experience of interpreting results of bioassay of surface water contaminated with chemicals and radioactivity. Theoretical and Applied Ecology, issue 3, рр. 21–28. DOI: 10.25750/1995- 4301-2014-3-021-028.
9. Olkova, A. S. and Mahanova, E. V. (2018). Selection of bioassay for ecological research of water polluted by mineral nitrogen forms]. Water and Ecology, vol. 4, рр. 70–81. DOI: 10.23968/2305-3488.2018.23.4.70-81.
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Olkova A. S., Berezin G. I.STUDY ON THE SENSITIVITY OF CERTIFIED BIOASSAYS TO WATER POLLUTION WITH MODERN HERBICIDES: MODEL EXPERIMENTS
Introduction: Imidazolinone herbicides and pyridine
derivatives are modern weed control products. Experts attribute
the possibility of introducing into the soil and on plants, wide
spectrum of action against undesirable plants, and protection
of fields throughout the growing season to their advantages.
Manufacturers claim the environmental friendliness of using the
latest generation of herbicides due to their rapid destruction in
the environment. But various studies have shown that the use
of modern herbicides affects both microorganisms and large
animals. Therefore, diagnostics of herbicide contamination in
the soil and water bodies is an urgent task. Methods: We studied
the effects of imidazolinones (imazetapir and imazamox) and
pyridine derivatives (a mixture of clopyralid and picloram) on
living organisms. Those substances are recommended for use
in the Clearfield system. Commercial forms of preparations
(aqueous solutions) were produced in the Russian Federation
and the Republic of Belarus under the Rodimich (imazamox),
Golf VK (imazetapir), Akteon (a mixture of clopyralid and
picloram) trademarks. For the purposes of calculation, the
following maximum allowable concentrations (MAC) in
water were taken: for imazetapir — 0.01 mg/l, for clopyralid
and picloram — 0.04 mg/l, for imazamox — 0.004 mg/l. The
practical task was to determine the sensitivity of bioassays
certified in Russia to this specific pollution. We compared the
sensitivity of bioassays in terms of mortality of Daphnia magna
and Ceriodadhnia affinis, Paramecium caudatum chemotaxis,
and Escherichia coli bioluminescence changes. Additionally,
we rated chronic effects for D. magna. Results: Crustaceans
D. magna and C. affinis were not sensitive to the test substances.
Death of C. affinis occurred in response to doses of 350 MAC,
and for D. magna, supplements equal to 300 MAC were lethal.
Experiments showed that the threat of herbicides to these
aquatic organisms increased in the following series: imazetapi <
< clopyralid + picloram < imazamox. The bioassays for the prelethal
reactions of microorganisms P. caudatum and E. coli were
more sensitive. A mixture of clopyralid and picloram inhibited
the test functions of microorganisms in response to a minimum
dose of 1 MAC (using clopyralid). The negative effect of
imazetapir on ciliates started with 10 MAC, on E. coli — with
50 MAC. Imazamox was the safest. It had an effect only at a dose of 50 MAC. As for P. caudatum and Ecolum test system
bacteria, the following series of risk increase regarding the active
ingredients in preparations is valid: imazamox (Rodimich) <
< imazetapir (Golf VK) < < clopyralid + picloram (Akteon).
In chronic experiments with D. magna, it was shown that
modern herbicides caused a delay in the maturation of females
D. magna and later appearance of the young in comparison
with the control (by 1–2 days). As a result, in 24 days of the
experiment, the fertility of D. magna was significantly depressed
in response to doses in the range from 1 to 50 MPC — by 1.3–
1.8 times (p < 0.05). Conclusion: The experiments showed that
the sensitivity of the four bioassays for imazetapyr, imazamox,
and the mixture of clopyralid + picloram could be represented
by the following series: the bioassay for changes in chemotaxis
of P. caudatum > the bioassay of bioluminescence reduction
in E. coli > the bioassay for the mortality of C. affinis > the
bioassay for the mortality of D. magna.
Key words: bioassay, Daphnia magna, Ceriodadhnia affinis, Paramecium caudatum, Escherichia coli, water pollution, imazamox, imazetapir, clopyralid, picloram.
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Alexeev M. I., Baranov L. A., Ermolin Y. A.APPROXIMATE ANALYTICAL ESTIMATE OF RELIABILITY INDICES FOR AGEING FACILITIES OF WATER SUPPLY AND SEWER SYSTEMS
Introduction. The paper addresses characteristic features of methodological approaches to solving engineering reliability
problems associated with aging facilities of water supply and sewer systems in large cities. It is noted that, in case of longlived
facilities, well-known procedures for solving practical tasks are not applicable due to non-stationarity (in terms of
reliability) of such facilities. Methods. A real non-stationary (“aging”) facility (object) is formally replaced by its virtual
stationary analog with a constant failure rate, which can be determined based on the condition of equality between reliability
functions of those real and virtual objects for a particular operating time. Mean operating time to failure of the virtual
object is chosen as such point on the time-axis. A corresponding equation is obtained and solved for the unknown variable
that, as a result, can be expressed in terms of “aging law” for a real non-stationary object. An approximation error is
estimated analytically for a linearly aging object. It is demonstrated that in case of a real combination of “aging law”
parameters, this error does not exceed 4–5%, which is quite acceptable for engineering calculations. Results. The authors
develop a procedure for the approximate substitution of a non-stationary object by a stationary one (stationarization) where
the failure flow is expressed in terms of reliability function coefficients of a real aging object. This procedure makes it
possible to use well-known methods of solving reliability problems of stationary objects when analyzing non-stationary
objects. Conclusion. The proposed procedure of approximate estimate for basic reliability indices of non-stationary objects
is convenient for practical use.
Key words: reliability, aging object, reliability index, approximation, stationarization, error
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11. Ermolin, Y. A. and Alexeev, M. I. (2018). Reliability measure of a sewer network. Water and Ecology, No. 2, pp. 51–58. DOI: 10.23968/2305–3488.2018.20.2.51–58.
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14. Mancuso, A., Compare, M., Salo, A., Zio, E. and Laakso, T. (2016). Risk-based optimization of pipe inspections in large underground networks with imprecise information. Reliability Engineering & System Safety, Vol. 152, pp. 228–238. DOI: 10.1016/j.ress.2016.03.011.
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18. Zhao, X., Al-Khalifa, K. N. and Nakagawa, T. (2015). Approximate methods for optimal replacement, maintenance, and inspection policies. Reliability Engineering & System Safety, Vol. 144, pp. 68–73. DOI: 10.1016/j.ress.2015.07.005.
Dobromirov V. N., Avramov D. V., Martynov N. V., Gordienko V. E.EVALUATION OF THE EFFICIENCY OF ELECTRO-HYDRAULIC DISINFECTION LIQUID ON DIFFERENT MODES OF PROCESSING
Introduction. Due to significant water consumption to maintain business activities, there is concern about an issue of
disinfecting water discharged to water bodies and supplied to a circulating water system after being used for process needs.
Modern researchers focus not only on traditional disinfection methods but on the development of innovative technologies as
well. Such technologies include a technology of water treatment using an electric field. Methods. The paper addresses liquid
disinfection with the use of high-voltage electric pulses. A mock-up installation for liquid disinfection based on the use of
the electro-hydraulic effect is described. The paper presents a technique and results of experimental researches conducted
to determine a dependence between the liquid disinfection rate and electrical energy applied using the example of aqueous
yeast solution treatment. Results. It has been established that the dependence is not linear (as it was assumed earlier) but
exponential. Therefore, it is impossible to ensure the total elimination of fungal bacteria in any mode of treatment. Over
time, the remaining living microorganisms recover the population, reducing the bactericidal properties of the treated liquid.
Conclusion. As a result of the study, a treatment mode with the least negative consequences of this phenomenon at the
maximum disinfection efficiency is determined. Parameters of aqueous yeast solution treatment with the use of high-voltage
electric pulses, which ensure achievement of such effect, are described.
Key words: liquid disinfection, electro-hydraulic effect, treatment modes, disinfection efficiency
1. Dobromirov, V.N., Avramov, D.V. and Martynov, N.V. (2019). Technology of liquid disinfection based on the electrohydraulic effect. Water and Ecology, No. 2, pp. 17–23. DOI: 10.23968/2305-3488.2019.24.2.17-23
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8. Epov, A. N. and Kanunnikova, M. A. (2015). Wastewater treatment at agro-industrial enterprises. Best Available Technologies (NDT) Journal, No. 1, pp. 52–59.
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12. German Association for Water, Wastewater and Waste (2000). Standard ATV-DVWK-A 131E. Dimensioning of singlestage activated sludge plants. Hennef: Publishing Company of ATV-DVWK, Water, Wastewater, Waste, 57 p.
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Smirnov Yu. D., Suchkova M. V.BENEFICIAL USE OF SEWAGE SLUDGE INCINERATION ASH IN THE NATIONAL ECONOMY
Introduction. The paper provides an assessment of the possibility of using the ash of sewage sludge incineration as a useful
component. When choosing a method for its beneficial use, it is important to consider the danger of its contamination
with heavy metals. Methods. The content of heavy metals in the ash was analyzed using X-ray fluorescence and atomic
absorption spectroscopy methods. The waste hazard class was determined and confirmed based on the water extract bioassay
method. Doses of allowable waste application to the soil were calculated with account for the content of heavy metals in the
ash. Results. According to the results of laboratory tests, ash (as a component of soil mixture) has a positive effect on the
germination dynamics and plant growth (with Trifolium praténse as an example). These data suggest the possibility of using
waste in technical reclamation. The estimated result of the development is an organic-mineral soil mixture based on the
ash of sewage sludge incineration, which also can be used for strengthening and improvement of road slopes. Conclusion.
The proposed developments will make it possible to solve issues of incineration ash disposal. The complex of the research
methods applied in the course of this study can be successfully used to assess the degree of contamination with heavy metals
in other solid wastes and soils.
Key words: bioassay, water treatment, sewage sludge incineration ash, municipal sewage sludge, reclamation, heavy metals
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21. Li, J. and Poon, C. S. (2017). Innovative solidification/ stabilization of lead contaminated soil using incineration sewage sludge ash. Chemosphere, Vol. 173, pp. 143–152. DOI: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2017.01.065.
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Iurchenko V. A., Smyrnov O. V., Yesin M. A., Levashova Yu. S.EFFECT OF THE REDOX POTENTIAL ON SLUDGE LIQUOR PHOSPHATATION IN BIOLOGICAL PHOSPHORUS REMOVAL TECHNOLOGIES
Introduction. The metabolic activity of phosphate accumulating organisms (PAOs) under anaerobic conditions plays a decisive
role in optimizing the process of removing phosphorus compounds in the Enhanced Biological Phosphorus Removal (EBPR)
technology when alternating anaerobic and aerobic modes. A number of chemical, physical, physical-and-chemical, hydraulic, and
biological factors affect the efficiency of biological wastewater treatment aimed at the removal of phosphates. Since the removal
of phosphates using PAOs is associated with the transfer of ions through the cell membrane, the impact of the redox potential
of the aquatic environment on phosphatation and dephosphatation in systems with activated sludge is of scientific and practical
interest. Methods. Phosphatation of wastewater under anaerobic and anoxic conditions was studied during laboratory experiments
and inspection of existing wastewater treatment plants with aeration tanks with and without zoning. In laboratory experiments,
quantitative dependences of the wastewater phosphatation rate on the ORP values in the environment and the difference between the
ORP values in different areas of aeration tanks were established. Results. The maximum achieved phosphate accumulation capacity
of the unadapted sludge in the flow-through mode of cultivation under laboratory conditions was 61.1 mg of PO4/g of sludge. At
the existing wastewater treatment plants, the ORP indicator of aquatic environments is more sensitive and describes the oxidationreduction
situation in more detail than the oxygen concentration. As for wastewater treatment in aeration tanks with zoning, the
ORP value and the phosphorus concentration in phosphates in the sludge liquor had the opposite dynamics. Conclusion. The
analysis of the phosphate concentration and ORP values in aeration tanks with zoning suggests that for wastewater phosphatation/
dephosphatation, not the absolute ORP value, but the difference between the ORP values of aquatic environments created in different
zones of an aeration tank is more significant. In general, oxidation-reduction characteristics of interacting aquatic environments play
an important role in the migration of phosphates in the system of activated sludge–wastewater in the EBPR technology and can be
used as control actions.
Key words: Enhanced Biological Phosphorus Removal technology, phosphate accumulating organisms, phosphatation, dephosphatation, redox potential, aeration tank zoning
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Vas’kin S. V., Dmitrieva M. S.MODELING THE LOAD ON RECEPTION FACILITIES
Introduction: Improving the system of inland water transport is one of the priorities for the development of Russia. The
main practical way to ensure environmental safety during vessel operation is accumulation of wastes in special tanks on
board the vessel and their handover to environmental protection facilities. Methods: The paper proposes an algorithm
for modeling the load on river port reception facilities based on the probabilistic method. This method takes into account
the number and type of vessels in operation, their endurance in sewage and oily waters, and waterway environmental
characteristics. Results: The implementation of the proposed algorithm makes it possible to determine the average daily
amount of wastes from vessels, delivered to reception facilities, the average daily number of applications for the delivery of
wastes from vessels, and the maximum amount of wastes of a particular type with a given probability that can be received by
environmental protection facilities during the day. As a result of calculating the load on river port environmental protection
facilities, the amount of wastes delivered from vessels was estimated depending on the intensity of navigation in basins
of inland waterways and waterway environmental characteristics. Conclusion: The proposed and implemented algorithm
for modeling the load on reception facilities allows us to estimate the amount of ship-generated wastes, depending on the
intensity of navigation.
Key words: ship-generated wastes, navigation intensity, sewage waters, reception facilities, environmental safety
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Ivanyutin N. M.CURRENT ECOLOGICAL STATE OF LAKE DONUZLAV
Introduction. The marine coastal zone of the Republic of Crimea is constantly exposed to intensive anthropogenic pressure.
A significant part of the industrial, agricultural and recreational potential is concentrated within its borders, intensive commodity transport
flows circulate in the area, natural resources (biological, mineral, water, recreational) are extracted and used here. As a
result of human activity, coastal ecosystems are exposed to severe anthropogenic impact, and the lack of a scientifically-based plan
for the development of the marine coastal zone and its economic management with disregard for the conditions of environmental
safety (lack of a comprehensive environmental monitoring system) have already led to an unfavorable environmental situation in
certain areas of the sea and coastal zone. Methods. The paper presents results of a comprehensive study on the ecological state
of Lake Donuzlav, which covered studies on seawater pollution, bottom sediments, as well as plankton and benthic communities.
Results. As a result of the studies, contamination of the estuarine bottom sediments with heavy metals (copper, zinc, mercury —
1.1–1.2 MAC, iron — 1.2–2 MAC) and oil products (1.6–14 MAC) was revealed. The aquatic environment of the upper reaches
of the lake was polluted with sulfates up to 3.8–4.2, chlorides — up to 2.2–2.9, phosphates — up to 1.22–1.64, BOD5 — up to
1.5, COD — up to 5–29 MAC, which may indicate the ingress of domestic wastewater into the water body. One of the most
acute problems of the lake is the development of an underwater sandpit, which continues to this day. Conclusion. Monitoring
observations at the national level are conducted using a reduced list of indicators. Therefore, it is impossible to judge the current
ecological state of the estuary ecosystem. At the end of the paper, there is a map showing the location of monitoring points of the
monitoring system for the lake area and the adjacent part of the Black Sea.
Key words: Lake Donuzlav, ecological state, pollutants, geological environment, bottom sediments, monitoring system
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6. Dyakov, N. N., Korshenko, A. N., Malchenko, Yu. A., Lipchenko, A. E., Zhilyaev, D. P. and Bobrova, S. A. (2018). Hydrological and hydrochemical conditions of the Crimean and Caucasus shelf zones in 2016-2017. SOI Proceedings, No. 219, рр. 66–87.
7. Eremeyev, V. N. and Boltachev, A. R. (2005). Potential prospects of Donuzlav as the center for preservation of biodiversity, mariculture, recreation and ecotourism. Ecological Safety of Coastal and Shelf Zones and Comprehensive Use of Shelf Resources, No. 13, рр. 151–158.
8. Zhugaylo, S.S., Avdeeva, T. M., Pugach, M. N. and Adzhiumerov, E. N. (2018). Current state of water quality and bottom sediments in lake Donuzlav. Aquatic Bioresources and Environment, Volume 1, No. 1, рр. 32–38.
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Olkova A. S.HEALTH MONITORING OF DAPHNIA MAGNA STRAUS TEST CULTURE
Introduction. The test-culture state is one of the important factors for obtaining reliable and reproducible bioassay results.
Laboratory populations of a single species can accumulate intraspecific changes over time. Moreover, for most test organisms,
it is acceptable to use different cultivated waters, the physical and chemical parameters of which are specified within rather
wide limits. To ensure test-culture standardization, it is not sufficient to perform tests for sensitivity to a reference toxicant.
Therefore, the authors introduce the concept of “test-culture health”, which is analyzed using Daphnia magna as an example.
Methods and materials. Using the questionnaire method, the authors revealed deviations from the conventional norm in the
health of D. magna in 10 laboratories not exchanging cultures. In laboratories with the most and least successful test cultures,
an experiment was conducted to compare the suggested health parameters of D. magna: the day of the appearance of the first
juveniles, the day of the first mass offspring, the average and maximum life expectancy, fertility per female, and the number of
aborted eggs. The authors also summarized results of the recommended visual observations of D. magna and results of model
experiments to calibrate the sensitivity of crustaceans over four years. Results. It is proposed to monitor D. magna health
in three areas: to perform visual observations of morphological, physiological and behavioral characteristics of crustaceans,
account for quantitative parameters, and calibrate the sensitivity of synchronized D. magna juveniles by seasons. Suitability
of the D. magna culture for bioassay shall be monitored according to the “day of the first offspring” indicator. The authors
recommend monitoring the indicators per a full life cycle of even-aged crustaceans once in six months, conducting model
experiments in groups of 25 crustaceans per one liter of medium. It is shown that the D. magna culture, when kept in a climatic
chamber, retains biological rhythms, which affect its sensitivity by seasons. It is recommended to identify the specifics of
seasonal dynamics in each laboratory individually since it changes in response to other factors, e.g. the chemical composition of
the cultivated water. Conclusion. Results and recommendations presented in the paper can serve as a basis for the development
of procedures for internal quality control of bioassay performance.
Key words: bioassay, test culture, Daphnia magna, standardization, test-culture health, test conditions
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Kholodova S. N., Rudikov D. A.ON THE POSSIBILITY OF USING WATER HYACINTH FOR POLLUTED WATER TREATMENT
Introduction. The paper proposes a solution to one of the environmental problems — improvement of a water basin using
the example of the Temernik River basin (Rostov Region). The main sources of water basin pollution are storm and domestic
wastewater from private and industrial use, as well as discharges from sewage pumping stations as a result of emergencies.
Methods. For those purposes, it is proposed to use such representative of higher aquatic vegetation as eichhornia, or water
hyacinth, which represents a sort of powerful chemical laboratory capable of transforming almost all complex pollutants into
nontoxic substances. By purifying water, the plant uses pollutants for its metabolism. The greatest amount of pollutants is
absorbed by its roots. Due to a well-developed root system and a nutrient substrate, eichhornia can enhance the process of
destructing various pollutants. Moreover, such indicators as biological and chemical oxygen demand improve. Currently, there
are no available data on the eichhornia ability to absorb pollutants in a biomodule at a flow velocity of about 0.4 m/s. The
purpose of the study was to assess the feasibility of using water hyacinth in polluted water treatment under natural conditions
(biomodules were located in the mouth of the Temernik River) and in a laboratory experiment. Based on the results of the
field and laboratory studies, we can conclude that it is possible to treat running water using biomodules with water hyacinth.
Conclusions. It was found that the absorption capacity of water hyacinth was different for different substances and depended
on the season (ambient temperature, day length), water consumption and concentration of pollutants.
Key words: biomodule, water hyacinth, eichornia, pollutants, wastewater, higher aquatic plants
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5. Klenova, I. A. (2008). Possibility of using eichhornia for railway enterprise wastewater treatment. In: Proceedings of the All-Russian Scientific and Practical Conference “Transport-2008”, Rostov-on-Don, April 22–25, 2008. Rostovon- Don: Rostov State Transport University, pp. 105-108.
6. Klenova, I. A. and Rudikov, D. A. (2017). Ecological approaches to the revitalization of small rivers. Technology of Technosphere Safety, No. 3 (73), pp. 196–203.
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9. Merkulova, T. N. (2004). Use of the eichhornia floating aquatic plant to ensure the efficiency of advanced wastewater treatment. University News. North Caucasian Region. Technical Sciences, No. 4, pp. 99–100.
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Zhong H., Sun L., Fang J., Zhao H., Xu A., Xia D., Nevsky A. V.EFFECT OF RADICAL SCAVENGERS AND PROPOSED PATHWAYS FOR AZO DYE DEGRADATION IN A PERSULPHATE-BISULFITE SYSTEM
Introduction. The textile industry is one of the most significant manufacturing sectors that produce large volumes of highly polluted
and toxic wastewater. Along with the light industry, pigments and dyes industry, domestic service, dry-cleaning, etc., it contributes
significantly to water pollution, where dyes are among the top pollutants. Methods. In this study, the degradation of Acid Orange
7 (AO7) dye in a persulfate-bisulfite system under visible (Vis) light (wavelength ≥ 420 nm) was performed. Based on the electron
spin resonance spin-trapping technologies and radical scavenger measurements, the produced hydroxyl radical (·OH) is regarded
as the predominant reactive oxidant for AO7 decolorization also involving the sulfate radical (SO4·–). The formation of shortlived
radicals during AO7 decolorization was detected by the ESR spin-trapping technique at room temperature using a Bruker
ESR A-300 spectrometer with the following parameters: center field 3516 G, sweep width 100 G, microwave frequency 9.86 G,
modulation frequency 100 kHz, microwave power 1 mW. The intermediate products of the AO7 degradation reaction were analyzed
by mass spectrometry. The experiments were performed using an Esquire LC ion trap mass spectrometer (Bruker Daltonics, Bremen,
Germany) equipped with an orthogonal geometry ESI source. Nitrogen was used as a drying (3 L/min) and nebulizing (6 psi) gas at
300 °C. The spray shield voltage was 4.0 kV and the capillary cap voltage was 4.5 kV. Scanning was performed from m/z 90 to 400
in the standard resolution mode at a scan rate of 13 kDa/s. Before the analysis, each sample was diluted ten-fold. Results.The intermediates
were determined by electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) analysis and, as a result, a plausible degradation pathway
was proposed. The results of the study can be useful in designing a simple, effective, and economically sound system for
the treatment of non-biodegradable azo dyes.
Key words: dye degradation, Acid Orange 7, radical scavengers, reaction intermediates, degradation pathway, mineralization
1. Azam A., Hamid A. (2006). Effects of gap size and UV dosage on decolorization of C.I. Acid Orange 7 by UV/H2O2 process. Journal of Hazardous Materials, Vol. 133, Issues 1–3, pp. 167–171. DOI: 10.1016/j.jhazmat.2005.10.005.
2. Chen X., Chen J., Qiao X., Wang D., Cai X. (2008). Performance of nano-Co3O4/peroxymonosulfate system: Kinetics and mechanism study using Acid Orange 7 as a model compound. Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, Vol. 80, Issues 1–2, pp. 116–121. DOI: 10.1016/j.apcatb.2007.11.009.
3. Chen X., Qiao X., Wang D., Lin J., Chen J. (2007). Kinetics of oxidative decolorization and mineralization of Acid Orange 7 by dark and photoassisted Co2+-catalyzed peroxymonosulfate system. Chemosphere, Vol. 67, Issue 4, pp. 802–808. DOI: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2006.10.032.
4. Coughlin M. F., Kinkle B. K., Bishop P. L. (2002). Degradation of acid orange 7 in an aerobic biofilm. Chemosphere, Vol. 46, Issue 1, pp. 11–19. DOI: 10.1016/S0045- 6535(01)00096-0.
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7. López C., Valade A.G., Combourieu B., Mielgo I., Bouchon B., Lema J.M. (2004). Mechanism of enzymatic degradation of the azo dye Orange II determined by ex situ 1H nuclear magnetic resonance and electrospray ionization-ion trap mass spectrometry. Analytical Biochemistry, Vol. 335, Issue 1, pp. 135–149. DOI: 10.1016/j.ab.2004.08.037.
8. Méndez-Paz D., Omil F., Lema J.M. (2005). Anaerobic treatment of azo dye Acid Orange 7 under batch conditions. Enzyme and Microbial Technology, Vol. 36, Issues 2–3, pp. 264–272. DOI: 10.1016/j.enzmictec.2004.08.039.
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15. Wu J., Zhang H., Qiu J. (2012). Degradation of Acid Orange 7 in aqueous solution by a novel electro/ Fe2+/peroxydisulfate process. Journal of Hazardous Materials, Vol. 215–216, pp. 138–145. DOI: 10.1016/j. jhazmat.2012.02.047.
16. Yang S., Wang P., Yang X., Shan L., Zhang W., Shao X., Niu R. (2010). Degradation efficiencies of azo dye Acid Orange 7 by the interaction of heat, UV and anions with common oxidants: Persulfate, peroxymonosulfate and hydrogen peroxide. Journal of Hazardous Materials, Vol. 179, Issue 1–3, pp. 552–558. DOI: 10.1016/j.jhazmat.2010.03.039.
17. Yang S., Yang X., Shao X., Niu R., Wang L. (2011). Activated carbon catalyzed persulfate oxidation of Azo dye acid orange 7 at ambient temperature. Journal of Hazardous Materials, Vol. 186, Issue 1, pp. 659–666. DOI: 10.1016/j. jhazmat.2010.11.057.
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19. Zhang X., Wang Y., Li G., Qu J. (2006). Oxidative decomposition of azo dye C.I. Acid Orange 7 (AO7) under microwave electrodeless lamp irradiation in the presence of H2O2. Journal of Hazardous Materials, Vol. 134, Issues 1–3, pp. 183–189. DOI: 10.1016/j.jhazmat.2005.10.046.
Vikulin P. D., Vikulina V. B.EFFECT OF ULTRASOUND ON PH CHANGE IN WATER
Introduction. The paper deals with physical and chemical effects in water, occurring under the action of the ultrasonic field
based on the theory of cavitation bubble dynamics. The scope of the study is an aqueous environment, while ultrasound
effects are chosen as the subject of the study. Methods. The paper describes equipment and a methodology for conducting
experimental studies in a laboratory and suggests a layout of the experimental setup for ultrasonic liquid treatment, consisting
of a generator, converter, and reactor. Results . It is shown that chemical transformations under the action of ultrasonic
vibrations occur in an aqueous environment in the cavitation mode. The authors describe the appearance of active radicals
in water as well as ionized hydrated electrons with neutral water molecules attached. They also introduce schemes of water
splitting with the formation of active radicals that can change pH. It is noted that a cavitation cavity can serve as a source
of intermediate products with high reactivity. The authors consider the principle of high temperatures occurrence during
the adiabatic compression of a cavitation bubble. They also review a scheme of cavitation bubble formation in an aqueous
environment with dissolved gases. An equation suggested by Ya. I. Frenkel, determining the field intensity in a bubble cavity
at the moment of its formation, is shown. Physical parameters of the ultrasonic field for the occurrence of cavitation in an
aqueous environment are given. The potentiometric method of water pH measurement is used. The authors also performed
experimental studies and analyzed the data on water pH change in the ultrasonic field.
Key words: ultrasonic cavitation, active radicals, ultrasonic reactor, magnetostriction emitter, potentiometry, pH.
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16. Margulis, M. A. (2000). Sonoluminescence. Physics- Uspekhi, Vol. 43, Issue 3, pp. 259–282. DOI: 10.1070/ PU2000v043n03ABEH000455.
17. Zhou, Y., Zhai, L., Simmons, R. and Zhong, P. (2006). Measurement of high intensity focused ultrasound fields by a fiber optic probe hydrophone. The Journal of the Acoustic Society of America, Vol. 120, Issue 2. pp. 676–685. DOI: 10.1121/1.2214131.
Gulshin I. A., Gogina E. S.SINGLE-SLUDGE SYSTEM OF ADVANCED LOW-OXYGEN WASTEWATER TREATMENT WITH NITROGEN COMPOUNDS REMOVAL
Introduction. Low-oxygen methods of wastewater treatment have significant potential for further development and reduction
of the overall energy costs at sewage treatment plants. When the aeration intensity at aeration stations decreases, the
main task is to maintain the system in a stable state where it is necessary to oxidize organic pollutants and ammonia nitrogen.
To solve it, it is required to implement a number of additional measures to control the operational parameters of the system
simultaneously with a change in the oxygen regime. Methods. The paper addresses systems operating at low concentrations
of dissolved oxygen with simultaneous nitrification and denitrification. The authors compared activated sludge performing
well with a lack of oxygen with well-aerated nitrifying activated sludge. The study was carried out in a laboratory and at an
experimental plant at existing treatment facilities. Results. During the experiment, the influence of increased sludge flow
rates in circulation systems on the composition and characteristics of activated sludge at low concentrations of dissolved
oxygen was confirmed. Maintenance of high speeds and relatively low specific loads for organic pollutants had a stabilizing
effect, and thus reduced the risk of the filamentous swelling of activated sludge. Conclusion. The technology of simultaneous
nitrification and denitrification implies the presence of nitrifying and denitrifying biomass in a sufficient amount, working
under non-standard conditions. As a result of the study, operational parameters of the system were determined that made
it possible to stabilize activated sludge and maintain it in a nitrifying state.
Key words: activated sludge, nitrification, denitrification, anammox, low-oxygen wastewater treatment.
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Zaletova N. A., Zaletov S. V.POTENTIAL OF THE TECHNOLOGY FOR THE ADVANCED TREATMENT OF WASTEWATER USING GRANULAR-BED FILTERS WITH AN INERT MEDIUM
Introduction. The modern wastewater treatment process flow involves the use of granular-bed filters with an inert medium, which make it possible to increase the degree of treatment regarding biologically treated wastewater by removing suspended
solids and partially reduce the concentration of organic substances. Filters for advanced treatment are quite expensive. This
may be a reason for the fact they are not included in the recommended best available technologies. Methods. Technologies
and designs of some filters open the possibility to use these filters to solve integrated tasks: not only to improve the degree of
treatment by removing organic substances and suspended solids but also to remove such nutrients as nitrogen and phosphorus
compounds, which is very important at present. With this approach, the importance of filters in the process flow increases
significantly. Results. The most significant result was obtained using “dry” filters. Studies of dry filtration show that, with
the use of granular-bed filters with synthetic expanded medium, it is possible to ensure the enhanced removal of nitrogen
compounds. With the appropriate design of filters and technological parameters of the filtering mode, unique tasks can be
performed, including the removal of phosphates and ammonium ion to achieve maximum allowable concentrations in fishery
water bodies. Conclusion. The involvement of filters, providing the enhanced removal of a wide range of pollutants, in the
modern process flow will effectively solve the current problems of wastewater treatment. Each element of the process flow
will be able to operate in an optimal mode. The technological importance and economic attractiveness of filters will increase.
Besides, filters will perform the role of a barrier: they will stabilize the operation of a wastewater treatment system in general.
Key words: granular-bed filters, inert medium, phosphorus compounds, ammonium ion, contact coagulation, attached microflora, advanced treatment.
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Ivanenko I. I., Lapatina Е. Ya., Krasavina T. A.STUDIES OF OIL-CONTAINING POLLUTION REMOVAL BY MICROORGANISMS
Introduction. Environmental pollution with oil and petroleum products is a result of technological progress and human
activities. The release of petroleum products into the environment with industrial and storm water, as well as manmade
disasters accompanied by oil spills, adversely affect the biocenosis of various natural ecosystems and require the
development of new environmentally-friendly methods to protect the environment against this pollution. Methods. The
scope of the studies is natural processes in biological water treatment technologies, which are based on the ability of bacteria
to use petroleum products and elements with mixed valence as oxidizing agents of organic compounds. The studies included
an analytical compilation of available scientific and technical results, a review of literature, patent searches, and laboratory
studies using standard and modern techniques. Results. As a result of the research, the authors established the possibility
of attached associations of microorganisms-destructors to destroy carbon-containing products, determined the approximate
processing time depending on the treatment temperature, and identified the sequence of activity of bacterial genera strains
involved in the decomposition of petroleum products by the degree of hydrophobicity. The identification of this sequence
will make it possible to determine and select the ratios of microorganisms-destructors in spatial successions, created for
biological treatment processes, more successfully.
Key words: petroleum products, microorganisms-destructors, decomposition rate, hydrophobicity, attached microorganisms, strain activity sequence.
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Orlov V. A.ENSURING PHYSICAL INTEGRITY AND ENERGY SAVING IN WATER TRANSPORT PIPELINE SYSTEMS AFTER THEIR RECONSTRUCTION
Introduction. The authors set tasks for water service companies, regarding the efficient management of pipeline systems,
and environmental services, regarding the assurance of the satisfactory state of soils and groundwater near the routes of utility
networks. They pay special attention to ensuring physical integrity in water transport pipelines and preventing their aging.
The paper gives a rationale for using trenchless technologies, modern sprayed protective coatings based on organic materials,
and polymer pipes with a pre-compressed cross-section applying the Swagelining technology, as methods and tools for
reconstructing pipelines. Methods. The paper describes analytical and computational methods used, which make it possible to
recommend the most relevant protective coating depending on the type of defect while ensuring energy saving in case certain
sections of old and new pipelines are compatible hydraulically. Results. The authors present and analyze results of energysaving
potential calculations for specific problems related to the reconstruction of an old steel pipeline with sprayed coatings of
various modifications of Copon Hycote polymers, as well as the reconstruction of polymer pipes. Conclusion. The following
characteristics are determined: variation ranges for the internal diameter of a new steel pipeline after renovation, wall thickness
after pipe compression and straightening; dynamics of pressure losses; average annual energy savings per linear meter and the
entire length of the pipeline. The authors also suggest several equations to calculate the diameter and energy-saving potential
in case of using polymer pressure pipes with non-standard SDR values during reconstruction.
Key words: pipes, reconstruction, physical integrity, energy-saving potential, strength properties.
1. Belyakova, E. V. and Golovin, K. A. (2009). Modern trenchless technologies. News of the Tula State University. Natural Sciences, No. 3. pp. 238–244.
2. Zakharov, Yu. S. and Orlov, V. A. (2017). Rehabilitation of drain and sewer systems with polymer hoses. Moscow: RuScience, 108 p.
3. Orlov, V. A., Zotkin, S. P., Zotkina, I. A. and Khrenov, K. E. (2014). Calculating the operating parameters of pressure pipelines rehabilitated using pre-compressed polymer pipes. Certificate of state software registration No. 2014612753 dd. 06.03.2014 on application No. 2014610231 dd. 10.01.2014.
4. Orlov, V. A. (2015). Pipeline networks. Automated support for project development. Saint Petersburg: Lan Publishing House, 159 p.
5. Saltykov, E. V. (2016). Epoxy coatings — the change of corrosion. Drilling and Oil, No. 11, pp. 48–50.
6. Shevelev, F. A. (2013). Tables for the hydraulic analysis of steel, cast-iron, asbestos-cement, plastic and glass water pipes. Moscow: Kniga po Trebovaniyu, 116 p.
7. Khramenkov, S. V. (2012). Time to manage water. Moscow: Moskovskiye Uchebniki I Kartolitographiya, 280 p.
8. Batchelor, C., Ratna Reddy, V., Linstead, C., Dhar, M., Roy, S. and May, R. (2014). Do water-saving technologies improve environmental flows? Journal of Hydrology, Vol. 518, Part A, pp. 140–149. DOI: 10.1016/j.jhydrol.2013.11.063.
9. Bruce, W. A. (2015). Comparison of fiber-reinforced polymer wrapping versus steel sleeves for repair of pipelines. In: Karbhari, V. M. (ed.) Rehabilitation of Pipelines Using Fiber-reinforced Polymer (FRP) Composites, pp. 61–78. DOI: 10.1016/B978-0-85709-684-5.00004-7.
10. Bykowski, J., Jakubowicz, J. and Napierała, M. (2013). Analiza finansowa zajęcia pasa drogowego w robotach sieciowych. Gaz, Woda i Technika Sanitarna, No. 8, рр. 321–327.
11. Cruz, C. and De Souza, E. M. (2012). Spray applied coatings for the rehabilitation of drinking water pipelines. In: 30th International NO-DIG Conference and Exhibition 2012, Sao Paulo (Brazil), pp. 200–206.
12. Huang, Q., Wang, J. and Li, Y. (2017). Do water saving technologies save water? Empirical evidence from North China. Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, Vol. 82, pp. 1–16. DOI: 10.1016/j.jeem.2016.10.003.
13. Kuliczkowski, A. (2012). Renowacja czy rekonstrukcja na przykładzie przewodów wodociągowych i kanalizacyjnych. INSTAL, No. 1, рр. 46–49.
14. Kuliczkowski, A. (2014). Trwałość rozwiązań stosowanych w budowie i odnowie przewodów kanalizacyjnych. INSTAL, No. 3, рр. 54–56.
15. Maslak, V., Nasonkina, N., Sakhnovskaya, V., Gutarova, M., Antonenko, S. and Nemova, D. (2015). Evaluation of technical condition of water supply networks on undermined territories. Procedia Engineering, Vol. 117, pp. 980–989. DOI: 10.1016/j.proeng.2015.08.206.
16. Pridmore, A. B. and Ojdrovic, R. P. (2015). Trenchless repair of concrete pipelines using fiber-reinforced polymer composites. In: Karbhari, V. M. (ed.) Rehabilitation of Pipelines Using Fiber-reinforced Polymer (FRP) Composites, pp. 17–38. DOI: 10.1016/B978-0-85709-684-5.00002-3.
17. Rabmer-Koller, U. (2011). No-dig technologies — innovative solution for efficient and fast pipe rehabilitation. In: 29th International NO-DIG Conference and Exhibition, NO-DIG Berlin, Paper 2C-1, pp. 1–10.
18. Rameil, M. (2007). Handbook of pipe bursting practice. Essen: Vulkan Verlag. 351 p.
19. Tsyss, V. G. and Sergaeva, M. Yu. (2016). Finite element analysis of discharge antivibrational pipe stress state of the piping system flexible joint. Procedia Engineering, Vol. 152, pp. 251–257. DOI: 10.1016/j.proeng.2016.07.699.
20. Wei, G., Xu, R.-Q. and Huang, B. (2005). Analysis of stability failure for pipeline during long distance pipe jacking. Chinese Journal of Rock Mechanics and Engineering, Vol. 24, No. 8, рр. 1427–1432.
Ponomarev A. B., Konyushkov V. V., Lushnikov V. V., Kirillov V. M.IMPACT OF NON-CAVITY DRAINAGE SYSTEMS ON THE BEARING CAPACITY OF THE ROADBED
Introduction. Railway drainage systems should provide the drainage of the topsoil under the tracks. Subdrainage is efficient
in soils with a good filtration coefficient. In poorly permeable soils, it is not so efficient since its range is not enough to
reduce the moisture content in the entire area from the drain to the trackway. The paper addresses a new system of noncavity
drainage constructed directly under the rails at the main site of the roadbed. In cross-section, it is represented by two
rectangular non-cavity drains. The distance between their axes is equal to the width of the rail track. Methods. To analyze
drainage efficiency, the authors applied an analytical method. They used accepted equations, based on which original
solutions to calculate the time of depression curve formation and stabilization were obtained. Changes in the soil strength
were evaluated using the method established in building regulations. Results. The authors determined the time of drainage
to levels of 0.6 and 1 m from the bottom of the drain for a drainage system of specific dimensions. It was proved that the
time of drainage to the set levels (from putting drains into operation until depression curve stabilization) does not exceed 12
days even under the most adverse conditions, with constant infiltration of 15 mm/day. It is shown how to predict changes in
the bearing capacity of the roadbed using data on changes in its moisture content. Conclusion. Non-cavity drainage systems
in poorly permeable soils significantly increase the bearing capacity of the roadbed when used in the under-rail zone.
Key words: non-cavity drainage, hydrological design, soil deformation, poorly permeable soils, roadbed, estimated soil resistance.
1. Blazhko, L. S., Shtykov, V. I. and Chernyaev, Ye. V. (2013). Non-cavity drainage: experience and prospects. Railway Transport, No. 11, pp. 47–49.
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3. Dydyshko, P. I. (2014). Railway roadbed: reference book. Moscow: Intekst, 416 p.
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5. Ignatchik, V. S., Ignatchik, S. Yu., Kuznetsova, N. V. and Spivakov, M. A. (2019). Probabilistic and statistical method for estimating the volume of waste water discharges through storm water outlets of combined sewerage systems. Water and Ecology, № 1 (77), pp. 23–29. DOI: 10.23968/2305-3488.2019.24.1.23-29.
6. Ilyichev, V. A. and Mangushev, R. A. (eds.) (2016). Geotechnical engineer’s reference book. Bases, foundations, and underground structures. 2nd edition. Moscow: ASV, 1040 p.
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8. Karmazinov, F. V., Ignatchik, S. Yu., Kuznecova, N. V., Kuznecov, P. N. and Fes’kova, A. Ya. (2018). Methods for calculating the surface run-off. Water and Ecology, No. 2 (74), pp. 17–24. DOI: 10.23968/2305-3488.2018.20.2.17-24.
9. Kliorina, G. I. (2000). Development area preparation and landscaping: drainages. Saint Petersburg: Saint Petersburg State University of Architecture and Civil Engineering, 147 p.
10. Kliorina, G. I. (2006). Development area drainage. Saint Petersburg: Saint Petersburg State University of Architecture and Civil Engineering, 207 p.
11. Konyushkov, V. V. (2017). Engineering protection of territories from slope shift processes taking into account natural conditions and technogenic loads. Bulletin of Civil Engineers, No. 2 (61), pp. 137–142. DOI: 10.23968/1999-5571-2017-14- 2-137-142.
12. Konyushkov V. V. and Vladimirova, E. I. (2017). Analysis and forecasting of the slope stability in natural conditions for construction and operation periods. Bulletin of Civil Engineers, No. 6 (65), pp. 107–113. DOI: 10.23968/1999- 5571-2017-14-6-107-113.
13. Konyushkov, V. V. and Pyatnitsa, A. V. (2018). Numerical simulation of the alternative design of territory engineering protection measures against landslide processes. Bulletin of Civil Engineers, No. 2 (67), pp. 100–105. DOI: 0.23968/1999-5571-2018-15-2-100-105.
14. Konyushkov, V. V., Veselov, A. A. and Kondratyeva, L. N. (2017). Comprehensive analysis of the results of engineering surveys for design, construction and exploitation of structures in the areas with landslide processes. Bulletin of the Tomsk Polytechnic University. Geo Assets Engineering, Vol. 328, No. 11, pp. 111–125.
15. Simanovsky, A. M. and Chelnokova, V. A. (2017). Assessment of hydrogeological conditions at the construction site. Saint Petersburg: Saint Petersburg State University of Architecture and Civil Engineering, 91 p.
16. Smolyaninov, V. M., Ovchinnikova, T. V., Аshikhmina, T. V. and Kuprienko, P. S. (2019). Forecasting changes in hydrological and hydrogeological conditions in the water intake area through the example of water supply in Voronezh. Water and Ecology, No. 2 (78), pp. 50–58. DOI: 10.23968/2305-3488.2019.24.2.50-58.
17. Fadeyev, A. B. (2004). Engineering geology and hydrogeology. Saint Petersburg: Saint Petersburg State University of Architecture and Civil Engineering, 142 p.
18. Shtykov, V.I. (2014). Hydraulic calculation of noncavity drains of trapezoidal cross-section laid with a slope. Izvestiya VNIIG im. B. Ye. Vedeneyeva, Vol. 274, pp. 14–21.
Rukobratsky N. I., Baruzdin R. E.TERTIARY TREATMENT OF COLD AND HOT WATER IN APARTMENT HOUSES AND CLUSTERS OF ST. PETERSBURG
Introduction. Neva River is the source of water supply of St. Petersburg. The physical and chemical properties of its
water are unstable. Therefore, due to corrosion in distribution networks of both cold and hot water supply it is not always
possible to provide the consumers with high-quality water, particularly in terms of organoleptic indicators and content
of iron. Russian housing market now includes a considerable share of comfort class estate characterized by low water
intake and considerable breaks in water consumption. Thus, the beginning of consumption demonstrates such quality
of cold, and especially hot, water that does not meet the organoleptic requirements of Sanitary Regulations and Norms
(SanPiN 184.108.40.2064-02). Methods. The paper provides data on stabilization processing of tap water by filtering through
the fractioned natural materials: calcite, dolomite and sorbent of «MS»; technological schemes of installations of tertiary
treatment and possible structure of their equipment and technical characteristics. The study presents test results and water
samples for hot water distribution in house networks of two different designs: one with polypropylene pipes and partial
use of carbon steel fittings and connecting elements and the other one built completely from corrosion-resistant materials.
Results. Improvement of quality of cold and hot water in apartment houses is possible by application of local installations
of tertiary treatment of cold and hot water and use in the parting networks of pipelines of polymeric materials, shut-off and
control valves, connecting elements of polymeric materials and alloys of non-ferrous metals.
Key words: water tertiary treatment, apartment houses, corrosion.
1. Borovkov, N. V., Yevelson, E. A., Rukobratsky, N. I. (2003). Technologies for drinking water conditioning in St. Petersburg. In: Hygienic problems of water supply of the population and troops, November 20–21, 2003, St. Petersburg. St. Petersburg: Military Medical Academy, pp. 31–32
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4. Chief State Sanitary Doctor of the Russian Federation (2002). The decree of March 19, No. 12. “On the introduction of sanitary-epidemiological rules and regulations “Drinking water. Hygienic requirements for water quality, packaged in a container. Quality Control”. Registered in the Ministry of Justice of the Russian Federation on April 26, 2002, No. 3415.
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13. The Ministry of Health of Russia, (2003). The maximum permissible concentration (MPC) of chemicals in the water of water bodies of drinking and household water use. Gn 18.104.22.1685-03 (as amended on September 28, 2007). Moscow.
14. Rakhmanin, Y. A., Krasovsky, T. N., Egorova, N. A. (2016). Hygienic standards for water quality and safety. In: Health of a healthy person. The scientific basis of the organization of health, rehabilitation and environmental medicine. Guide. Moscow: International University of Rehabilitation Medicine, pp. 302–309.
15. Fokanov, V. P., Shallar, A. V. Water disinfection with ultraviolet radiation and chlorine. Advantages and disadvantages. In: Hygienic problems of water supply of the population and troops, November 20–21, 2003, St. Petersburg. St. Petersburg: Military Medical Academy, pp. 182–183.
16. Shifrin, S. M. (Ed.) (1976). Handbook on the operation of water supply systems; Sewerage and gas supply. L.: Stroyizdat, Leningrad Branch, p. 89.
17. Rukobratsky, N. I., Malygin, K. A. (2018). Mineralization of distillate by filtration through granulated natural minerals. Water and Ecology, No. 1, pp. 22–30. DOI: 10.23968/2305- 3488.2018.23.1.22-30.
Ryltseva Yu. A.SOME ASPECTS OF THE TREATMENT AND DISPOSAL OF WATER LINE SLUDGE FROM LOW-TURBIDITY AND LOW-COLOR SOURCES
Introduction. The paper deals with a method of thickening water line sludge of low-turbidity and low-color natural water
using high-molecular polyelectrolytes. The authors provide recommendations for its future disposal. Methods. Experiments
were carried out with the use of real sludge selected from sludge tanks at water supply stations. The experiments were
based on a comprehensive study of its qualitative characteristics (physical, chemical, mineral). The monitoring of indicators
was carried out in accordance with standard methods and recommendations of study guides. The results were processed
using methods of mathematical statistics. Results. As a result, it was found that cationic polyacrylamides are the most
acceptable agents for sludge thickening. They increase the sludge thickening effect by up to 15%, reduce turbidity and color
of supernatant water by 25 and 45%, respectively. The optimum time for thickening is 24 hours. Among directions of the
“beneficial” disposal of dewatered sludge, it is recommended to utilize it in the production of soils and building ceramics.
Conclusion: The results of the study can be translated into the development and optimization of sludge processing schemes
at water supply stations performing treatment of low-turbidity and low-color natural water. Besides, the methods of sludge
disposal under consideration will make it possible to reduce the need to increase the area for sludge cake storage or stop
using such territories completely.
Key words: water line sludge, low-turbidity and low-color water sources, thickening, disposal.
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Terekhov L. D., Mayny Sh. B., Сhernikov N. A.EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF SOIL THAWING AROUND SHALLOW SEWAGE PIPELINES IN WINTER
Introduction. The article addresses issues related to the thermal interaction of sewage pipelines (with complete and incomplete filling) with soils characterized by deep seasonal freezing up to three or more meters in areas with severe climate. Sewage pipelines represent one of the main elements of the water disposal system, determining its reliability and efficiency. To reduce the costs for the construction of sewage pipelines, it is proposed to reduce the depth of pipe laying, i.e. to lay pipelines in a layer of frozen soil. The conducted experimental studies of the interaction between a pipeline and frozen soil revealed conditions under which it is possible to lay pipes in a layer of frozen soil. Methods. The purpose of this study was to determine experimentally the size of the talik around a pipeline laid in frozen soil, with heated water passing through, with the pipeline filling of 0.5 where the water flow covered the full cross-section. To determine the size of the talik, a series of laboratory experiments were carried out. The paper provides a description of the corresponding experimental setup. Results. The authors present results of the laboratory experiments aimed to determine the size of the talik around a pipeline operating with different degrees of filling. They established that in a pipeline where the water flow covers full cross-section, the contours of thawed soil are close to a circumference; in a pipeline with the filling h/d = 0,5, the talik is egg-shaped. According to the results of a comparative analysis of the talik sizes obtained experimentally and by calculations, the actual talik sizes exceed the calculated values by 10–16%.
Key words: frozen soils, thawing area, temperature conditions, pipeline, laying depth.
1. Alexeev, M. I. and Ermolin, Y. A. (2015). Reliability of networks and structures of water disposal systems. Moscow: Izdatelstvo ASV, 200 p.
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3. Gosstroy of the USSR (1979). Construction Regulations SN 510-78. Guidelines for the design of water supply and sewage networks for regions with permafrost soils. Moscow: Stroyizdat, 72 p.
4. Domnin, K. V., Kireev, G. A., Terekhov, L. D. and Korobko, M. I. (2007). Optimization of sludge and activated sludge dewatering at sewage treatment facilities of Khabarovsk. Water Supply and Sanitary Technique, No. 6-2. pp. 67–69.
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Feofanov Yu. A.ROLE OF LIQUID RECIRCULATION AT BIOLOGICAL WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANTS
Introduction. At biological wastewater treatment plants recirculation of purified liquid or activated sludge is used to reduce the high initial concentration of contaminants, improve the performance of the plants and the transportation of returned activated sludge in aeration tanks, as well as for other purposes. The use of recirculation or recirculation ratio increase at biological wastewater treatment plants leads (together with the dilution of untreated wastewater with treated liquid) to an increase in the hydraulic load in the plants as well as desludging facilities, changes the structure of liquid flow at the plants, and affects their performance. Thus, liquid recirculation under certain conditions can lead to both positive (improvement of wastewater treatment efficiency) and negative consequences (increase in volume regarding final clarifiers and growth of energy consumption for recirculation flow pumping). Methods. The purpose of the study was to assess the integrated effect of liquid recirculation on the performance of biological wastewater treatment plants of various types. The assessment was carried out based on the analysis of data on the performance of production facilities as well as standards, specifications, and guidelines. Results. The paper evaluates the role of recirculation during the operation of wet biological filters and aeration tanks with external and internal (longitudinal) recirculation. The author considers the influence of recirculation in wet biofilters on essential technological parameters of their work, conditions of mass transfer processes, and wastewater treatment efficiency, as well as the influence of the mixed liquor and returned sludge recirculation rate in aeration tanks on the amount of the dose and wastewater treatment efficiency. Conclusion. The recirculation ratio at biological treatment plants should be linked to the achieved wastewater treatment efficiency and based on technical and economic estimates. An increase in the recirculation rate is more efficient at a low degree of wastewater treatment and not economically feasible in case of sufficiently high treatment efficiency.
Key words: biological wastewater treatment, biofilters, aeration tanks, recirculation of purified liquid or activated sludge.
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Ignatchik S. Y, Kuznetsova N. V., Fes’kova A. Y., Senyukovich M. A.RESULTS OF STUDYING FORCED-FLOW MODES OF SEWAGE COLLECTORS
Introduction. The operation of main sewage collectors regarding drainage of surface run-off from basins with different loading is distinguished by the forced-flow mode that makes it possible to equate flow rates supplied to treatment facilities by the main pumping station due to the accumulating capacity. The main parameters characterizing the operation of such collectors are as follows: wastewater supply by the main pumping station; volume of wastewater accumulated in the main collector as a result of limiting its flow rate with the maximum rate of the main pumping station; flow rate of wastewater entering the main collector as the sum of transit and associated flow rates. Without knowledge of these parameters, it is impossible to control wastewater disposal and treatment processes. For these reasons, studying the relationship between these parameters seems relevant. Methods. The research was carried out in two stages: 1) studies of the volume-level characteristics of the main sewage collector; 2) studies of the volume-flow characteristics of the main collector. Results. Based on the studies of the volume-level characteristics of main sewage collectors, the following was found: during the transition to the forced-flow mode, the water level in the collector begins to grow faster than that in the free-flow mode. Its growth starts slowing down when the pipelines of adjacent branches are filled. The authors developed and tested a method for the rapid assessment of wastewater inflow into sewage collectors. Such a method makes it possible to determine the sum of transit and associated flow rates in real time with an acceptable error (up to 10%). Conclusion. Due to the use of the developed method, it will be possible to automate the decision-making process regarding starts and stops of pumping units at main pumping stations and reduce the probability of area flooding in water disposal basins as a result of water rise to the surface during the operation of collectors in forced-flow modes.
Key words: drainage systems, sewage pumping stations (SPSs), wastewater, surface run-off, flowmeter, drainage basin.
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Rodionov V. Z., Dregulo A. M., Kudryavtsev A. V.ANTHROPOGENIC IMPACT ON THE ECOLOGICAL STATE OF RIVERS IN THE LENINGRAD REGION
Introduction. Water resources of the Leningrad Region are intensively used to ensure water supply and meet the demands of agricultural and energy industries as well as demands related to navigation, fish farming and recreation activities. The problem of using and protecting small rivers, small lakes, ponds and other natural and artificial links of the hydrological network caused the emergence of “hot ecological spots”. Materials and methods. The paper addresses issues related to anthropogenic impact and accumulation of environmental damage using small rivers of the Leningrad Region as an example. The study is based on current and retrospective data of the authors and third-party researchers, which made it possible to define the development prospects of the water sector in the Leningrad Region. Results and discussion. According to the results of the study, the main type of anthropogenic impact related to economic activity is associated with processing enterprises and urbanization. Besides, for many years, the deterioration of the state of small rivers and watercourses has been determined by their multifaceted use, and with the growing economic stagnation since the 1990s, these problems only have worsened. Conclusion. As a way out, it is possible to improve the management of natural objects. The authors conclude that the management of environmental objects in river catchment areas implies the improvement of economic activity and the direct management of natural objects.
Key words: rivers, Leningrad Region, anthropogenic impact, region development.
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