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WATERDISPOSAL

Portnova T. M., Vitkovskaya R. F., Dregulo A. M., Kudryavtsev A.V., Rodionov V. Z., Protsenko O. V., Furtatova A. S.SORBENT (GRANULATED ACTIVATED CARBON) REACTIVATION IN DUALMEDIA RAPID FILTERS TO OPTIMIZE THE QUALITY OF DRINKING WATER
DOI: 10.23968/2305-3488.2021.26.1.3-8

Introduction. Water supply organizations are currently in need of innovative solutions and technologies based on the concept of the closed-loop resource cycle. The need for sustainable use of resources serves as the basis for changing the existing approach where worn-out resources are considered wastes. Materials and methods. In this paper, we show that it is expedient to restore the sorption properties of granulated activated carbon (GAC) by its reactivation and reuse in closed-loop recycling. We also present methods to study GAC properties and technology of reactivation. Results and discussion. Based on the results of the GAC samples’ analysis, it was found that, during reactivation, the mass content of each fraction changes with a strongly pronounced decrease in the content of large granules with a size of 1.18–2.00 mm and an increase in the content of small granules with a size of 0.60–1.00 mm. Besides, the apparent density of the sorption material changes and the volume of carbon that underwent two reactivations falls below 75%. Conclusion. GAC reactivation in dual-media rapid filters allows us to optimize not only the operating and financial expenses of the company but also those natural resources that would have been spent for the production of new carbon.
Key words: water supply, waste recycling, sorbent reactivation, granulated activated carbon
References: 1. Alekseyev, M. I., Ivanov, V. G., Kurganov, A. M., Medvedev, G. P., Mishukov, B. G., Feofanov, Yu. A., Tsvetkova, L. I., Chernikov, N. A. and Gerasimov, G. N. (eds.) (2007). Water treatment handbook. In 2 volumes, 2nd edition. Saint Petersburg: Novy Zhurnal, 1696 p.
2. Berndt, D., Drews, M., Friedmann, R., Herb, S., Leuschke, J., Loew, W., Lomott, M., Meyer, V., Pütz, R. and Turinsky, R. (2010). Water supply experience: handbook for operating personnel of water supply organizations. Saint Petersburg: Novy Zhurnal, 496 p.
3. Gvozdev, V. A., Portnova, T. M., Iatsinevich, N. V. (2018). Regeneration of the sorption capacity of granulated activated carbon. Water Supply and Sanitary Technique, No. 2, рp. 4–9.
4. Karmazinov, F. V. (ed.) (2008). Water supply and wastewater disposal in Saint Petersburg. Saint Petersburg: Novy Zhurnal, 464 p.
5. Nefedova, E. D., Feofanov, I. A. and Elistratova, I. V. (2018). The experience of operating new water treatment facilities at the South Water Treatment Plant in Saint-Petersburg Water Supply and Sanitary Technique, No. 5, pp. 5–12.
6. Portnova, T. M., Gukova, N. V., Vitkovskaya, R. F., Smirnov, A. O., Badyagin, A. O. (2020). Innovative technologies in the process of obtaining drinking water at the State Unitary Enterprise “Vodokanal of St. Petersburg”. Vestnik of St. Petersburg State University of Technology and Design, Series 1. Natural and Technical Sciences, No. 1, pp. 109–116.
7. Rodionov, V. Z., Dregulo, A. M. and Kudryavtsev, A. V. (2019). Anthropogenic impact on the ecological state of rivers in the Leningrad Region. Water and Ecology. No. 4 (80), рp. 96–108. DOI: 10.23968/2305-3488.2019.24.4.96-108.
8. Samonin, V. V., Spiridonova, E. A., Nefedova, E. D., Portnova, T. M., Gvozdev, V. A. and Podviaznikov, M. L. (2013). Water purification with the use of granulated activated carbon at the Southern Waterworks. Water Supply and Sanitary Technique. No. 9, рp. 43–51.
9. Spiridonova, E. A., Podvyaznikov, M. L., Sergeyev, V. V., Solovey, V. N., Khrylova, E. D. and Samonin, V. V. (2018). High temperature pilot reactivation of the carbon adsorbent spent in process of water treatment in unit K-6 of Southern Water Supply Station of Vodokanal of St. Petersburg. Bulletin of Saint Petersburg State Institute of Technology (Technical University), No. 47 (73), рp. 112–116.
10. Fonseca, J. M., Teleken, J. G., de Cinque Almeida, V., da Silva, C. (2019). Biodiesel from waste frying oils: methods of production and purification. Energy Conversion and Management, Vol. 184, pp. 205–218. DOI: 10.1016/j.enconman.2019.01.061
11. Khok, Y.-T., Ooi, C.-H., Matsumoto, A. and Yeoh, F.-Y. (2020). Reactivation of spent activated carbon for glycerine purification. Adsorption, Vol. 26, Issue 7, pp. 1015–1025.
12. Larasati, A., Fowler, G. D. and Graham, N. J. D. (2020). Chemical regeneration of granular activated carbon: preliminary evaluation of alternative regenerant solutions. Environmental Science: Water Research & Technology, Vol. 6, Issue 8, pp. 2043–2056. DOI: 10.1039/D0EW00328J.
13. Narbaitz, R. M. and Karimi-Jashni, A. (2012). Electrochemical reactivation of granular activated carbon: impact of reactor configuration. Chemical Engineering Journal, Vol. 197, pp. 414–423. DOI: 10.1016/j.cej.2012.05.049.
14. Yin, C. Y., Aroua, M. K. and Daud, W. M. A. W. (2007). Review of modifications of activated carbon for enhancing contaminant uptakes from aqueous solutions. Separation and Purification Technology, Vol. 52, Issue 3, pp. 403–415. DOI: 10.1016/j.seppur.2006.06.009.

Sanin G. M., Rukobratsky N. I., Baruzdin R. E.SELECTING ENGINEERING SOLUTIONS FOR WATER TREATMENT MODULES IN THE OIL AND GAS FIELD AREAS OF THE FAR NORTH
DOI: 10.23968/2305-3488.2021.26.1.9-19

Introduction. The article provides data on engineering solutions for water treatment modules being part of the utility and drinking water supply complexes in small settlements located in the Far North, where low-turbidity, high-colored waters serve as the surface sources of water supply. These sources include the river networks of the Ob River (including the southern area of the Gulf of Ob, Kara Sea), Pur River, and Taz River (including the Gulf of Taz, Kara Sea). Methods. We present an analysis of the applied water treatment technologies, reagents, and materials, as well as water processing modes, and establish the reasons for the unsatisfactory performance of the operated water treatment modules implementing physical-and-chemical methods of water purification. Results. It is found that the use of granular materials as media for rapid filters (AS, MS, MZhF autocatalytic sorbents) is not very effective since they are intended for the purification of colorless groundwater with a high content of dissociated compounds of divalent iron and manganese. Throughout the year, the modules operate without account for seasonal fluctuations in the qualitative composition of the source water and with reagents that have lost their active properties. Conclusion. Based on the conducted studies, we propose engineering solutions for the purification of low-turbidity, high-colored waters of surface sources, making it possible to achieve target quality indicators complying with the best available technologies.
Key words: water treatment modules, purification of low-turbidity, high-colored waters, filter media
References: 1. Abramov, N. N. (1982). Water supply. 3rd edition. Moscow: Stroyizdat, 440 p.
2. K. D. Panfilov Academy of Municipal Economy (1985). Manual for the design of facilities for water purification and treatment (in addition to Construction Rules and Regulations SNIP 2.04.02–84). Moscow: Central Institute of Standard Designing, Gosstroy of the USSR, 128 p.
3. Babenkov, Ye. D. (1977). Water treatment with coagulants. Moscow: Nauka, 356 p.
4. Veselov, Yu. S., Lavrov, I. S. and Rukobratsky, N. I. (1985). Water treatment equipment. Design and use. Leningrad: Mashinostroyeniye, 232 p.
5. Chief Public Health Officer of the Russian Federation (2002). Sanitary Regulations SanPiN 2.1.4.1074–01. Drinking water. Hygienic requirements for water quality of centralized drinking water supply systems. Quality control. Moscow: Federal Center for State Sanitary and Epidemiological Surveillance of the Ministry of Health of the Russian Federation, 103 p.
6. Chief Public Health Officer of the Russian Federation (2003). Hygienic Standards GN 2.1.5.1315–03. Maximum allowable concentrations (MAC) of chemical substances in the water of water bodies for household, drinking and amenity water use. Moscow: Russian Register of Potentially Hazardous Chemical and Biological Substances of the Ministry of Health of the Russian Federation, 154 p.
7. Gorelkina, G. A., Madzhugina, A. A., Ushakova, I. G. and Korchevskaya, Yu. V. (2015). Conditions for effective treatment of natural low turbidity waters having high water colour index. [online] Research and Scientific Electronic Journal of Omsk SAU, No. 2 (2). URL: http://e-journal.omgau.ru/images/ issues/2015/2/00044.pdf [Date of application 25.11.2020].
8. Draginsky, V. L., Alekseyeva, L. P. and Getmantsev, S. V. (2005). Coagulation in natural water purification technology. Moscow: Nauchnoye Izdaniye, 576 p.
9. Zhurba, M. G. (ed.) (2000). Classifier of natural water treatment technologies. Moscow: NII VODGEO, 118 p.
10. Zhurba, M. G., Sokolov, L. N. and Govorova, Zh. M. (2003). Water supply. Design of systems and structures. In 3 volumes. Vol. 1. Moscow: ASV Publishing House, 288 p.
11. Karmazinov, F. V. (ed.) (2003). Water supply in St. Petersburg]. Saint Petersburg: Novy Zhurnal, 687 p.
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18. Government of the Russian Federation (2013). Decree of the Government of the Russian Federation No. 644 dated July 29, 2013 On the approval of rules for cold water supply and wastewater disposal as well as the introduction of amendments to certain legislative acts of the Russian Federation. URL: http:// government.ru/docs/3559 [Date of application 25.11.2020].
19. Fokanov, V. P. and Shallar, A. V. (2003). Water disinfection with UV radiation and chlorine. Advantages and disadvantages. In: Hygienic problems of water supply to the general public and troops, November 20–21, 2003, Saint Petersburg. Saint Petersburg: Military Medical Academy, pp. 182–183.

ECOLOGY

Yermekov M. T., Rozhkova O. V., Sandibekova S. G., Tolysbayev Ye. T.CHALLENGES OF SNOW DISPOSAL AND INNOVATIVE SOLUTIONS IN THE CONDITIONS OF NUR-SULTAN
DOI: 10.23968/2305-3488.2021.26.1.20-29

Introduction. In this paper, we analyze various methods of snow removal in urban areas and consider the most cost-effective and efficient solutions for snow removal and disposal using heat from sewage drains by means of stationary snow-melting points (SMP) in Nur-Sultan. In cooperation with Astana su Arnasy specialists, responsible for the operation of the city sewer system, as well as cleaning and disinfection of urban sewage drains, we reviewed the main advantages and disadvantages. Methods. The paper looks into the possibility of utilizing heat from sewage drains with the help of heat pumps. This method has been successfully tested at a sewage treatment plant and is currently used to heat auxiliary premises. The same principle can be applied in SMPs with a separate discharge of meltwater to the storm sewer. Results. Having studied the experience of using various methods for snow removal in urban areas, we find that snow removal with the use of sewage drains through the creation of special snow-melting complexes integrated with the city sewer system is the most promising method for Nur-Sultan since it allows for reducing costs, intensifying the process of snow melting, and eliminating the hazardous impact of meltwater on the environment. Conclusion. To ensure successful implementation and use of this snow removal method in Nur-Sultan, it is required to conduct a number of additional studies on the impact of sewage treatment plants on the technological processes, as well as to test options for separating sewage drains with the help of heat pumps, and, based on the studies conducted, to determine the final configuration of snow-melting complexes.
Key words: snow disposal, sewage treatment plants, stationary snow melting points, wastewater, snow removal, Nur-Sultan
References: 1. Abdalov, R. R., Sonich, V. F. and Grishkova, А. V. (2013). Alternative method of snow utilization. Bulletin of Perm National Research Polytechnic University. Construction and Architecture, No 1, pp. 7–13.
2. Voronov, Yu. V., Deryushev, L. G. and Deryusheva, N. L. (2013). Design issues of stationary snow-melting stations. Santekhnika, No. 2, pp. 26–29.
3. State Unitary Enterprise “Vodokanal of Saint Petersburg” (2016). Stationary snow-melting station. [online]. Available at: http://www.vodokanal.spb.ru/kanalizovanie/utilisaziya_snega/ ssp [Date accessed 21.04.2016].
4. Yermekov, M. T., Rozhkova, O. V., Tolysbayev, Ye. T., Zhakipbekov, Zh. N., Merkureva, S. N., Sсhefer, V. I. and Ivanovich V. V. (2020). Problems and solutions of the silt sludge utilization issues at waste treatment facilities of Nur-Sultan city. News of the Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Kazakhstan, Series: Chemistry and Technology, No. 5 (443), pp. 71–76. DOI: 10.32014/2020.2518-1491.82.
5. Zhaparkulova, Y. D., Anuarbekov, K. K., Kaliyeva, K. E., Abikenova, S. M. and Radzevicius A. (2019). Purification degrees of waste water under different irrigation regimes. News of the Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Kazakhstan. Series of Geology and Technical Sciences, No. 3 (435), pp. 96–101. DOI: 10.32014/2019.2518-170X.73.
6. Kuchin, V. N., Yurchenko, V. V., Kalinin, A. A., Nikonova, T. Yu., Kibeko, A. S. and Ivanov, S. S. (2019). Development of an installation for melting snow masses on the principle of dispersion. International Journal of Applied and Fundamental Research. Technical Sciences, No. 10, рр. 335–339.
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8. Sakhapov, R. L., Malhmutov, M. M. and Makhmutov, M. M. (2016). Review of researches on interaction of snow cover by various working bodies of utility machines. Izvestia of Samara Scientific Center of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Vol. 18, No. 1 (2), pp. 432–434.
9. Selekh, Е. V. and Sudnikovich, V. G. (2015). Technical process of facility of snowmelting points on the basis of heat recovery of sewage waters during reconstruction of existing sewage networks. Proceedings of Universities. Technical Sciences. Construction, No. 2 (13), pp. 93–98.
10. Serikov, D. (2020). Snow removal is preferred to snow melting in the capital. [online] Dalainform.kz. Available at: https://dalainform.kz/plavleniyu-snega-v-stolicze-predpochliego- vyvoz/?fbclid=IwAR3Tp_1QzzQ2XT7Y7l2GdAXMZHSvqfVWQkwOiyYBTdFZyaHNMH9-A2TImE [Date accessed November 18, 2020].
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14. Elorda.info (2020). Astana Tazalyk: methods of snow melting in the capital. [online]. Available at: https://elorda.info/ city/04022020/123030/735.html [Date accessed February 4, 2020].
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Reshetnyak O. S., Komarov R. S.TRENDS IN THE VARIABILITY OF THE CHEMICAL COMPOSITION AND WATER POLLUTION LEVEL IN THE KUBAN RIVER
DOI: 10.23968/2305-3488.2021.26.1.30-40

Introduction. The paper explores the long-term spatial and temporal variability of the chemical composition and water quality in the Kuban River. Methods. To study the variability of the chemical composition of river water, we analyzed data from systematic observations over the concentrations of major ions, biogenic and organic substances, petroleum products and heavy metals from 2010 to 2017. To describe the variability of water quality, we used such indicators as water quality class, water pollution level, and characteristic pollutants. Results. It is shown that the spatial change in the chemical composition is uneven — a number of components in the water have low concentrations in the upper reaches, increasing in the lower part of the river. Others are characterized by high concentrations in the middle reaches, followed by a decrease towards the mouth. Over time, the change in the concentrations of chlorides, sulfates, organic substances and petroleum products increases. As for the content of nitrates, a slight decrease was detected in its variability. For the remaining chemicals, there were no clear trends. We established that in most cases the water in the Kuban River can be classified as polluted and very polluted (water quality class 3). We also found that the nature of river water pollution regarding a number of components is stable. Conclusion. In modern conditions of sharp climate changes and anthropogenic impact, the identified features of the chemical composition and trends in water quality variability of the Kuban River are of great practical importance and can be used in the development of environmentally sound recommendations for improving water quality and the state of water ecosystems in the river basin.
Key words: Kuban River, anthropogenic impact, chemical composition, water quality, water pollution level, water quality trends
References: 1. Belyuchenko, I. S. (2005). Ecology of Kuban. Part 1. Krasnodar: Publishing House of Kuban State Agrarian University, 513 p.
2. Bryzgalo V. A., Nikanorov A. M., and Reshetnyak, O. S. (2013). Ecological state variability of mouth ecosystems of big rivers of Russia. Water: Chemistry and Ecology, No. 12 (65), pp. 15–21.
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6. Zakrutkin, V. E., Koronkevich, N. I., Shishkina, D. Yu. and Dolgov, S. V. (2004). Regularities of anthropogenic transformation of small catchments of the steppe zone of Southern Russia (within the Rostov Region). Rostov-on-Don: Publishing House of Rostov University, 252 p.
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14. Nikanorov, A. M., Bryzgalo, V. A., Reshetnyak, O. S., Kosmenko, L. S., and Kondakova, M. Yu. (2013). Anthropgenic transformation of ecological status and pollutants’ transport along the Kuban River length. Water Sector of Russia: Problems, Technologies, Management, No. 2, pp. 108–118.
15. Nikanorov, A. M., Minina, L. I., Lobchenko, E. E., Emelyanova, V. P., Nichiporova, I. P., Lyampert, N. A., Pervysheva, O. A. and Lavrenko N. Yu. (2015). The dynamics of surface water quality of major river basins of the Russian Federation. Rostov-on-Don: Hydrochemical Institute, 295 p.
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Robertus Y. V., Puzanov A.V., Kivatskaya A.V., Lyubimov R. V.ENVIRONMENTAL CONSEQUENCES OF LAKE MANZHEROK REHABILITATION (ALTAI REPUBLIC)
DOI: 10.23968/2305-3488.2021.26.1.41-49

Introduction. Manzherok Lake is the only habitat of the Red Book endemic water chestnut (Trapa pectinata) in the Altai Republic. In the second half of the 20th century, its catchment area underwent significant anthropogenic transformations, increasing the degradation of the lake ecosystem. To stabilize the state of the reservoir, in 2017–2018, its central part was cleared of the bottom silt (sapropels). Methods. In 2019–2020, as part of monitoring the state of the lake’s water area, 11 rounds of water testing were conducted at six points on two profiles. In total, we collected 72 water samples and studied their chemical composition and, partially, microbiological parameters. The suspended matter content, turbidity and oxidability of water were determined on an ongoing basis. Results. We identified a trend for a consistent decrease in the content of suspended particles and other indicators of the ecological state of water. The forecast for 2020 to improve the quality of lake water was confirmed. We also revealed other positive changes in the ecological state of Manzherok Lake after its clearing. Conclusion. We determined features of lake ecosystem self-restoration after rehabilitation and made a forecast regarding the preservation of positive trends in the restoration of water quality for the next 1–2 years. It is shown that the lake clearing of the bottom silt did not solve the problem of its rehabilitation to the full.
Key words: Manzherok Lake, bottom silt, water, pollution, clearing, environmental consequences, rehabilitation
References: 1. Andreyeva, I. V. and Rotanova, I. N. (2008). Lake Manzherokskoye: past, present and future of a natural monument. In: Dolgovykh, S. V. (ed.) Biodiversity, environmental problems of Gorny Altai and neighboring regions: present, past and future. Gorno-Altaisk: Editorial and Publishing Department of Gorno- Altaisk State University, pp. 305–308.
2. Bezmaternykh, D. M., Kirillov, V. V., Balykin, S. N., Koveshnikov, M. I., Dyachenko, A. V. and Mednikova, G. M. (2020). Channel dredging effect on morphometric features, indicators of water and bottom sediments quality of the lake Manzherokskoye (Altai Republic). Water Sector of Russia: Problems, Technologies, Management, No. 1, pp. 6–18. DOI: 10.35567/1999-4508-2020-1-1.
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22. Shitov, A. V., Minayev, A. I., Fedotkina, N. V., Sukhova, M. G., Zhuravlyova, O. V., Modina, T. D., Sobchak, R. O., Papina, O. V., Kocheyeva, N. A., Dmitriyev, A. N., Bannikova, O. I., Klimova, O. V., Manankova, T. I., Robertus, Yu. V., Kats, V. Ye., Dostavalova, M. S., Malkov, Yu. P., Makov, P. Yu., Malkova, A. N., Malkov, N. P., Mashoshina, I. A., Ilyinykh, I. A., Divak, A. A., Severova, S. A., Veselovsky, Ye. D., Avanesyan, R. A., Karanin, A. V. and Drachyov, S. S (2006). Natural complexes of the Mayminsky district of the Altai Republic. Gorno-Altaisk: Editorial and Publishing Department of Gorno-Altaisk State University, 200 p.

Smirnova V. S., Tekanova E. V., Kalinkina N. M., Chernova E. N.PHYTOPLANKTON STATE AND CYANOTOXINS IN THE SVYATOZERO LAKE BLOOM SPOT (ONEGA LAKE BASIN, RUSSIA)
DOI: 10.23968/2305-3488.2021.26.1.50-60

Introduction. This paper is the first to address the state of phytoplankton in eutrophic Svyatozero Lake (61о32´ N, 33о35´ E.), used for trout farming in the Republic of Karelia, in the North-Western Region of Russia, during the period of water bloom. For northern reservoirs, water bloom is not a typical phenomenon. However, due to climate warming and the large-scale development of trout breeding in the region, it becomes more urgent to study blooming reservoirs and related consequences for northern aquatic ecosystems and humans. Methods. We processed phytoplankton samples and measured photosynthesis using conventional methods. The concentration of chlorophyll a in water was determined spectrophotometrically, and the content of cyanotoxins was estimated by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Results. In September 2019, we studied the structural, quantitative and functional characteristics of phytoplankton in the bloom spot. The phytoplankton abundance was 198.712 mln cells/l, the biomass was 14.945 mg/l, and the concentration of chlorophyll а reached 215.3 μg/l, which corresponded to the β-eutrophic state of the ecosystem in the study area. It was revealed that cyanobacteria corresponded to 99.8% of the biomass and 96.7% of the abundance. The species of the genus Microcystis were dominant (42%). They are well-known potential producers of cyanobacterial hepatotoxins, in particular, microcystins. We established the presence of microcystins. Their intracellular and extracellular concentrations were equal and in total amounted to 12.56 μg/l. We also identified eight structural variants of microcystins; among those, [D-Asp3] MC-RR accounted for up to 90% of the total content. The most toxic MC-LR variant was present in trace amounts only in biomass. According to the WHO standards, the content of microcystins and the number of cyanobacterial cells in the Svyatozero Lake bloom spot corresponds to average danger in the case of recreational use and can pose a threat to human health. Conclusion. It is necessary to monitor the phytoplankton composition, the presence of potentially toxic cyanobacterial species and cyanotoxins, as well as the state of trout farmed in the waters of Svyatozero Lake, since cyanotoxins can accumulate in fish tissues.
Key words: eutrophication, phytoplankton, cyanobacteria, biogenic elements, cyanotoxins, microcystins, Karelia, Russia
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M., Filatov, N. N., Tekanova, E. V. and Balaganskii, A. F. (2018). Long-term dynamics of iron and phosphorus runoff into Onego Lake with Shuya River under climate change conditions. Regional Ecology, No. 2 (52), pp. 65–73. DOI: 10.30694/1026-5600-2018-2-65-73. 7. Kalmykov, M. V. (1998). Reservoirs of the middle section of the Shuya River and Vedlozero Lake. Chemical composition of bottom sediments. In: Current state of water bodies in the Republic of Karelia. Based on the results of monitoring in 1992– 1997. Petrozavodsk: Karelian Research Center of the Russian Academy of Sciences, pp. 146–148. 8. Kitayev, S. P. (2007). Basic general limnology for hydrobiologists and ichthyologists. Petrozavodsk: Karelian Research Center of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 395 p. 9. Kuznetsov, S. I. and Dubinina, G. A. (1989). Methods for studying aquatic microorganisms. Moscow: Nauka, 285 p. 10. Lozovik, P. A., Sabylina, A. V. and Ryzhakov, A. V. (2013). Chemical composition of lake waters. 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Sabylina, A. V., Martynova, N. N. and Basov, M. I. (1998). Reservoirs of the middle section of the Shuya River and Vedlozero Lake. Chemical composition of water. In: Current state of water bodies in the Republic of Karelia. Based on the results of monitoring in 1992–1997. Petrozavodsk: Karelian Research Center of the Russian Academy of Sciences, pp. 139–145. 16. Stepanova, N. Yu., Khaliullina, L. Yu., Nikitin, O. V. and Latypova, V. Z. (2012). The structure and toxicity of cyanobacteria in the recreational zones of water bodies in Kazan region. Water: Chemistry and Ecology, No. 11 (53), pp. 67–72. 17. Tekanova, Ye. V. (2013). Primary production. In: Filatov, N. N. and Kukharev, V. I. (eds.). Lakes of Karelia. Reference Book. Petrozavodsk: Karelian Research Center of the Russian Academy of Sciences, pp. 49–51. 18. Tekanova, E. V., Kalinkina, N. M. and Kravchenko, I. Yu. (2018). Geochemical peculiarities of biota functioning in water bodies of Karelia. Izvestiya RAN. Seriya Geograficheskaya No. 1, pp. 90–100. DOI: 10.7868/S2587556618010083 19. Filatov, N. N. and Kukharev, V. I. (eds.) (2013). Lakes of Karelia. Reference book. Petrozavodsk: Karelian Research Center of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 464 p. 20. Filatov, N. N., Rukhovets, L. A., Nazarova, L. E., Georgiev, A. P., Ephraim, T. V. and Pal’shin, N. I. (2014). Climate change impacts on the ecosystem of lake north of European Russia. Proceedings of the Russian State Hydrometeorological University, No. 34, pp. 48–55. 21. Henderson-Sellers, B. and Markland, H. R. (1990). Decaying lakes. The origin and control of cultural eutrophication. Leningrad: Gidrometeoizdat, 278 p. 22. Chekryzheva, T. A. (1998). Reservoirs of the middle section of the Shuya River and Vedlozero Lake. Phytoplankton. In: Current state of water bodies in the Republic of Karelia. Based on the results of monitoring in 1992–1997. Petrozavodsk: Karelian Research Center of the Russian Academy of Sciences, pp. 148–150. 23. Chekryzheva, T. A. and Ryzhkov, L. P. (2014). Environmental status of Lake Svyatozero based on phytoplankton studies. In: Ecological Problems of Northern Regions and Ways for Their Solution. Materials of the V All-Russian Scientific Conference with Foreign Participation, June 23–27, 2014. Part 2. Apatity: Publishing Office of the Kola Science Center of the Russian Academy of Sciences, pp. 243–247. 24. Chernova, E. N., Russkikh, Y. V., Podolskaya, E. P. and Zhakovskaya, Z. A. (2016). Determination of microcystins and anatoxin-a using liquid chromato-mass-spectrometry of unit resolution. Nauchnoe Priborostroenie, Vol. 6, No. 1, pp. 11–25. 25. Belykh, O. I., Gladkikh, A. S., Sorokovikova, E. G., Tikhonova, I. V., Potapov, S. A. and Fedorova, G. A. (2013). Microcystin-producing cyanobacteria in water reservoirs of Russia, Belarus and Ukraine. Chemistry for Sustainable Development, Vol. 21, No. 4, pp. 347–361. 26. Chernova, E., Russkikh, I., Voyakina, E. and Zhakovskaya, Z. (2016). Occurrence of microcystins and anatoxin-a in eutrophic lakes of Saint Petersburg, Northwestern Russia. Oceanological and Hydrobiological Studies, Vol. 45, Issue 4, pp. 466–484. DOI: 10.1515/ohs-2016-0040. 27. Chorus, I. (2012). Current approaches to cyanotoxin risk assessment, risk management and regulations in different countries. Dessau-Roßlau: Federal Environment Agency, 147 p. 28. Chorus, I. and Bartram, J. (eds.) (1999). Toxic cyanobacteria in water: a guide to their public health consequences, monitoring and management. London: Routledge, 432 p. 29. Davis, T. W., Berry D. L., Boyer G. L. and Gobler C. J. (2009). The effects of temperature and nutrients on the growth and dynamics of toxic and non-toxic strains of Microcystis during cyanobacteria blooms. Harmful Algae, Vol. 8, Issue 5, pp. 715–725. DOI: 10.1016/j.hal.2009.02.004. 30. Drobac, D., Tokodi, N., Lujić, J., Marinović, Z., Subakov- Simić, G., Dulić, T., Važić, T., Nybom, S., Meriluoto, J., Codd, G. A. and Svirčev, Z. 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(2012). Influence of cultivation parameters on growth and microcystin production of Microcystis aeruginosa (Cyanophyceae) isolated from Lake Chao (China). Microbial Ecology, Vol. 63, Issue 1, pp. 199–209. DOI: 10.1007/s00248-011-9899-3. 35. Li, J., Li, R. and Li, J. (2017). Current research scenario for microcystins biodegradation — A review on fundamental knowledge, application prospects and challenges. Science of the Total Environment, Vol. 595, pp. 615–632. DOI: 10.1016/j. scitotenv.2017.03.285. 36. Malbrouck, C. and Kestemont, P. (2006). Effects of microcystins on fish. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, Vol. 25, Issue 1, pp. 72–86. DOI: 10.1897/05-029R.1. 37. Massey, I. Y., Yang, F., Ding, Z., Yang, S., Guo, J., Tezi, C., Al-Osman, M., Kamegni, R. B. and Zeng, W. (2018). Exposure routes and health effects of microcystins on animals and humans: A mini-review. Toxicon, Vol. 151, pp. 156–162. DOI: 10.1016/j. toxicon.2018.07.010. 38. Oh, H.-M., Lee, S. J., Jang, M.-H. and Yoon, B.-D. (2000). Microcystin production by Microcystis aeruginosa in a phosphorus-limited chemostat. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, Vol. 66, Issue 1, pp. 176–179. DOI: 10.1128/ aem.66.1.176-179.2000. 39. Paerl, H. W., Hall, N. S. and Calandrino, E. S. (2011). Controlling harmful cyanobacterial blooms in a world experiencing anthropogenic and climatic-induced change. Science of the Total Environment, Vol. 409, Issue 10, pp. 1739–1745. DOI: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2011.02.001. 40. Sivonen, K. and Jones, G. (1999). Cyanobacterial toxins. In: Chorus, I. and Bartram, J. (eds.) Toxic Cyanobacteria in Water. A Guide to Their Public Health Consequences, Monitoring and Management. London: E & FN Spon, pp. 41–111. 41. Srivastava, A., Choi, G.-G., Ahn, C.-Y., Oh, H.-M., Ravi, A. K. and Asthana, R. K. (2012). Dynamics of microcystin production and quantification of potentially toxigenic Microcystis sp. using real-time PCR. Water Research, Vol. 46, Issue 3, pp. 817–827. 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Shabalin V. V., Rogozhina T. S.DETERMINATION OF COMPONENTS, DISSOLVED ORGANIC AND INORGANIC SUBSTANCES IN NATURAL WATERS
DOI: 10.23968/2305-3488.2021.26.1.61-70

Introduction. Large urban agglomerations have to deal with issues related to the high-quality drinking water supply. These issues are mainly due to water quality deterioration, poor condition and severe wear of water supply infrastructure facilities. Materials and methods. In our study, we analyze the composition of drinking water in the water supply system of St. Petersburg for SiO2 and Al2O3 nanoparticles and organic substances, including soluble proteins, protein components, and salts. For this purpose, we estimated the concentration and distribution of nanoparticles and organic impurities in the sediment formed after water evaporation from a sample in the form of a droplet. During the process, the following methods were used: the method for dehydration of water droplets with the formation of a solid phase, the methods for optical analysis of the sediment structure based on image analysis and recognition (photo and video recording of microscopic images), mathematical modeling of sediment structures’ formation, and statistical analysis of the results. Results. The presence of impurities in water was determined by the formation of periodic annular ring structures in sediments of aqueous solutions. The analysis of the structures obtained made it possible to determine the composition of the mixture and percentage content of individual fractions by the type of structural elements and their periodicity. We also developed a mathematical model simulating the processes of particle settling out of a solution. The calculations were carried out using model liquids and made it possible to obtain dependencies for the distribution of various dissolved particles in the structure of the solid phase, as well as to describe the staged mechanism in settling during its formation.
Key words: protein-salt solutions, nanoparticles, droplet dehydration on a solid substrate, sediment structure, wavelet image transformation, determination of the image structure periodicity
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№2 (86)

WATERDISPOSAL

Krasavtseva E. A., Sandimirov S. S.STATE OF WATER BODIES IN THE AREA OF INFLUENCE OF MINING AND PROCESSING ENTERPRISES (CASE STUDY OF LOVOZERSKY MINING AND PROCESSING PLANT)
DOI: 10.23968/2305-3488.2021.26.2.3-13

Introduction. This extended study is the first to analyze the chemical composition of the surface waters and bottom sediments of the lakes affected to various extents by Lovozersky Mining and Processing Plant (Revda urban settlement, Murmansk Region) performing mining and processing of rare metal ores. Methods. During the study, we used data obtained in the course of research in 1995–2005 and 2019–2020. Water and bottom sediment samples were analyzed using various methods. The total contents of elements in the bottom sediments were compared with the background values or, in their absence, with the clarke contents of elements in the Earth’s crust. To assess the level of pollution in the Sergevan River receiving wastewater from the plant, the maximum pollution index was calculated. Results. Over the past 35 years, the chemical composition of the surface waters of nearby water bodies underwent minor changes. No significant excess of maximum permissible concentrations for fishery water bodies was found. The comparison of the contents of heavy metals in the bottom sediments collected from Lakes Ilma and Krivoye with the background values revealed contamination of the Lake Ilma with strontium, zinc and manganese. Besides, a multiple excess of the content of rare earth elements (La, Ce, Pr, Nd), Nb and Ta was established in the bottom sediments of Lake Ilma in comparison with that in Lake Krivoye. The analysis of the river water samples taken at different distances upstream and downstream the site of wastewater discharge confirmed the assumption about the pollution of the Sergevan River by wastewater from the plant. Conclusion. The pollution of the water bodies is mainly caused by wastewater discharged from the plant, however, the increased content of rare earth elements in the bottom sediments of Lake Ilma may be due to air transport of particles of loparite ore concentration tailings, drainage from tailing dams, or degradation of underlying rocks.
Key words: surface waters, bottom sediments, pollutants, wastewater, rare earth elements
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12. Kashulin, N. A., Dauvalter, V. A., Denisov, D. B., Valkova, S. A., Vandysh, O. I., Terent’ev, P. M. and Kashulin, A. N. (2013). Some aspects of current state of freshwater resources in the Murmansk Region. Vestnik of MSTU, Vol. 16, No. 1, pp. 98–107.
13. Krasavtseva, E. A., Zhilkin, B. O., Makarov, D. V., Svetlov, A. V. and Goryachev, A. A. (2020). Wastewater treatment of the Lovozersky GOK LLC from fluorine ions by chemical coagulation. Proceedings of the Fersman Scientific Session of the Geological Institute, Kola Science Center, Russian Academy of Sciences, No. 17, pp. 297–301. DOI: 10.31241/FNS.2020.17.056.
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19. Shabanov, V. V. and Markin V. N. (2009). Methodology for the environmental and water management assessment of water bodies. Moscow: Moscow State University of Environmental Engineering, 154 p.
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22. Kashulin, N. A., Dauvalter, V. A., Denisov, D. B., Valkova, S. A., Vandysh, O. I., Terentjev, P. M. and Kashulin, A. N. (2017). Selected aspects of the current state of freshwater resources in the Murmansk Region. Journal of Environmental Science and Health, Part A, Vol. 52, Issue 9, pp. 921–929. DOI: 10.1080/10934529.2017.1318633.
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Telyatnikova A. M., Fedorov S. V., Kudryavtsev A. V.MODELING THE OPERATION OF SEPARATION CHAMBERS
DOI: 10.23968/2305-3488.2021.26.2.14-21

Introduction. Separation chambers are designed and built for separate and partially separate sewerage systems. Their main function is to separate the flow of relatively clean water during heavy rain. This allows the discharge of such water without treatment into water bodies or storage tanks. The approach reduces the load of wastewater treatment plants. To design separation chambers, we need to understand how their design features affect the process of flow separation. It is possible to study the hydraulic characteristics of separation chambers of any design with the help of computer simulation. Two designs of separation chambers were investigated: a circular spillway with a full-scale prototype and a spiral spillway proposed by the authors. Methods. The research was based on simulation in the ANSYS CFX finite element analysis software. For each design, a series of five experiments with different incoming flow rates was performed. Results. Models of two types of separation chambers were developed and qualitatively evaluated. The hydraulic characteristics were established and quantified: the uniformity of the flow discharged for treatment and the spillway discharge coefficient. Conclusion. As a result, a principled approach was formed and tested. Using this approach, it is possible to study the hydraulic characteristics of separation chambers of various designs for their further use in the sewerage system.
Key words: sewer network, wastewater, rainwater drainage, separation chamber, computer simulation, ANSYS CFX.
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Fokina N. V., Mayorov, D. V., Gorbacheva T. T.AMORPHOUS SILICA OBTAINED FROM NEPHELINE RAW MATERIALS IN THE DEPHOSPHORIZATION OF MUNICIPAL WASTEWATER
DOI: 10.23968/2305-3488.2021.26.2.22-29

Introduction. The paper addresses the importance of extracting the labile form of phosphorus from wastewater with the possibility of its further use. The advantages of sorption methods and the prospects of using amorphous silica as an ameliorant with a prolonged fertilizing effect are considered. Methods. We performed experimental modeling of phosphates extraction from model solutions and a sludge mixture from regional sewage treatment plants. Amorphous silica obtained from local nepheline raw materials in acid treatment using a patented technology was used as sorbents. Results. A sorbent based on amorphous silica with a pore diameter of 8.41 nm was obtained. Its sorption capacity exceeds 29 mgP/g in the phosphate form, which corresponds to the average level of phosphorus removal, noted for a number of sorbents used in the international practice of wastewater dephosphorization when producing unconventional ameliorants. Conclusion. For effective phosphorus removal from municipal wastewater to obtain an unconventional ameliorant with a fertilizing effect in terms of Si and P, sorbent consumption of 1 g/l is sufficient.
Key words: amorphous silica, sorption, dephosphorization, municipal wastewater.
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ECOLOGY

Volkova N. E., Podovalova S. V., Umerova L. R.METHODOLOGICAL APPROACHES FOR ASSESSING THE IMPACT OF NATURAL AND ANTHROPOGENIC FACTORS ON RIVER GEOSYSTEMS
DOI: 10.23968/2305-3488.2021.26.2.30-39

Introduction. The increasing shortage of water resources in the Republic of Crimea, due to water supplies from the external water source being shut off, emphasized the need to rationally use the existing water resource potential, which in turn requires a balance between the water users’ interests and maintaining a favorable environmental situation in the peninsula’s watercourses. Although in Russian and global practice there is a whole range of approaches to assessing the impact of natural and anthropogenic factors on the state of river geosystems, not all of them are applicable to solving the indicated problem. Methods: By testing integrated techniques, methods and models for assessing the impact of human activity on the stability of river natural and engineering systems (using the Zuya River as an example), we selected the most appropriate approach to develop viable solutions in water management. Results: By comparing the possibilities of using the scoring index method to assess the stability and vulnerability of watercourses to changes in physical and geographical as well as hydrological parameters and water quality, and methodology for the integrated assessment of the geoecological state of water resources of small rivers and the system model “Minor River Basin”, we revealed that only with the use of the latter it is possible not only to assess the real situation but also identify the reasons that impede the rational use of the peninsula’s watercourses. Conclusion: When developing decisions related to water management in the Republic of Crimea, the use of a suitable methodological approach to assessing the impact of natural and anthropogenic factors on the stability of river geosystems will make it possible to avoid mistakes when choosing measures and prioritizing actions aimed at the rational use of the existing water resource potential.
Key words: watercourse, anthropogenic load, ecological situation, integrated assessment, rational water use.
References: 1. Vlasova, А. N. (2008). Hydrological and hydroecological characteristic of Malyi Salgyr river. Scientific Notes of Taurida National V.I. Vernadsky University. Series: Geography, Vol. 21 (60), No. 3, pp. 94–101.
2. Volkova, N. E., Ivanyutin, N. M. and Podovalova, S. V. (2021). Assessment of the hydroecological state of water bodies in the Maly Salgir river basin. Vestnik Moskovskogo Unviersiteta, Seriya 5, Geografiya, No. 3, pp. 27–36.
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7. Ivanyutin, N. M. and Podovalova, S. V. (2019). Assessment of the Biyuk-Karasu river current ecological state. Water and Ecology, No. 1 (77), pp. 54–63. DOI: 10.23968/2305- 3488.2019.24.1.54-63.
8. Ivanyutin, N. M., Podovalova, S. V. and Volkova, N. E. (2020). Research of spatial-temporal transformation of the qualitative composition of the river Salgir waters. Ecology and Industry of Russia, Vol. 24, No. 3, pp. 65–71. DOI: 10.18412/1816-0395-2020-3-65-71.
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Dzhamalov R. G., Vlasov K. G., Grigorev V. Y., Galagur K. G., Reshetnyak O. S, Safronova T. I.SCALE AND LONG-TERM DYNAMICS OF OKA RIVER BASIN POLLUTION
DOI: 10.23968/2305-3488.2021.26.2.40-53

Introduction. This article addresses the long-term dynamics of Oka River basin pollution. The basin serves as the main source of drinking water and a receiver of wastewater from a number of regions in European Russia. Methods. We assessed the water quality by 12 main hydrochemical indicators and constructed maps of their distribution with a breakdown into two periods (1990–1999 and 2000–2017). The anthropogenic load along the section in the city of Gorbatov was determined. Spearman’s rank correlation coefficients and their statistical significance were calculated. Results. For 18 gauging stations with 25 and more years of observations, the magnitude of the linear trend (%/year) was estimated using the Theil–Sen estimator, and the statistical significance of the linear trend (Mann–Kendall test) was assessed for individual stations and the entire basin, using a modified Walker test. The runoff of pollutants from the urban territory was estimated between the sections upstream and downstream the cities in the upper reaches of the Oka River basin. The volumes of pollutants in the Oka River from the cities of Orel, Belev and Kaluga were determined for the period of 1990–2017. The calculations of the pollutant runoff, performed between the sections upstream and downstream the cities, made it possible to determine the role of the cities in the formation of point pollution in the upper reaches of the Oka River. The anthropogenic load along the length of the river in terms of the influx of chemicals varies from “low” to “high”. The load is largely due to the intake of pollutants since water bodies and watercourses serve as receivers of both treated and insufficiently treated wastewater from various enterprises. Conclusion. Almost throughout the basin, the water quality is under stress. The statistical analysis showed the existing relationship between a certain type of land use and the concentration of substances in surface waters. It was revealed that the self-cleaning capacity of the river is sufficient to prevent pollutants from accumulating along it.
Key words: Oka River, river flow, water quality, anthropogenic load, influx of chemicals.
References: 1. Abramova, E. (2011). The estimation of the level of anthropogic loading on the Oka basin within Moscow region. Bulletin of the Moscow Region State University (electronic journal), No. 2, pp. 20–26.
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Klimovskiy N. V., Moreva O. Y., Matveev N. Y., Novoselov A. P.ECOLOGICAL STATE OF THE ZIMNYAYA ZOLOTITSA RIVER IN THE AREA OF THE INDIRECT IMPACT OF THE MINING AND PROCESSING PLANT
DOI: 10.23968/2305-3488.2021.26.2.54-64

Introduction. Medium rivers play an important role in the environment: draining the large catchment area, they determine the water content and quality as well as hydrological conditions in large watercourses. The joint effect of such factors as the small size of these rivers and human activity disturbs the balance of ecosystems, thus increasing the vulnerability of the rivers. Significant negative changes tend to occur faster and stronger in river valleys. Our aim was to study the ecological state of the Zimnyaya Zolotitsa River ecosystem in the area of the indirect impact of wastewater from the mining and processing plant in the Lomonosov diamond field. Methods. In the course of the study, we used the standard methods for determining the main biogenic elements and oil hydrocarbons. Results. The paper provides data on the content of biogenic elements in water, pH value, dissolved oxygen and mineralization, as well as the content of oil hydrocarbons in water and bottom sediments. Conclusion. As a result of the studies, it was found that in the summer observation period, the concentrations of phosphorus, nitrogen and silicon salts as well as oil hydrocarbons did not exceed the maximum allowable values for fishery reservoirs.
Key words: Zimnyaya Zolotitsa River, dissolved oxygen, pH value, biogenic elements, oil hydrocarbons, bottom sediments.
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Lozhkin V. N. Lozhkina O. V.IMPROVING THE QUALITY OF INFORMATION SUPPORT FOR MONITORING AIR POLLUTION FROM VEHICLES (CASE STUDY OF ST. PETERSBURG)
DOI: 10.23968/2305-3488.2021.26.2.65-74

Introduction. St. Petersburg is the cultural and sea capital of Russia. The city is characterized by environmental problems typical for the largest cities in the world. It has a technical system for instrumental online monitoring and computational forecasting of air quality. Methods. The system maintains the information process by means of computational monitoring of its current and future state. Results. The paper describes methodological approaches to the generation of instrumental information about the structure and intensity of traffic flows in the urban road network and its digital transformation into GIS maps of air pollution in terms of pollutants standard limit values excess. Conclusion. The original information technology for air quality control was introduced at the regional level in the form of an official methodology and is used in environmental management activities.
Key words: urban motor vehicles, traffic intensity, pollutants, air quality, information monitoring system, management.
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