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Atamanova O. V., Tikhomirova E. I., Kassymbekov Zh. K., Podoksenov A. A.IMPROVING THE SORPTION ABILITY OF MODIFIED BENTONITE DURING WASTEWATER TREATMENT BY MEANS OF ITS ACTIVATION
Introduction. The article discusses the problem of industrial wastewater treatment using adsorption. Clay materials — bentonites modified with carbon nanotubes, glycerin — are proposed as sorption materials. Studies of sorption materials based on modified bentonite are aimed at finding such bentonite modifications that would ensure the maximum extraction of nitro and amino compounds from contaminated industrial wastewater. Methods and materials. The studies of the sorption activity of bentonites were carried out using simulated solutions of o-phenylenediamine and p-dinitrobenzene. The authors analyzed possible acid (HCl) and salt (CaCl2) activations of modified bentonite. They determined the concentrations of o-phenylenediamine and p-dinitrobenzene in the filtrate using photometric analysis. Statistical processing of the experimental results was performed with the use of the Statistica for Windows 6.0 software package. Results. It was established that bentonite modified with carbon nanotubes after the activation of this sorbent with 9 % HCl and 30 % CaCl2 has the best sorption ability under static conditions with respect to p-dinitrobenzene. Bentonite modified with carbon nanotubes has the best sorption ability with respect to o-phenylenediamine after the activation of this sorbent with 18 % HCl and 38 % CaCl2. The adsorption of o-phenylenediamine by bentonite modified with carbon nanotubes is much higher than the adsorption of p-dinitrobenzene: Г∞ = 66.9 mg/g compared to Г∞ = 2.41 mg/g. A similar phenomenon is observed when comparing the adsorption values of o-phenylenediamine and p-dinitrobegenzole with glycerin-modified bentonite, however, here the difference in values is slightly less: Г∞ = 64.8 mg/g compared to Г∞ = 1.95 mg/g. It is recommended to set the parameters of cylindrical adsorption filters for wastewater treatment from nitro and amino compounds based on the ratio of adsorption column height to diameter equal to H/D = 1.4.
Key words: adsorption, modified bentonite, glycerin, carbon nanotubes, o-phenylenediamine, p-dinitrobenzene, water treatment efficiency.
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Санчез-Гонгора М.-А., Пеон-Эскаланте И.-Э., Кардона-Хуарез Т., Ортегa-Арройо Л., Кастано В. М.НИЗКОТЕМПЕРАТУРНАЯ ОЧИСТКА И РЕЦИРКУЛЯЦИЯ СТОЧНЫХ ВОД ПОСРЕДСТВОМ ПСИХРОФИЛЬНОЙ БИОДЕГРАДАЦИИ (НА ПРИМЕРЕ МЕКСИКИ)
Введение. Лишь 27 % поверхностных вод в Мексике соответствует нормативам по БПК5 и ХПК. На фоне прогрессирующего опустынивания и сокращения подпитки водоносных горизонтов проблема поиска эффективного и широкодоступного метода очистки сточных вод в стране стоит очень остро. В работе представлен эксперимент по низкотемпературной очистке сточных вод. Методы. Физико-химическая оценка бытовых сточных вод (санитарных), обработанных в проточном биореакторе, проводилась посредством низкотемпературного процесса с расходом 20,78 л/день притока в зимне-весенний период. Результаты. Первый ил, образовавшийся в начальной фазе, продемонстрировал существенные изменения в своих характеристиках по сравнению с илом, полученным на конечной стадии, где стоки имели мало извести в результате микробиологической активности. Изменение отразилось в удалении: 99,9 % осаждаемого вещества (SS), 92,66 % общих твердых веществ (ST), 99,14 % общих взвешенных веществ (SST), 33,21 % биологического потребления кислорода (БПК5), 3,64 % химического потребления кислорода (ХПК) при стабильном рН от 8,12 до 8,72, электропроводности (ЭП) в диапазоне от 1961 мкСм/см до 1785 мкСм/см, температуре от 19,2 до 20,1 °С в сточных водах. Заключение. Таким образом, можно считать предложенную систему очистки стабильной, простой и экономичной. Она отвечает текущим требованиям для сброса очищенных сточных вод, пригодных для повторного использования в сельском хозяйстве, указанным в стандарте NOM-001-ECOL-1996.
Key words: максимально допустимый предел, известь, психрофильная биодеградация, удаление, устойчивость, метафора жизненного цикла.
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Kurbanov B. T., Kurbanov B. B.ECOLOGICAL STATE OF SURFACE WATERS IN UZBEKISTAN: PROBLEMS AND SOLUTIONS
Introduction. Currently, the Republic of Uzbekistan faces challenges related to providing the population with quality water for domestic and drinking needs. In this situation, a part of the population, especially in rural areas, uses surface waters. The health of the population in Uzbekistan largely depends on the quality of surface waters in the republic. Methods. The paper analyzes the state of surface water quality. The methodology currently used to assess the quality of surface waters does not meet modern requirements. To analyze and assess the degree of pollution of surface waters, all substances being analyzed were taken into account since their presence in concentrations not exceeding the MPC also has a negative effect on human health. Results. Based on the methodology, the authors developed a zoning map for surface water quality in Uzbekistan. They identified areas with increased surface water pollution, determined quantitative and qualitative characteristics of the main surface water pollutant ingredients. It is noted that the main and most dangerous for the environment and human health pollutant is mercury and its compounds. The authors indicate that it is required to take urgent measures to make an inventory of the sources of mercury in surface waters and develop measures to minimize its entry into canals and rivers whose waters are used for technological as well as domestic and drinking purposes. Conclusion. The results of the study will contribute to the adoption of optimal measures to control priority sources of pollution from industrial emissions, wastewater discharges, emission of pollutants into the soil. These results will also minimize the environmental damage in the republic.
Key words: ecology, hydrology, surface water quality, population health, index of water pollution
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Lozhkin V. N., Lozhkina O. V., Seliverstov S. A., Kripak M. N.FORECASTING OF DANGEROUS AIR POLLUTION BY CRUISE SHIPS AND MOTOR VEHICLES IN THE AREAS OF THEIR JOINT INFLUENCE IN SEVASTOPOL, VLADIVOSTOK AND ST. PETERSBURG
Introduction. The cruise tourism industry has experienced significant growth in recent years over Europe and in the Russian Federation. However, the impact of cruise ships on environmental quality in port cities requires to be evaluated. The goal of the present study was numerical investigation of air pollution by cruise ships and road transport in three large port cities — St. Petersburg, Vladivostok and Sevastopol. Methods. The forecasting was carried out using methods for calculating the dispersion of emissions of harmful (polluting) substances in the atmosphere, approved by the order of the Ministry of Natural Resources and Ecology of the Russian Federation №. 273 of June 6, 2017. Results. The paper analyses the impact of cruise ships and road transport on the air quality on the local spatiotemporal scale for adverse weather conditions preventing the natural dispersion of pollutants. It was found that in Sevastopol and Vladivostok, emissions from one cruise ship with operating main and auxiliary engines can lead to a local short-term increase in NO2 and SO2 concentrations up to 1.5–2.0 and 1.0–1.2 SLV (standard limit value), respectively. As to the port “Sea Facade” of St. Petersburg, four cruise liners with operating main engines can lead to the increase of NO2 within the sanitary protection zone of the port up to 3.0 SLV. At the same time, the increase in NO2 level in the near residential area will be less 1.5 SLV. Conclusions. The results of our investigation have proved the impact of cruise ships emissions on air pollution in cities, however, the impact of road transport is much higher.
Key words: cruise ships, road transport, exhaust emissions, environment pollution, forecasting and monitoring.
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Savkin V. M., Dvurechenskaya S. Ya., Kondakova O. V.IMPACT OF THE NOVOSIBIRSK RESERVOIR ON THE FORMATION OF HYDROLOGICAL AND HYDROCHEMICAL REGIME OF THE UPPER OB RIVER IN THE REGULATED AREA
Introduction. The creation of the Novosibirsk reservoir determined the hydrological and hydrochemical regime in the regulated area of the Upper Ob River, provided a comprehensive multi-purpose use of the river flow by the existing water utilization system, ensured protection against floods in the downstream. The paper discusses various factors affecting the modern hydrological and hydrochemical characteristics of the Novosibirsk reservoir: changes in the hydrological regime of the river in the case of flow regulation, which result in slowing-down of flows, changes in the morphometry, a decrease in water exchange; processes of reservoir bank transformation (erosion); processes of flooding and ravine formation; sedimentation of coastal bays and water clogging by floating wood; accumulation of pollutants due to the slowing-down of flows. Methods. The authors used the daily water exchange coefficients for specific dates when water samples were taken. To identify and evaluate the relationship between the series of comparable parameters, they applied the Spearman rank correlation coefficient. Results. The authors studied the impact of one of the main hydrological characteristics — external water exchange — on the formation of the hydrochemical regime of the reservoir. They revealed differences in these relationships for years of different water content (extremely low-water 2012 and high-water 2013). The most significant correlations between water exchange coefficients and a number of chemical characteristics were determined for the high-water year. Conclusion. The results of the study can be used to develop recommendations for decision-making on the rational use of the Upper Ob water resources in the Novosibirsk reservoir area and for the estimation of its water and ecological status.
Key words: reservoir, flow regulation, low-water and high-water seasons, water exchange coefficient, hydrochemical characteristics.
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12. Savkin, V. M. (2015). Influence of Novosibirsk reservoir on the transformation of high and low water level extreme hydrological events. In: Proceedings of the International Scientific and Practical Conference “Current issues of reservoirs and their catchment areas”, Vol. 1. Hydro-and geodynamic processes of water management. Perm: Perm State National Research University, pp. 128–132.
13. Savkin, V. M. and Dvurechenskaya, S. Ya. (2017). Transformation of water flow of Upper Ob due to man impact. In: Proceedings of the 6th International Scientific and Practical Conference “Current issues of reservoirs and their catchment areas”, Vol. 1. Hydro-and geodynamic processes. Water resources management. Perm: Perm State National Research University, pp. 227–231.
14. Savkin, V. M. and Dvurechenskaya, S. Ya. (2017). Formation and utilization of water resources of Upper Ob river (Novosibirsk reservoir) under natural and technogenic conditions. In: Proceedings of the 3rd All-Russian Scientific Conference with International Participation “Water and environmental problems of Siberia and Central Asia”, Vol. III. Barnaul: Institute for Water and Environmental Problems of the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, pp. 266–277.
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Kharina G. V., Alyoshina L. V., Anakhov S. V., Inzhevatova O. V.MONITORING DRINKING WATER QUALITY IN THE SVERDLOVSK REGION OF RUSSIA
Introduction. The problem of providing the population with high-quality drinking water in conditions of strong anthropogenic pressure on the environment is quite urgent. Industrial regions, including the Sverdlovsk Region, are particularly in need of clean water. As a result of industrial enterprises’ operation, reservoirs are polluted with various ecotoxicants that have a negative impact on human health. The purpose of this study is to analyze and evaluate the quality of drinking water in the Sverdlovsk Region. Methods. The paper presents the description of volumetric (titrimetric), potentiometric, and stripping voltammetry analysis methods. The titrimetric method was used to determine the hardness and oxidation, the potentiometric method was used to determine pH and the content of nitrate ions. The concentration of heavy metal ions was measured using the stripping voltammetry method. Results. The paper presents the results of studying the quality of drinking water in the Sverdlovsk Region. It was established that the permissible levels of hardness and nitrate concentration in water samples from underground sources are exceeded due to the influence of natural geochemical and anthropogenic factors. It is noted that in some samples of tap water, the value of permanganate oxidation is higher than the standard value due to the high degree of contamination with organic and mineral compounds of natural reservoirs. It was revealed that the studied water samples from different water supply systems are contaminated with heavy metals in quantities significantly exceeding their maximum permissible concentrations. The authors indicate possible reasons for the input of heavy metals into water bodies. They also perform a comparative analysis of the quality of water samples taken from different localities and water supply systems. Conclusion. It is еstablished that the results of the studies conducted indicate the poor quality of drinking water in terms of the above indicators in most areas of the Sverdlovsk Region. The authors believe that a final and more objective assessment requires further research, while increasing the number of water quality indicators and focusing on the causes of water pollution.
Key words: water quality, underground waters, heavy metals, pollution, research method, hygienic standard, water supply.
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Cherdakova A. S., Galchenko S. V., Vorob’eva E. V.RESULTS OF THE EXPERIMENTAL EVALUATION OF THE BIOSURFACTANT INFLUENCE ON THE PROCESSES OF MICROBIOLOGICAL REMEDIATION OF OIL-POLLUTED AQUATIC ENVIRONMENTS
Introduction. Biotechnological methods for the remediation of aquatic environments from oil hydrocarbon pollution can significantly reduce the time of their recovery, without disturbing ecosystems or causing the threat of secondary pollution. Showing surface-active properties, humic substances stimulate the activity of microbiodestructors of oil hydrocarbons; significantly increase the effectiveness of remediation measures. The authors performed experimental studies to determine the influence of biosurfactants based on humic substances on the processes of microbiological remediation of aquatic environments contaminated with various oil products. Methods. In a model experiment, the water was polluted with gasoline and diesel fuel. For remediation, commercial humic preparations were used, obtained from various types of raw materials, using various technologies: Ekorost, Biohumus. The humic substances were introduced together with the Destroil oil-oxidizing biopreparation. Results. The intensity of biodegradation and dispersion of an oil product film on the water surface with the combined use of humic and microbiological preparations depends both on the type of oil product and properties of the humic preparation, as well as its concentration. Conclusion. The results suggest a possibility of using a combination of oil-oxidizing microflora and humic preparations in order to enhance the effectiveness of aquatic environments’ bioremediation.
Key words: humic preparations, water pollution with oil products, gasoline, diesel fuel, remediation, microorganisms.
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Shilova A. V., Maksimov A. Yu., Maksimova Yu. G.MICROBIOME CHANGES AS AN INDICATOR OF THE RECOVERY OF NATURAL ENVIRONMENTS AT THE SODA SLUDGE STORAGE FACILITY OF BEREZNIKI SODA PLANT
Introduction. Soda sludge storage facilities occupy significant land areas and are a source of constant effect on hydrosphere objects due to the alkaline reaction of the medium (pH up to 12) and high mineralization. It is required to study microbiocenoses to understand the environmental processes occurring in these technogenic formations, and assess the state of the environment. Purpose of the study. The authors analyze changes in the microcenosis of a soda sludge storage facility during the natural restoration of soil and vegetation cover after draining, and identify phylogenetic groups — indicators of environmental restoration after extreme alkalization. Methods. During the study, the determination of the number of viable bacteria and metagenomic sequencing of 16S rRNA genes were performed, the atomic absorption method to determine the concentration of heavy metals was used. Results. The authors studied changes in the microbiome during land restoration at the location of the drained soda sludge storage facility. It is shown that representatives of phylum Firmicutes predominated in water and technogenic surface formations of the soda sludge storage facility, whereas Proteobacteria predominated in sediments of soda and in the combined soil sample of the old drained soda lake. The families of Moraxellaceae and Staphylococcaceae (20–23 %), as well as Pseudomonadaceae and Burkholderiaceae (11–13 %) predominated in the microbiome of the combined soil sample of the drained soda lake, while Streptococccaceae and Cellulomonadaceae were represented to greater degree at a depth of 10 cm. The detected changes in the microbial community associated with changes in the composition of the technogenic formation can be used as indicators of environmental restoration.
Key words: microbiome, soda sludge storage, alkalophilic bacteria, alkalotolerant bacteria, hydrolytic activity.
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Atamanova O. V., Tikhomirova E. I., Istrashkina M. V., Podoksenov A. A.STUDY OF MECHANISM OF P-DINITROBENZENE ADSORPTION BY MODIFIED BENTONITES WHEN WATER PURIFICATION IN STATIC CONDITIONS
Introduction. The paper provides a rationale for bentonite modification with organic substances to increase its adsorption capacity. The purpose of studying the adsorption mechanism of p-dinitrobenzene on bentonite modified by various methods is to determine such modifications of bentonite that allow for the most efficient removal of this toxic nitro compound from industrial wastewater. Methods. The authors analyzed four variants of bentonite adsorbent: unmodified granular bentonite; carbon nanotube (CNT) modified bentonite after heat treatment at 550°C; glycerin modified bentonite after heat treatment at 550°C; glycerin and CNT modified bentonite after heat treatment at 550°C. To determine the type of adsorption of p-dinitrobenzene on the studied sorption materials, the Dubinin–Radushkevich method was used. Results. Basic adsorption characteristics of the four indicated modifications of bentonite with respect to p-dinitrobenzene under static conditions were experimentally obtained. CNT modified bentonite showed the best adsorption characteristics: СОЕ = 1.56 mEq/g; Kd = 0.14 mg/dm3; S = 83.57%. The constructed isotherms for adsorption of p-dinitrobenzene on modified and unmodified bentonites under static conditions confirmed that CNT modified bentonite after heat treatment at 550°C has the best adsorption capacity. Unmodified bentonite showed the weakest adsorption capacity. The derived adsorption equations demonstrated that this process can be most accurately described by the Langmuir isotherm. With changes in the experimental temperature from 20 to 60°C, the values of mean free energy E of adsorption of p-dinitrobenzene vary in the range of 11–20 kJ/mol. Thus, chemisorption is present in the process of adsorption of p-dinitrobenzene by the studied sorption materials.
Key words: adsorption, modified bentonite, unmodified bentonite, p-dinitrobenzene, water treatment efficiency.
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Belousova A. P., Rudenko E. E.ANALYSIS OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL STATE OF THE VOLGA RIVER BASIN
Introduction. The purpose of the study is to analyze the environmental state of the Russian constituent entities located in the Volga River basin, using a method developed to assess the overall anthropogenic load on various components of the environment. Due to that analysis, it will be possible to identify the most environmentally unfavorable regions by the sum of particular indicators. Methods. The method and analysis used allowed us to assess the following: the distribution of anthropogenic load in the constituent entities of the Russian Federation in the territory of the Volga River basin by 16 indicators, the total anthropogenic and diffuse load on the environment. It became possible to evaluate and visualize the effect of solid waste, air emissions and liquid effluents in the basin; assess the total impact of these three types of load; analyze the structure of water use, and, at the final stage, rank the constituent entities of the Russian Federation by the influence of anthropogenic load on the environment. Results. Constituent entities, unfavorable in terms of the environmental state, were identified in the basin. In these areas, it is required to take urgent measures to improve environmental and social conditions. Such constituent entities, first of all, include the Moscow Region and Perm Territory, followed by the Nizhny Novgorod and Samara Regions, the Tatarstan and Bashkortostan Republics. We built 25 general maps, which can be used in the development of environmental measures aimed to protect the Volga River basin and the Volga River itself. These maps can also be used as visual aids by various departments and decision-makers involved in the rehabilitation of the studied object. Conclusion. The environmental state of the Volga River basin in terms of its quality is characterized by significant environmental and social issues. Urgent and continuous preventive measures are required. In this regard, the problem of groundwater protection against pollution through other components of the environment, as well as the risk of environmental degradation and surface water quality impairment due to substandard groundwater, represent quite pressing issues for the Volga basin.
Key words: environment, surface water and groundwater, sources of pollution, anthropogenic load, total pollution, ranking of the Russian constituent entities by the influence of anthropogenic load.
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Grigoreva A. N., Abiev R. Sh.SELECTING THE TYPE AND ROTATION SPEED OF A MIXER FOR EFFICIENT MIXING OF FLOCCULANTS IN WATER
Introduction. The paper addresses the physico-chemical process of dissolving the particles of solid high molecular weight powder flocculant in water under the action of a centrifugal field generated as a result of mixer operation. Methods. The authors describe equipment and methods to conduct experimental research in laboratory conditions and present an experimental setup used to prepare a concentrated flocculant solution, consisting of a mixer and a cylindrical glass container. Results. It is shown that the selection of the optimal mixer rotation speed is associated with the magnitude of turbulent friction stresses generated by the mixer impeller. A method to calculate the permissible rotation speed of a mixer based on a semi-empirical Prandtl turbulence model has been developed and tested. The paper presents the results of experimental studies on the preparation of concentrated solutions of high molecular weight cationic flocculant GreenLife K40 using various types of mixer impellers. Conclusion. The authors have experimentally demonstrated the efficiency of a new conical impeller compared to standard blade and turbine impellers due to smaller turbulent eddies breaking polymer bonds in a concentrated flocculant solution. A mixer with a conical impeller makes it possible to prepare a flocculant solution 30% faster due to the possibility of mixing at a higher speed with lower energy consumption.
Key words: mixers, flocculant, polymers, turbulent stresses.
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Kruglikova A. V.INFLUENCE OF CLIMATE ON THE OPERATION OF SEWAGE TREATMENT FACILITIES IN NOVOSIBIRSK
Introduction: Currently, changes in the quality of treated sewage in the cold period, which are associated with sewage cooling during treatment, represent one of the main problems at operating sewage treatment facilities. Unfortunately, to date, this issue almost has not been studied. Methods: The paper describes studies carried out at sewage treatment facilities in Novosibirsk. During those studies, the sewage temperature in primary and secondary tanks as well as aerotanks was determined, climatic parameters were taken into account. Results: Statistical data were collected at the operating sewage treatment facilities in Novosibirsk (the largest city beyond the Urals). The data were processed by linear regression method. The obtained mathematical models can be used to predict the sewage temperature at outdoor facilities depending on the outdoor temperature. Conclusion: The analysis of mathematical models of primary and secondary tanks as well as aerotanks showed that a decrease in temperature leads to sewage quality deterioration. The study of mathematical models of heat and mass transfer between the sewage and the environment allowed us to determine the main factors of heat loss and supply: convective heat exchange, evaporation from the surface, heat loss through the enclosing structures, heat radiation from the mirror surface of a black body, heat loss and supply with air, solar energy, and heat of exothermic reactions. Based on the results obtained, a software package has been improved that takes into account changes in the temperature of sewage during its treatment and can be used by production engineers of sewage treatment facilities.
Key words: primary tanks, nitrifier-denitrifier, secondary tanks, temperature, sewage, climatic factors.
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Lyubimova T. P., Parshakova Ya. N., Lepikhin A. P., Lyakhin Yu. S.INCREASING THE STABILITY OF COOLING RESERVOIRS’ OPERATION BY USING SELECTIVE WATER INTAKE SCHEMES
Introduction. The paper addresses issues of increasing the stability of cooling reservoirs’ operation at large power plants during periods when extremely high air temperatures occur. These periods are usually very short and last no more than 10 days. As a rule, the water temperature distribution by depth in cooling reservoirs is substantially inhomogeneous: under the surface layer, which is the warmest, there is a near-bottom layer, which is significantly colder. In this regard, during the periods characterized by extreme temperatures, it is proposed to perform selective water intake from the cold near-bottom layers. The authors analyze the hydrodynamic aspects of such a water supply scheme through the example of a cooling reservoir at the Magnitogorsk Iron and Steel Works (MMK PJSC). Methods. Given that it is crucial to consider and analyze the vertical structure of the studied temperature fields, the problem was solved in a three-dimensional setting in a non-hydrostatic approximation. Computational experiments were performed using the ANSYS Fluent package. Results. The authors studied the formation of thermal fields in the cooling reservoir both during the normal operation of the cooling system and in the emergency mode, i.e. at extremely high air temperatures. As one of the measures to ensure the uninterrupted, stable operation of the cooling system under extreme weather conditions, it was proposed to perform selective water intake from the bottom level of the cooling reservoir by deepening the cut-off panels. Conclusions. The proposed scheme of selective water intake from the lower levels of the cooling reservoir makes it possible to ensure the stability of cooling system operation during periods when extremely high air temperatures occur, which last up to 10 days.
Key words: cooling reservoirs, power plants, operation stability, selective water intake.
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Chernikov N. A., Ivanov V. G.REGIONAL STANDARDS FOR WASTEWATER DISCHARGE INTO WATER BODIES OF THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION
The article provides information about the features of environmental and, in particular, water protection activities in the Russian Federation as well as the global best practices in this area. Methods. During the study, we performed a comparative analysis of scientific papers and regulatory documents of various countries (mainly, the Russian Federation and EU countries), and used our own researches. Results. In the Russian Federation, the requirements for wastewater discharge into water bodies (and even the requirements for tap water) are much more stringent than in the EU. In Western Europe, each country has national standards adopted for the discharge of pollutants with wastewater into water bodies, and these standards differ significantly from each other. The authors provide basic information about the method for the rational distribution of financial costs for water protection activities among water users to ensure the best water quality in the basin of a water body. Conclusion. When wastewater is discharged into water bodies, the quality requirements should mainly be determined by the background concentrations of pollutants in the water of the water body, therefore, the standards for wastewater discharge should be regional. The significant financial costs spent to meet the existing strict requirements is actually a waste of money.
Key words: regulated runoff, non-regulated runoff, water body basin, water quality standards, water purity index, federal law, financial interest, global experience.
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Evstigneeva I. K., Evstigneev V. P., Tankovskaya I. N.SPATIAL VARIABILITY OF FOULING MACROFLORA OF HYDRAULIC STRUCTURES IN VARIOUS REGIONS OF THE CRIMEAN BLACK SEA COAST
Introduction. The macroflora of Black Sea coastal hydraulic structures and its stability under the influence of external factors remains poorly studied. Some published papers present the results of comparative analyses of phytoperiphyton and phytobenthos in several bays of the Sevastopol Region. To enhance the insight into the role of algae in fouling of hydraulic structures in coastal ecosystems, hydrobotanical studies were conducted along the Crimean coast of the Black Sea. Methods. In the summer of 2017, samples were taken at 31 stations in five areas along the Crimean coast from the side wall of beach-retaining hydraulic structures (jetties) using the method of accounting areas. To assess the influence of external factors on the spatial distribution of taxonomic composition, the parametric method of two-way analysis of variance was used. Results. Fouling of coastal structures at 31 stations in five areas was found to contain 101 species of macroalgae, among which Rhodophyta is predominant. The Feldman’s index points out that the studied phytocoenon is close to subtropical flora. The distribution of species by constancy groups was uneven. The high proportion of random and inactive species indicates significant qualitative diversity of algal fouling in different areas. The absolute number of periphyton species varies considerably both from station to station and between the areas. The average number of species of Chlorophyta, Rhodophyta and the entire community does not change as significantly between the areas as the average number of Ochrophyta species. The study also describes the ecological composition of fouling macroflora. Among the groups with a different frequency of occurrence in the Black Sea, leading species prevail with the maximum absolute number in the south and the maximum relative number in the west. Fouling algae are mainly annual, marine, and oligosaprobic, and their composition is the most diverse in the south-west and south. The species composition of the ecological groups was found to be spatially stable. The two-way analysis of variance showed that such factors as the geographical (spatial) location of a substrate and species attribution to particular divisions have a significant and independent influence on the distribution of the number of species.
Key words: Black Sea, Crimea, hydraulic structure, phytoperiphyton, species composition, ecological structure, occurrence, spatial variability.
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Klimovskiy N. V., Matveev N. Y., Novoselov A. P.CURRENT ENVIRONMENTAL STATE OF THE LOWER NORTHERN DVINA RIVER (FOLLOWING A HYDROCHEMICAL SURVEY CARRIED OUT IN 2019)
Introduction. The Northern Dvina River is one of the largest streams in the European North of Russia, and its basin is one of the most urbanized in the region. About a half of all enterprises of the Arkhangelsk Region are located here, and for decades, they have been contaminating the river ecosystem with wastewater having a high content of pollutants. Methods. The paper presents the results of a comprehensive study on the environmental state of the Northern Dvina lower reaches, carried out in 2019, which included studies of the river water and bottom sediments. Results. The authors describe spatial and seasonal changes in the content of nutrients and petroleum products in the estuary water and bottom sediments. Conclusion. As a result of the studies, it was found that, during the entire monitoring period, the concentrations of phosphorus, nitrogen and silicon salts did not exceed the maximum allowable values for fishery water bodies. The content of petroleum hydrocarbons at most of the studied stations also was within the limits of maximum allowable concentrations. A higher content of petroleum products was observed in silt sediments, and their smaller content was observed in sand deposits. During the period of the studies, the concentrations of dissolved oxygen in the river water fluctuated within the limits of seasonal variability (with the maximum values in summer and the minimum values in winter). There were no cases of a decrease in its values below the MAC level (no cases of fish kill phenomena) at any monitoring point.
Key words: Northern Dvina River, estuary, dissolved oxygen, рН, nutrients, petroleum products, sediments.
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Sandimirov S. S.INFLUENCE OF THE SERVICE WATER SYSTEM AT THE KOLA NUCLEAR POWER PLANT ON THE HEAVY METALS CONTENT IN LAKE IMANDRA
Introduction. A powerful multi-sector complex including mining and iron-and-steel enterprises, industrial and power facilities is located in the Murmansk region, in the catchment area of Lake Imandra, which is one of the largest lakes in the North-West of Russia. The long-term use of water resources for industrial and drinking needs took a heavy toll on the lake ecosystem. The purpose of the study is to analyze the state of natural waters in the Kola NPP area. Methods. The paper presents the measured hydrochemical data characterizing the Babinskaya Imandra reach, as well as the dynamics of changes in these indicators in the Yokostrovskaya Imandra reach. Results. The anthropogenic influence of the service water system at the Kola NPP on the quality of Lake Imandra reach (Babinskaya Imandra) waters is revealed. The study results are compared with the data on the pollution content for previous years. The role of natural factors affecting the surface water quality — i. e. precipitation and groundwater — is shown. Conclusion. Among the trace elements polluting the ecosystem of the southern reach of Lake Imandra, the concentration of which depends directly on the existing service water system, specific heavy metals — copper and nickel — have been identified.
Key words: Lake Imandra, Kola NPP, water supply, hydrochemistry, pollutants
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Smolyakov B. S., Yermolaeva N. I., Romanov R. E., Sagidullin A. K.RESPONSE OF PLANKTON COMMUNITIES TO THE REMEDIATION OF RESERVOIRS CONTAMINATED WITH HEAVY METALS: A FIELD EXPERIMENT
Introduction. Contamination of natural water bodies with toxic metals is a pressing environmental problem. Rock waste and spent ore dumps, wastewater from mines and quarries, wastes of agglomeration plants, emergencies in catchment areas are the major sources of toxic metals. It is technically impossible to clear natural water bodies using wastewater treatment methods. Therefore, it is necessary to develop new technically and economically efficient methods contributing to the restoration of the natural structure of aquatic ecosystems. Methods and materials. In a full-scale experiment involving a natural water body, the authors modeled its contamination with wastewater from a real anthropogenic water body, containing Cd, Co, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn at the same time. The field experiment was carried out by meso-modeling with the use of minikosms of 250 l. Results. Due to the introduction of a submersible device with a hybrid sorbent based on mesoporous carbon and humic acids, it was possible to ensure the rapid and effective reduction of the residual concentrations of toxic metals in water. This contributed to the rapid restoration of the reproduction of phytoplankton organisms and the preservation of the species diversity in the community of all zooplankton groups. Conclusion. The obtained results make it possible to recommend a submersible device with a hybrid sorbent for the remediation of natural water bodies contaminated with toxic metals.
Key words: phytoplankton, zooplankton, heavy metals, sorbent, microcosms
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I. and Artamonova, S. Yu. (2004). Mesocosm-based estimation of the consequences of complex contamination of a freshwater body by metal salts. Water Resources, Vol. 31, Issue 3, pp. 333–342. DOI: 10.1023/B:WARE.0000028704.77278.b2.
Fokina N. V., Gorbacheva T. T.POTENTIAL OF BACTERIA USE IN MUNICIPAL WASTEWATER DEPHOSPHORIZATION IN THE FAR NORTH
Introduction. The paper addresses the role of activated sludge bacteria in the denitrification and dephosphorization of wastewater at municipal wastewater treatment facilities. Various process parameters and their influence on phosphorus accumulation by bacterial cells are described. The authors also consider the necessity of alternating aerobic, anoxic, and anaerobic stages of wastewater dephosphorization. Methods. During the study, standard methods of microbiological research were used, which included the use of selective nutrient media, light microscopy, and laboratory experiments to determine optimal conditions for phosphorus accumulation by indigenous bacterial strains. Results. The authors investigated the microbiological abundance and trophic diversity of wastewater treated in primary tanks of wastewater treatment facilities in Apatity. The study revealed high abundance of not only saprotrophic and phosphate-accumulating bacteria but microscopic fungi and yeast as well. The dominant strains of phosphate-accumulating bacteria were identified. The ability of indigenous microorganisms to accumulate phosphorus was evaluated. Conclusion. The authors show the possibility of increasing the efficiency of the biological dephosphorization of wastewater by alternating oxygen and oxygen-free conditions. A bacteria consortium, capable of reducing the phosphorus content in wastewater by 17%, was developed.
Key words: municipal wastewater treatment facilities, dephosphorization, activated sludge, phosphate-accumulating bacteria, aerobic and anaerobic stages.
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Alexeev M. I., Baranov L. A., Ermolin Y. A.RISK-BASED APPROACH TO EVALUATE THE RELIABILITY OF A CITY SEWER NETWORK
Introduction. The authors pay attention to the fact that there exist such technical objects, the reliability evaluation of which — if performed with the use of measures of the “classical” reliability theory (in particular, reliability function and/ or mean operating time to failure) — is ambiguous and poorly interpreted physically. A city sewer network can serve as an example of such an object. The authors consider a situation when the result of the formal sewer network reliability analysis comes into conflict with the physical interpretation of object operation. This generates a need for searching for a more informative reliability indicator peculiar to a city sewer network. Methods. The research is based on the sewer network decomposition-equivalenting method (DEM) developed previously. This method, in turn, is based on the probability theory, reliability theory and mathematical statistics. A database containing the information about all network elements’ failures and restorations over a preceding period, is used as reference material. Results. Operational risk is taken as the reliability measure of a city sewer network. It is defined as the relative volume of sewage, not delivered to treatment facilities of the network due to failures of its elements, in a certain time. A procedure for the quantitative calculation of this measure is developed. Its comprehensiveness and informative richness are demonstrated. The article shapes possible ways of using the “operational risk” indicator when developing a city sewer network renovation strategy. Conclusion. Operational risk as the reliability measure can be used in practice to improve the performance of a city sewer network.
Key words: sewer network, reliability, performance, sewage discharge, operational risk, calculation procedure, renovation, decision making.
References: 1. Alexeev, M. I., Baranov, L. A. and Ermolin, Y. A. (2019). Approximate analytical estimate of reliability indices for ageing facilities of water supply and sewer systems. Water and Ecology, No. 3 (79), pp. 3–8. DOI: 10.23968/2305-3488.2019.24.3.3-8.
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9. Ermolin, Y. A. and Alexeev, M. I. (2000). Estimation of potential damage associated with unreliability of a sewer network. Water Supply and Sanitary Technique, Vol. 2, pp. 30–32.
10. Ermolin, Y. A. and Alexeev, M. I. (2002). On a methodology for studying the reliability of ageing elements of water supply and disposal systems. Water Supply and Sanitary Technique, Vol. 9, pp. 2–4.
11. Yermolin, Yu. A. and Alexeyev, M. I. (2012). The method of sewer net segmentation and equivalenting. Water Supply and Sanitary Technique, Vol. 11, pp. 51–57.
12. Ermolin, I. A. and Alekseev, M. I. (2016). Consideration of object ageing in estimating its reliability. Water Supply and Sanitary Technique, Vol. 5, pp. 68–71.
13. Ermolin, Y. A. and Alexeev, M. I. (2018). Reliability measure of a sewer network. Water and Ecology, No. 2, pp. 51–58. DOI: 10.23968/2305–3488.2018.20.2.51–58.
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Dregulo A. M.A STUDY OF HEAVY METAL COMPOSITIONS AND PHOSPHATES IN POLYMER SUBSTANCES OF THE ACTIVATED SLUDGE BIOMASS
Introduction. Heavy metals discharged with wastewater can lead to a toxic effect on the microbiocenosis of activated sludge and significantly decrease the degree of wastewater treatment, which dictates the need for a more detailed study and search for ways to detoxify activated sludge at the recycling stage and, at the same time, solve the problems of the neutralization of sewage sludge for safe soil disposal. To ensure the adequacy of the approach to the choice of the methodology for the neutralization of sludge, including sewage sludge, it is necessary to perform compositional analysis of their organic fractions and heavy metal compositions. Methods. To determine the quantitative content of organic components in activated sludge, a sample of sludge was dried to an air-dry state and then subjected to separation into fractions using a method based on the different solubility of compounds with the use of different solvents. Then, extractants were added step by step to the weighted samples of sewage sludge weighing about 2 g each (in a volume 20 times greater than the weight of the weighted sample (40 ml)). Results. The results of the study show that polysaccharides are the dominant form of the organic fraction (polymers) in sewage sludge. Most heavy metals were identified in acidic polysaccharides, humic-like acids and lipids. Significant concentrations of phosphates were observed for the same components of polymer substances in the biomass of activated sludges. Conclusion. The products of extraction of polymer substances of the activated sludge biomass and the content of heavy metals in them may indicate the biosorption of heavy metals by zoogleal accumulations (having a polysaccharide structure) of activated sludges in aeration tanks during biological treatment. Therefore, extracellular biopolymers can be a “target” in the development of targeted technologies for the neutralization of activated sludges.
Key words: sewage sludge, polymer substances, extraction, heavy metals, phosphates.
References: 1. Dregulo, A. M. (2012). Study of within-year changes of hydrocoles composition in aeration tanks in the process of waste water treatment. Water Sector of Russia: Problems, Technologies, Management, No. 6, pp. 90–95.
2. Dregulo, A.M. and Pitulko, V. M. (2018). Analysis of technical decisions extraction of heavy metals from heterogeneous waste of water treatment systems. Proceedings of the TSU. Sciences of Earth, No. 2, pp. 28–39.
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4. Zykova, I. V. and Panov, V. P. (2010). Issues related to the disposal of excess sludge, sediments of biological treatment, bottom sediments of rivers and canals of Saint Petersburg in the globalizing world. Regional Ecology, No. 1–2 (28), pp. 49–56.
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Feofanov Ju. A.BIOLOGICAL TREATMENT OF WASTE PAPER RECYCLING PLANT WASTEWATER
Introduction. Among characteristic features of waste paper recycling plant wastewater, the following can be distinguished: significant fluctuations in consumption and composition, high content of undissolved and dissolved substances (in particular, starch, fiber, dispersed thermoplastic and other substances). Local wastewater treatment can reduce the concentration of undissolved and — partially — dissolved contaminants. Besides, it makes it possible to reuse valuable substances and treated water in production. However, a significant amount of dissolved contaminants is dumped by factories at off-site biological treatment plants. In this case, bioreactors with suspended activated sludge (aeration tanks) as well as bioreactors with attached biomass are used for wastewater treatment. Methods. The purpose of the study was to determine the consumption and composition of wastewater discharged by waste paper recycling plants, as well as the technological parameters and performance of biological treatment facilities, including a moving bed biofilm reactor and aeration tanks. In-process control over the operation of treatment plants was carried out by means of instrumental measurements and laboratory analyses conducted according to standard methods. Results. The article examines the results of the operation of biological wastewater treatment facilities used to treat wastewater from a paper mill, where different grades of waste paper are used as raw materials. The main characteristics of biological wastewater treatment facilities’ operation have been identified. Relationships between the oxidation capacity and the load in terms of organic pollution have been obtained for a bioreactor with a moving bed (1st stage) and aeration tanks (2nd stage of biological wastewater treatment). Measures have been proposed to improve the performance of existing treatment plants.
Key words: waste paper recycling plant, paper mill wastewater, biological wastewater treatment, moving bed biofilm reactors, aeration tanks.
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Baeva Yu. I., Chernykh N. A.ASSESSMENT OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL STATE OF THE BLACK SEA COASTAL WATERS BY BIOINDICATION METHODS
Introduction. Using bioindication methods, the authors assessed the environmental state of water at the place where the Hadzhiyska River flows into the Black Sea (Slanchev Bryag / Sunny Beach resort, Bulgaria). Methods. The studies were carried out in the summer seasons of 2017–2019 during sea water “blooming”. The quality of river water was assessed by the state of the community of zoobenthic organisms using the Trent biotic index originally developed by Woodiwiss and the Mayer index, and the state of the coastal marine ecosystem was assessed by the species composition of the Black Sea macroalgae. Results. The waters at the mouth of the Hadzhiyska River can be classified as “polluted” and represent the main local source of biogenic elements entering the coastal sea waters. In the marine macrophytobenthos, representatives of green, brown and red algae were identified, including two species listed in the Red Book of the Black Sea — Cystoseira barbata and Zostera marina. The authors noted a displacement of native species — representatives of Cystoseira and Zostera genera — due to an increase in the number of associated algae from Ceramium, Cladophora and Ulva genera, which confirms organic pollution and eutrophication in coastal waters. The taxonomic structure of the macrophytes allows for the conclusion that the environmental state of the marine ecosystem in the area is satisfactory. The authors also provide a rationale for the use of benthic organisms in the express diagnostics of water environment quality in resort areas.
Key words: bioindication, river waters, marine environment, zoobenthos, macrophytobenthos, eutrophication.
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Zakrutkin V. E., Reshetnyak V. N., Reshetnyak O. S. ASSESSMENT OF THE HEAVY METAL POLLUTION LEVEL OF THE RIVER SEDIMENTS IN THE EAST DONBASS (ROSTOV REGION, RUSSIA)
Introduction. River bottom sediments are a significant link in the biogeochemical cycles of water bodies and an accumulator of pollutants. The purpose of this study is to assess the level of heavy metal pollution of river sediments within the coal-mining areas of the East Donbass (Rostov Region, Russian Federation) to assess the potential risk for the population using surface water as a source of water supply. Methods. It is suggested to use the pelitic fraction for a more accurate assessment of the heavy metal pollution level of river sediments. It is proposed to use the average continental shale concentration as a baseline value for the pelitic fraction. Contamination factor (Cf), degree of contamination (Cd) and geo-accumulation index (Igeo) were used to assess the degree of heavy metal pollution of the bottom sediments in the East Donbass rivers. Results. Studies of the chemical composition and the level of bottom sediments pollution in the East Donbass rivers showed that the concentration values of heavy metals vary greatly. Assessing the degree of heavy metal pollution of the river sediments in the East Donbass allows us to classify them mainly as moderately contaminated (uncontaminated to moderately contaminated). At the same time, the level of river sediments pollution in the Seversky Donets basin is generally lower than that in the Tuzlov basin. Conclusion. The results will be used to improve the system for assessing water and bottom sediments quality in the region as well as evaluate the environmental risk to public health. Although the results showed a moderate level of heavy metal contamination of the East Donbass rivers sediments, the potential hazard of secondary pollution of the aquatic environment with metals deposited in sediments remains. Pollution of water and river bottom sediments is directly linked to the potential risk to public health because these rivers are used as sources of drinking water for towns and countryside.
Key words: river bottom sediments, pelitic fraction, heavy metals, degree of contamination, geo-accumulation index, rivers of the East Donbass, coal-mining areas.
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14. Zakrutkin, V. E., Sklyarenko, G. Yu., Bakaeva, E. N., Reshetnyak, O. S., Gibkov, E. V. and Fomenko, N. E. (2016). Surface water and groundwater within technologically disturbed geosystems of the East Donbass: formation of chemical composition and quality assessment. Rostov-on-Don: Southern Federal University.
15. Zakrutkin, V. E., Gibkov, E. V., Reshetnyak, O. S. and Reshetnyak, V. N. (2020). River sediments as river waters’ primary pollution indicator and secondary pollution source in East Donbass coal-mining areas. Izvestiya Rossiiskoi Akademii Nauk. Seriya Geograficheskaya, Vol. 84, No. 2, pp. 259–271. DOI: 10.31857/S2587556620020168.
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Ivanyutin N. M., Podovalova S. V.USING AN INTEGRATED APPROACH TO ASSESS THE CURRENT ENVIRONMENTAL STATE OF THE BESHTEREK RIVER
Introduction. The problem of restoring and preserving the environmental state of watercourses with an increase in anthropogenic load has recently become more urgent, but the use of only one method or approach does not allow us to judge the current state of a river, so there is a need to combine various methods aimed at obtaining integrated information. The purpose of this study was to analyze the environmental state of the water bodies in the Beshterek River Basin (Republic of Crimea). Methods. The studies were carried out during 2018–2019 and included: visual observations of the watercourse state, water-protection zone, channel ponds; water flow measurement; sampling for the study of water chemistry; calculation of the water pollution index (WPI) and the integrated indicator of ecological condition (IIEC); study of water toxicity by means of bio-assay techniques using wheat and cress seeds; development of environmental measures. Results. The studies have found that the main pollutants in river water are sulfates, phosphates as well as heavy metals: Cd, Pb, Cu, Zn. The concentration of sulfates increased from 0.15–0.22 MAC (upper river) to 1.5–2.4 MAC (mouth of the river), which indicates the ingress of domestic wastewater into the watercourse. The content of phosphates in the middle reaches exceeded the standards by 1.9–11.1 times. The heavy metal content exceeding the MAC was recorded at all river stations: zinc (station No. 1 — 2.1 MAC), cadmium (station No. 3 — 1.24 MAC), lead (station No. 4 — 1.23 MAC) and copper (station No. 4 — 1.5–10 MAC). The water quality in terms of the WPI was II and III (“clean” and “moderately polluted”) in the river and II, III and IV (“polluted”) in the channel ponds. The bio-assay testing showed no toxic effect on the test cultures. Conclusion. Among the priorities, the following can be distinguished: the need to establish a permanent monitoring network for the observation of the qualitative and quantitative characteristics of the river flow, and develop a program for sewage handling in villages located in the river valley.
Key words: Beshterek River, environmental state, channel ponds, water chemistry, water pollution index, bio-assay testing.
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Kobechinskaya V. G., Yarosh O. B., Ivashov A. V., Apostolov V. L.ISSUES OF DRINKING WATER QUALITY IN THE WESTERN PART OF CRIMEA
Introduction. Until 2014, water supply in Sevastopol city and its municipal districts was combined due to its own surface and underground waters as well as a water conduit running from the Mezhgornoye reservoir located in the Saksky district and filled with the Dnieper waters of the North Crimean Canal. After 2014, this source was shut off. Therefore, it became important to conduct a comparative analysis of the quality of drinking water supplied to the settlements of this territorial entity. Purpose of the study: The study is aimed to assess the quality of drinking water and perform its analysis in Sevastopol city and nearby settlements, taking into account the increase in water intake from rivers and underground sources in recent years. Methods. Objects of the study are surface and underground water supply points, and drinking water for consumers. We used standard methods for the analysis of drinking water with an assessment of its physical, chemical and sanitary-bacteriological indicators using analysis of variance (AoV) methods. Water quality was assessed by the specific combinatorial index of water pollution. Using GIS technologies, maps were built to visualize a number of indicators: chemical oxygen consumption and data on the water pollution complexity coefficient at the stage when consumers receive water from the central water supply system (for all municipal districts). Results. It was established that sanitary and microbiological indicators of tap water quality — by the total microbial count, total coliform bacteria and thermo-tolerant coliform bacteria — immediately before being fed to the central water supply system in the Southern and Northern districts of Sevastopol, did not exceed sanitary standards. Due to the considerable length of the distribution networks and their high deterioration, secondary pollution of drinking water is currently taking place. In a number of municipal districts, it was revealed that the key indicators being assessed exceeded the norms of the State Sanitary Rules and Regulations. For the first time, with the help of GIS technologies in the ArcGis 10.4 software shell, specific ranks of drinking water pollution levels were distinguished for individual municipal districts, which made it possible to visualize the dynamic characteristics of polluting ingredients taking into account their territorial affiliation. Conclusion. The results of the studies indicate significant deviations in the quality of drinking water received by consumers in the municipal districts of Sevastopol.
Key words: hydrochemical indicators of water, surface water, underground water supply points, water pollution complexity coefficient, GIS.
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Petrov D. S., Danilov A. S.ANALYSIS AND ASSESSMENT OF THE HYDROCHEMICAL CONDITIONS OF FLOODED PHOSPHATE ROCK QUARRIES
Introduction. This article presents the results of studying the current environmental state of surface water bodies located in the affected area of phosphate mining enterprises and significantly altered as a result of technogenesis. Objects of accumulated environmental damage caused by mining enterprises contain the bulk (up to 85%) of waste accumulated in dumps, heaps and storages. In the Leningrad region, these are ash and slag dumps of the Slantsy Plant — about 35%, phosphogypsum of Fosforit Production Association and Volkhov Aluminum Smelter — about 18%, quartz sand with the content of phosphorite of Fosforit Production Association — about 17%, limestone — wastes from beneficiating oil shale of Leningradslanets Production Association — 12%, ash and slag dumps of CHPPs and state district power plants — 5%. In this regard, the authors assess the hydrochemical situation that has formed in the territory of the industrial site of ООО PG Fosforit in recent years. Methods. The article describes in detail a method for conducting field and laboratory studies for the period from 2017 to 2019, including a method for sampling and analysis. The authors analyze the content of basic anions and cations in a series of metals using high performance liquid chromatography and atomic absorption spectroscopy. Results. In the course of the studies, the authors revealed pollutants, the content of which in surface water bodies exceeds the maximum allowable concentrations. Conclusion. As a result of the studies, the authors identified sources of accumulated environmental damage and post-technological processes affecting the state of water bodies, and determined the trophicity of minor rivers in the affected area of decommissioned mining enterprises.
Key words: water management reclamation, post-technological impact, flooded quarries, technogenic succession.
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15. Van Etten, E. J. B., McCullough, C. D. and Lund, M. A. (2014). Setting goals and choosing appropriate reference sites for restoring mine pit lakes as aquatic ecosystems: case study from South West Australia. Mining Technology. Transactions of the Institutions of Mining and Metallurgy: Section A, Vol. 123, Issue 1, pp. 9–19. DOI: 10.1179/1743286313Y.0000000051.
Puzanov A. V., Baboshkina S. V., Dvurechenskaya S. Ya., Rozhdestvenskaya T. A.IMPACT OF THE BIOGEOCHEMICAL SITUATION AT CATCHMENTS ON THE MICROELEMENT COMPOSITION OF LAKE TELETSKOYE TRIBUTARIES’ WATERS
Introduction. The formation of the microelement composition of surface waters in reservoirs and watercourses is determined by the biogeochemical processes in the catchment area. However, the schemes and mechanisms of interaction between watercourses and the soils drained by them have been studied insufficiently. Lake Teletskoye is the largest water reservoir of Altai, one of the deepest lakes in Russia, and its catchment area is 90 times larger than the area of the lake itself. Methods. We collected water samples in Lake Teletskoye tributaries during the summer low water period, in the estuaries of rivers. The ionic composition of waters and water extracts from soils (1:5) was determined using standard methods with a titrimetric finish. The content of trace elements (Cd, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Zn, Pb, Cr, Co, V) in filtered water samples, suspended water matter and water extracts from soils was determined by atomic absorption spectrometry using electrothermal atomization on a SOLAAR M6 device. Results. The article presents the results of macro - and microelement composition studies of Lake Teletskoye tributaries’ waters. It is shown that the waters of the studied tributaries are characterized by a low total content of the main salt composition components. A dependence of the content and distribution of trace elements in the “water – suspended matter” system on the catchment landscape and geochemical features was found. Conclusion. The content of the water-soluble forms of Cd, Cu, Fe, Mn, Zn, Pb, Co, V in Lake Teletskoye tributaries’ waters conforms to environmental and sanitary requirements. It was found that Fe, Zn and Cr migrate mainly as the soluble compounds, while Pb, Mn, Cu migrate mainly in suspension. It was revealed that the different soil cover structure of the eastern and western lake shores determines different conditions for the hydrochemical flow formation of their rivers and, as a result, forms the differences in the physical and chemical composition of the eastern and western tributaries’ waters.
Key words: Lake Teletskoye, tributaries, microelements, mineralization (salinity), dissolved substance, suspended matter, soils, biogeochemical situation.
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Sukiasyan A. R., Kirakosyan A. A.HEAVY METAL POLLUTION OF RIVER WATERS AND COASTAL SOILS ADJACENT TO THE TAILING STORAGE FACILITY TERRITORY
Introduction. The operation of the Teghut copper-molybdenum enterprise resulted in the man-made load on the environments in terms of concentrations of some heavy metals (autumn 2016), the migration of which continued even after the plant shutdown (autumn 2018). Methods. The authors studied changes in the concentrations of Mo, Zn, and Cu in samples of Shnogh River water and coastal soils near the tailing storage facility territory. Results. During enterprise operation, in water sampling points 1 and 2, a decrease in the concentrations of these heavy metals after the plant shutdown was noted. According to the analysis of coastal soil samples, in points 1 and 2, after the plant shutdown, the Zn concentration decreased by 75% and the Cu concentration decreased by 84% compared with the analysis of samples during enterprise operation. In samples of coastal soils from sampling points 3 and 4, a concentration reverse was observed. Conclusion. The calculation of the geo-accumulation coefficient for the studied heavy metals in soil sampling points 1 and 2 compared to sampling points 3 and 4 indicates a decrease in the man-made load on the environment, caused by plant operation.
Key words: river water, tailing storage facility, heavy metals, coastal soil, Teghut copper-molybdenum deposit.
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Kolubaeva Yu. V., Ivanova I. S.PROBLEMS OF USING SOURCES OF DECENTRALIZED WATER SUPPLY IN THE SOUTH OF THE TOMSK REGION
Introduction. Sources of non-centralized water supply are the most important resource of drinking water for the population of rural areas. As a rule, water is taken from small depths, which makes it vulnerable to pollution. This type of water use is characterized by the absence of any preliminary water treatment. The constant use of groundwater for drinking can negatively affect the health of the local population since the indicators of its chemical and microbiological composition are not controlled in any way and do not always meet the quality standards. All this determines the relevance of the research conducted in the territory of the Tomsk District (Tomsk Region). Methods. Groundwater quality was assessed by comparing the concentrations of substances in the studied water samples with the background values established for the given territory in relation to Sanitary Norms and Regulations as well as microbiological indicators. Changes in the chemical and microbiological composition of the studied water, caused by economic activity, were taken as “pollution” as compared to the natural (background) state for this territory as well as sanitary and hygienic standards. Results. According to the results of studying the chemical composition of water, high levels of the following components were observed: total hardness, Na+, К+, SO42–, Cl–, NO3–,Fe and Mn. As for NO3–, Fe, and Mn, their concentrations exceed manifold not only the background values but also the maximum allowable concentrations for drinking water. Microbiological analysis showed a large number of microorganisms from various physiological groups, which indicates a high degree of bacterial contamination of water. We present possible reasons for the input of pollutants into the water and review briefly the adverse health effects. Conclusion. In order to prevent the possible negative impact of excessive contents of various components in the chemical composition of water on the health of the local population, preliminary water treatment using available methods is recommended.
Key words: Groundwater, non-centralized water supply, chemical and microbiological composition, water pollution.
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Kuzin E. N.TITANIUM-BASED COAGULANTS IN DOMESTIC WASTEWATER TREATMENT
Introduction. Post-treatment of wastewater that has passed the stage of deep purification from biogenic elements is a pressing issue that has not been fully solved yet. Traditional reagents based on aluminum salts used to remove phosphorus compounds have a few significant drawbacks and do not always make it possible to achieve the standards established for the discharge of treated water into fishery reservoirs. Titanium-based coagulants are promising and highly effective reagents that have shown high efficiency in treating wastewater of various origins. Complex titanium-based coagulants are binary coagulants obtained by introducing hydrolysis products of titanium compounds in an amount of up to 10 % wt into the composition of traditional aluminum-based coagulants. Methods. Trial coagulation was carried out using a VELP laboratory flocculator; spectrophotometry, turbidimetry, and atomic emission spectral analysis were used to assess the purification efficiency. Results. It has been found that the use of titanium compounds and complex titanium-based coagulants can improve the efficiency of purification, as well as reduce the residual content of phosphate ion to the MPC standards. We have determined the main regularities in the use of complex titanium-based reagents and established the effect of the dose and pH of the medium on the efficiency of phosphate ion removal. It has also been found that the residual concentration of phosphate ion in treated water using titanium-based coagulants is significantly lower than when using traditional reagents. Titanium-based coagulants operate in a wider pH range, while the requirements for the residual concentration of titanium ions in treated water are much softer than for that of aluminum. It has been proved that the use of complex titanium-based reagents makes it possible to significantly intensify the processes of sedimentation and filtration of sludge formed during coagulation water treatment. Conclusion. In the course of the study, we have confirmed the prospects of using titaniumbased coagulants in domestic wastewater treatment.
Key words: water treatment, complex titanium-based coagulants, phosphates, sedimentation.
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Kurbanov S. O., Sozaev A. A.NEW DESIGN AND PROCESS SOLUTIONS FOR WATER INTAKE STRUCTURES OF RECLAMATION SYSTEMS IN FOOTHILL AREAS
Introduction. Efficient and reliable operation of water intake structures within reclamation systems in Southern Russia and the North Caucasus is a challenging issue. In this article, we address the operational reliability of reclamation water intakes in the foothill areas of small rivers. Many water intake structures built on small rivers are in poor operating condition and, therefore, need improvement and complete reconstruction. Methods. We performed analytical and field studies on the head structures of foothill reclamation systems. Based on the results, we identified the reasons for the low efficiency and reliability of old water intake structures. Since it is impossible to improve these water intake structures, new types and designs of high-performance water intakes are required. Therefore, we propose some original types of underground horizontal and underflow water intakes and determine corresponding technical parameters and performance criteria. Results. Due to low efficiency as well as high energy and material consumption of existing water intake structures, it is required to significantly reduce the cost of supplied irrigation water by introducing new types of high-performance water intake structures. Based on the studies of alluvial regimes of rivers and retention basins as well as hydraulic regimes of head water intake structures, we prepared design and process solutions that help control sediment effectively, increase the water intake coefficient, and regulate water supply to irrigation canals. The design features of new water intakes have a beneficial effect on river flows and the quality of irrigation water. Conclusion. The study results confirm the high performance and manufacturability of the proposed horizontal and underflow water intakes protected by patents for inventions. This year, our designs have been included in the state grant program for the development of standard hydraulic structures within reclamation systems.
Key words: water intake structures, reclamation systems, underflow water intake, water intake devices, horizontal water intake, biopositive products, gabion mattress, drainage
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Aubakirova I. U.USE OF SLUDGE FROM WATER TREATMENT PLANTS IN THE PRODUCTION OF BUILDING MATERIALS
Introduction. Currently, the issue related to the utilization of sludge from water treatment plants (WTP), including in the production of building materials, is quite urgent. In this regard, the purpose of the study was to obtain new compositions of raw mixtures to manufacture building products using WTP sludge as a raw component. Methods and Materials. The paper presents the characteristics of the used binders and WTP sludge, and outlines some experimental methods. Portland cement and gypsum binder were used in non-fired materials, while clay was used in fired materials as binders. Strength properties, air and fire shrinkage were determined using standard methods. Results. Based on the analysis of the results obtained during the tests, we established that it is inexpedient to use WTP sludge without special treatment in combination with Portland cement as a binder in the production of non-fired building materials. We also developed preliminary compositions of gypsum concrete with the use of WTP sludge. Conclusion. WTP sludge can be most effectively used in the production of fired ceramic materials. However, its practical use requires more detailed research aimed at optimizing compositions and designing specific processes, including, if necessary, those related to sludge treatment.
Key words: water treatment plants, sludge, fired ceramic materials, non-fired materials, Portland cement, gypsum binder.
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Danilenko A. O., Reshetnyak O. S., Kosmenko L. S., Kondakova M. Yu.CHANGES IN THE CHEMICAL DENUDATION INTENSITY IN THE RIVER PECHORA CATCHMENT UNDER THE INFLUENCE OF NON-STATIONARY CLIMATE AND ECONOMIC ACTIVITIES
Introduction. Climate warming, which is currently observed in the Arctic, has the potential to intensify chemical denudation in river basins partially or completely located within permafrost. In order to test this hypothesis, we investigated the longterm dynamics of the rivers’ ion runoff in the Pechora River basin, 42 % of which are located within permafrost. Methods. To study changes in the chemical denudation intensity in nonstationary climate, we analyzed data of systematic observations over the main ion concentrations from 1985 to 2017 in the Pechora River outlet (Naryan-Mar) and its tributaries (Usa, Adzva, Kolva, Sula rivers). The intensity of chemical denudation in the Pechora River basin was assessed in terms of ion runoff. The probable reasons for its changes — water content and concentrations of macrocomponents — were also analyzed. Results. The ion-salt composition of Pechora River water is mainly determined by the dissolution of carbonate minerals in the underlying rocks. Calculations and comparison of ion runoff moduli showed that the studied rivers are comparable in terms of the chemical denudation intensity in catchments. The exceptions were the Sula and Kolva rivers, where, with the river runoff, a relatively high amount of chlorides and hydrocarbonates is carried. Contrary to the initial assumptions about the possible intensification of the chemical denudation process under the conditions of climate warming, we found a decrease in the sulfate runoff moduli in all rivers. In addition to that, individual changes in the runoff moduli for other main ions are observed for the studied rivers. Conclusion. In modern conditions, the chemical denudation intensity remains at the level of the end of the last century, and the long-term dynamics of the Pechora River ion runoff correlates in time with the variability of anthropogenic factors, in particular, wet sulfate deposition with atmospheric waters.
Key words: Pechora river basin, ion runoff, chemical denudation, anthropogenic impact, global climate change.
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Ignatchik V. S., Ignatchik S. Y., Kuznetsova N. V., Fes’kova A. Y.IMPACT OF CLIMATE CHANGE ON THE HYDRAULIC MODES OF OPERATION OF SURFACE RUNOFF DRAINAGE SYSTEMS
Introduction. Based on Resolution of the Government of the Russian Federation No. 782 “On water supply and wastewater disposal plans”, the volume of generated wastewater should be forecast for a period of at least 10 years. Along with this, it is also necessary to assess the hydraulic modes of operation of networks and collectors, specified earlier. However, the existing regulatory literature lacks data on the dynamics of calculated rain intensities and their prospective values. The analysis of the subject area showed that it is possible to determine the climatic parameters of an area, and thus establish the values for the characteristics of calculated rain, based on the data of long-term observations (from 20 years) with one self-recording rain gauge, or with a network of similar rain gauges, with a duration of observations of 5 years or more. A similar network of rain gauges is available in St. Petersburg. It makes it possible to assess the actual values of climatic parameters, but due to the lack of statistical data does not allow for assessing the dynamics of their changes. Therefore, the purpose of this article is to roughly estimate the dynamics of changes in climatic parameters in St. Petersburg and the degree of their impact on the hydraulic modes of operation of surface runoff drainage networks and collectors. Methods. In the course of the study, we analyzed the dynamics of changes in the total annual precipitation Н and rain force in St. Petersburg and examined the influence of the dynamics of rain force changes on the operation of surface runoff drainage networks and collectors. Results. At the first stage of the study, we obtained the results of linear approximation of the Н data, the calculated values of rain force changes Δ, and the results of linear approximation of the Δ data. The second stage of the study resulted in changes in the hydraulic modes of runoff input during the design period and in 50 years. Conclusion. We experimentally substantiated the possibility to determine the dynamics of rain force changes (at P = 0.33 and with acceptable accuracy) depending on the dynamics of changes in the total annual precipitation. For networks designed and laid 50 years ago, the actual rain force changes will be 9 %. As a result of climate change, water consumption in the calculation periods increased by about 26% with an increase in the total volume of discharged water by 9–10 %.
Key words: Climate change, hydraulic mode, drainage system, surface runoff, rain intensity, rain force, calculated rain, total annual precipitation.
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Telyatnikova A. M., Fedorov S. V., Kudryavtsev A. V.MONITORING OF AMBIENT AIR AND AIR INSIDE A SURGE CHAMBER
Introduction. When sewage is transported along sewer pipes, sewer gases are actively formed and released. Special attention (in terms of desorption capacity) should be paid to surge chambers characterized by changes in the flow and flow arrival conditions, as well as by drop flow. The release of sewage gases has an adverse effect on sanitary and environmental safety. Therefore, it is required to control sewage gases’ release and assess the condition of the ambient air and the air in the surge chamber space. Methods. We selected a surge chamber in Cherepovets for monitoring. The experiment included: 1) measurements of sewer gases’ concentrations in the surge chamber and in the ambient air near the hatch; 2) analysis of dissolved hydrogen sulfide concentration in sewage; 3) recording of climate characteristics. Results. Based on the monitoring results, we determined the concentrations of sewer gases in the surge chamber. It has been found that gases leave the chamber in portions, which is due to aerodynamic processes and airing owing to incomplete air tightness. The relationship between the gas concentrations recorded at the same time in the surge chamber and the ambient air is reversed. The analysis of wastewater samples showed that most part of hydrogen sulfide leaves the water medium before wastewater enters the air space of the surge chamber. This is due to the absence of overpressure in the last headrace section. Besides, the maximum allowable concentrations were exceeded manifold both in the chamber and in the ambient air near it. Conclusion. The monitoring results confirm that it is required to develop: methods for assessing the environmental impact of surge chambers; methods for predicting total and one-time maximum emissions in the facilities; recommendations for setting the boundaries of sanitary protection zones around such facilities.
Key words: sewer network, surge chamber, wastewater, hydrogen sulfide, methane, ammonia, sewer gases, gas analyzer.
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Chebykin E. P., Dambinov Yu. A., Suturin A. N. MULTI-ELEMENT ANALYSIS OF ABOVE-SLUDGE WATERS IN THE ACCUMULATION CELLS OF BAYKALSK PULP AND PAPER MILL FOR TERRITORY REMEDIATION STRATEGY CHOOSING
Introduction. Pulp and paper enterprises accumulate large volumes of industrial waste buried in special accumulation cells. In order to choose a technology for treating above-sludge waters, we need to monitor their composition, which depends on the history of cells’ filling and their subsequent use. Methods. In the course of the study, we applied inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Results. We determined the content of 72 chemical elements in above-sludge water of 11 cells at Baykalsk Pulp and Paper Mill and 4 open water flows near industrial waste landfills, and performed a cluster analysis of the sample composition. As a result, we revealed the peculiarities of water composition, related to the history of cell filling and subsequent pilot experiments. It has been found that the cells with non-disturbed sediments have cleaner water. Out of 16 chemical elements subject to limitation (Na, Al, P, S, Cl, K, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Sr, Mo, Cd, Pb), 11 elements exceed the limits established for wastewater discharged into water bodies within the ecological zones of the Baikal Natural Territory. Each cell is characterized by its own set of elements exceeding maximum allowable concentrations (MAC) and by the extent of such excess. Conclusion. Pilot experiments with cell sediments (joint grouting, drying, dewatering in press-filters) result in the disturbance of the “water/sediment” balance and increase the concentrations of most elements in above-sludge waters. The maximum amounts of elements (6–7) exceeding the MAC values are observed in water in the cells with disturbed sediments, water in the zone of ash slurry discharge, ash and sludge-lignin cells with industrial and household waste. When choosing a technology and procedures for treating above-sludge waters, it is necessary to take into account the specifics of their composition. Using the polluted water flow running into Lake Baikal during catastrophic floods in the summer of 2019 as an example, we show that it is possible to use multi-element ICP-MS analysis to search for sources of pollution from industrial facilities.
Key words: inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, accumulation cells of Baykalsk Pulp and Paper Mill, above-sludge waters.
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