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DOI: 10.23968/2305-3488.2021.26.1.3-8

Introduction. Water supply organizations are currently in need of innovative solutions and technologies based on the concept of the closed-loop resource cycle. The need for sustainable use of resources serves as the basis for changing the existing approach where worn-out resources are considered wastes. Materials and methods. In this paper, we show that it is expedient to restore the sorption properties of granulated activated carbon (GAC) by its reactivation and reuse in closed-loop recycling. We also present methods to study GAC properties and technology of reactivation. Results and discussion. Based on the results of the GAC samples’ analysis, it was found that, during reactivation, the mass content of each fraction changes with a strongly pronounced decrease in the content of large granules with a size of 1.18–2.00 mm and an increase in the content of small granules with a size of 0.60–1.00 mm. Besides, the apparent density of the sorption material changes and the volume of carbon that underwent two reactivations falls below 75%. Conclusion. GAC reactivation in dual-media rapid filters allows us to optimize not only the operating and financial expenses of the company but also those natural resources that would have been spent for the production of new carbon.
Key words: water supply, waste recycling, sorbent reactivation, granulated activated carbon
References: 1. Alekseyev, M. I., Ivanov, V. G., Kurganov, A. M., Medvedev, G. P., Mishukov, B. G., Feofanov, Yu. A., Tsvetkova, L. I., Chernikov, N. A. and Gerasimov, G. N. (eds.) (2007). Water treatment handbook. In 2 volumes, 2nd edition. Saint Petersburg: Novy Zhurnal, 1696 p.
2. Berndt, D., Drews, M., Friedmann, R., Herb, S., Leuschke, J., Loew, W., Lomott, M., Meyer, V., Pütz, R. and Turinsky, R. (2010). Water supply experience: handbook for operating personnel of water supply organizations. Saint Petersburg: Novy Zhurnal, 496 p.
3. Gvozdev, V. A., Portnova, T. M., Iatsinevich, N. V. (2018). Regeneration of the sorption capacity of granulated activated carbon. Water Supply and Sanitary Technique, No. 2, рp. 4–9.
4. Karmazinov, F. V. (ed.) (2008). Water supply and wastewater disposal in Saint Petersburg. Saint Petersburg: Novy Zhurnal, 464 p.
5. Nefedova, E. D., Feofanov, I. A. and Elistratova, I. V. (2018). The experience of operating new water treatment facilities at the South Water Treatment Plant in Saint-Petersburg Water Supply and Sanitary Technique, No. 5, pp. 5–12.
6. Portnova, T. M., Gukova, N. V., Vitkovskaya, R. F., Smirnov, A. O., Badyagin, A. O. (2020). Innovative technologies in the process of obtaining drinking water at the State Unitary Enterprise “Vodokanal of St. Petersburg”. Vestnik of St. Petersburg State University of Technology and Design, Series 1. Natural and Technical Sciences, No. 1, pp. 109–116.
7. Rodionov, V. Z., Dregulo, A. M. and Kudryavtsev, A. V. (2019). Anthropogenic impact on the ecological state of rivers in the Leningrad Region. Water and Ecology. No. 4 (80), рp. 96–108. DOI: 10.23968/2305-3488.2019.24.4.96-108.
8. Samonin, V. V., Spiridonova, E. A., Nefedova, E. D., Portnova, T. M., Gvozdev, V. A. and Podviaznikov, M. L. (2013). Water purification with the use of granulated activated carbon at the Southern Waterworks. Water Supply and Sanitary Technique. No. 9, рp. 43–51.
9. Spiridonova, E. A., Podvyaznikov, M. L., Sergeyev, V. V., Solovey, V. N., Khrylova, E. D. and Samonin, V. V. (2018). High temperature pilot reactivation of the carbon adsorbent spent in process of water treatment in unit K-6 of Southern Water Supply Station of Vodokanal of St. Petersburg. Bulletin of Saint Petersburg State Institute of Technology (Technical University), No. 47 (73), рp. 112–116.
10. Fonseca, J. M., Teleken, J. G., de Cinque Almeida, V., da Silva, C. (2019). Biodiesel from waste frying oils: methods of production and purification. Energy Conversion and Management, Vol. 184, pp. 205–218. DOI: 10.1016/j.enconman.2019.01.061
11. Khok, Y.-T., Ooi, C.-H., Matsumoto, A. and Yeoh, F.-Y. (2020). Reactivation of spent activated carbon for glycerine purification. Adsorption, Vol. 26, Issue 7, pp. 1015–1025.
12. Larasati, A., Fowler, G. D. and Graham, N. J. D. (2020). Chemical regeneration of granular activated carbon: preliminary evaluation of alternative regenerant solutions. Environmental Science: Water Research & Technology, Vol. 6, Issue 8, pp. 2043–2056. DOI: 10.1039/D0EW00328J.
13. Narbaitz, R. M. and Karimi-Jashni, A. (2012). Electrochemical reactivation of granular activated carbon: impact of reactor configuration. Chemical Engineering Journal, Vol. 197, pp. 414–423. DOI: 10.1016/j.cej.2012.05.049.
14. Yin, C. Y., Aroua, M. K. and Daud, W. M. A. W. (2007). Review of modifications of activated carbon for enhancing contaminant uptakes from aqueous solutions. Separation and Purification Technology, Vol. 52, Issue 3, pp. 403–415. DOI: 10.1016/j.seppur.2006.06.009.

DOI: 10.23968/2305-3488.2021.26.1.9-19

Introduction. The article provides data on engineering solutions for water treatment modules being part of the utility and drinking water supply complexes in small settlements located in the Far North, where low-turbidity, high-colored waters serve as the surface sources of water supply. These sources include the river networks of the Ob River (including the southern area of the Gulf of Ob, Kara Sea), Pur River, and Taz River (including the Gulf of Taz, Kara Sea). Methods. We present an analysis of the applied water treatment technologies, reagents, and materials, as well as water processing modes, and establish the reasons for the unsatisfactory performance of the operated water treatment modules implementing physical-and-chemical methods of water purification. Results. It is found that the use of granular materials as media for rapid filters (AS, MS, MZhF autocatalytic sorbents) is not very effective since they are intended for the purification of colorless groundwater with a high content of dissociated compounds of divalent iron and manganese. Throughout the year, the modules operate without account for seasonal fluctuations in the qualitative composition of the source water and with reagents that have lost their active properties. Conclusion. Based on the conducted studies, we propose engineering solutions for the purification of low-turbidity, high-colored waters of surface sources, making it possible to achieve target quality indicators complying with the best available technologies.
Key words: water treatment modules, purification of low-turbidity, high-colored waters, filter media
References: 1. Abramov, N. N. (1982). Water supply. 3rd edition. Moscow: Stroyizdat, 440 p.
2. K. D. Panfilov Academy of Municipal Economy (1985). Manual for the design of facilities for water purification and treatment (in addition to Construction Rules and Regulations SNIP 2.04.02–84). Moscow: Central Institute of Standard Designing, Gosstroy of the USSR, 128 p.
3. Babenkov, Ye. D. (1977). Water treatment with coagulants. Moscow: Nauka, 356 p.
4. Veselov, Yu. S., Lavrov, I. S. and Rukobratsky, N. I. (1985). Water treatment equipment. Design and use. Leningrad: Mashinostroyeniye, 232 p.
5. Chief Public Health Officer of the Russian Federation (2002). Sanitary Regulations SanPiN–01. Drinking water. Hygienic requirements for water quality of centralized drinking water supply systems. Quality control. Moscow: Federal Center for State Sanitary and Epidemiological Surveillance of the Ministry of Health of the Russian Federation, 103 p.
6. Chief Public Health Officer of the Russian Federation (2003). Hygienic Standards GN–03. Maximum allowable concentrations (MAC) of chemical substances in the water of water bodies for household, drinking and amenity water use. Moscow: Russian Register of Potentially Hazardous Chemical and Biological Substances of the Ministry of Health of the Russian Federation, 154 p.
7. Gorelkina, G. A., Madzhugina, A. A., Ushakova, I. G. and Korchevskaya, Yu. V. (2015). Conditions for effective treatment of natural low turbidity waters having high water colour index. [online] Research and Scientific Electronic Journal of Omsk SAU, No. 2 (2). URL: issues/2015/2/00044.pdf [Date of application 25.11.2020].
8. Draginsky, V. L., Alekseyeva, L. P. and Getmantsev, S. V. (2005). Coagulation in natural water purification technology. Moscow: Nauchnoye Izdaniye, 576 p.
9. Zhurba, M. G. (ed.) (2000). Classifier of natural water treatment technologies. Moscow: NII VODGEO, 118 p.
10. Zhurba, M. G., Sokolov, L. N. and Govorova, Zh. M. (2003). Water supply. Design of systems and structures. In 3 volumes. Vol. 1. Moscow: ASV Publishing House, 288 p.
11. Karmazinov, F. V. (ed.) (2003). Water supply in St. Petersburg]. Saint Petersburg: Novy Zhurnal, 687 p.
12. Kastalsky, A. A. and Mints, D. M. (1962). Water treatment for drinking and industrial water supply. Study guide. Moscow: Vysshaya Shkola, 558 p.
13. Kulsky, L. A. (1980). Water conditioning theoretical foundations and technology. 3rd edition. Kiev: Naukova Dumka, 563 p.
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15. Ministry of Regional Development of the Russian Federation (2011). Regulations SP 31.13330.2012. Water supply. Pipelines and potable water treatment plants. Revised edition of Construction Rules and Regulations SNiP 2.04.02– 84. Moscow: FAU “FCS”, 124 p. [online] URL: http://www. [Date of application 25.11.2020].
16. Mints, D. M. (ed.) (1955). Contact clarifiers for water purification. K. D. Panfilov Academy of Municipal Economy. Moscow: publishing house of the Ministry of Public Utilities of the RSFSR, 172 p.
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18. Government of the Russian Federation (2013). Decree of the Government of the Russian Federation No. 644 dated July 29, 2013 On the approval of rules for cold water supply and wastewater disposal as well as the introduction of amendments to certain legislative acts of the Russian Federation. URL: http:// [Date of application 25.11.2020].
19. Fokanov, V. P. and Shallar, A. V. (2003). Water disinfection with UV radiation and chlorine. Advantages and disadvantages. In: Hygienic problems of water supply to the general public and troops, November 20–21, 2003, Saint Petersburg. Saint Petersburg: Military Medical Academy, pp. 182–183.


DOI: 10.23968/2305-3488.2021.26.1.20-29

Introduction. In this paper, we analyze various methods of snow removal in urban areas and consider the most cost-effective and efficient solutions for snow removal and disposal using heat from sewage drains by means of stationary snow-melting points (SMP) in Nur-Sultan. In cooperation with Astana su Arnasy specialists, responsible for the operation of the city sewer system, as well as cleaning and disinfection of urban sewage drains, we reviewed the main advantages and disadvantages. Methods. The paper looks into the possibility of utilizing heat from sewage drains with the help of heat pumps. This method has been successfully tested at a sewage treatment plant and is currently used to heat auxiliary premises. The same principle can be applied in SMPs with a separate discharge of meltwater to the storm sewer. Results. Having studied the experience of using various methods for snow removal in urban areas, we find that snow removal with the use of sewage drains through the creation of special snow-melting complexes integrated with the city sewer system is the most promising method for Nur-Sultan since it allows for reducing costs, intensifying the process of snow melting, and eliminating the hazardous impact of meltwater on the environment. Conclusion. To ensure successful implementation and use of this snow removal method in Nur-Sultan, it is required to conduct a number of additional studies on the impact of sewage treatment plants on the technological processes, as well as to test options for separating sewage drains with the help of heat pumps, and, based on the studies conducted, to determine the final configuration of snow-melting complexes.
Key words: snow disposal, sewage treatment plants, stationary snow melting points, wastewater, snow removal, Nur-Sultan
References: 1. Abdalov, R. R., Sonich, V. F. and Grishkova, А. V. (2013). Alternative method of snow utilization. Bulletin of Perm National Research Polytechnic University. Construction and Architecture, No 1, pp. 7–13.
2. Voronov, Yu. V., Deryushev, L. G. and Deryusheva, N. L. (2013). Design issues of stationary snow-melting stations. Santekhnika, No. 2, pp. 26–29.
3. State Unitary Enterprise “Vodokanal of Saint Petersburg” (2016). Stationary snow-melting station. [online]. Available at: ssp [Date accessed 21.04.2016].
4. Yermekov, M. T., Rozhkova, O. V., Tolysbayev, Ye. T., Zhakipbekov, Zh. N., Merkureva, S. N., Sсhefer, V. I. and Ivanovich V. V. (2020). Problems and solutions of the silt sludge utilization issues at waste treatment facilities of Nur-Sultan city. News of the Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Kazakhstan, Series: Chemistry and Technology, No. 5 (443), pp. 71–76. DOI: 10.32014/2020.2518-1491.82.
5. Zhaparkulova, Y. D., Anuarbekov, K. K., Kaliyeva, K. E., Abikenova, S. M. and Radzevicius A. (2019). Purification degrees of waste water under different irrigation regimes. News of the Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Kazakhstan. Series of Geology and Technical Sciences, No. 3 (435), pp. 96–101. DOI: 10.32014/2019.2518-170X.73.
6. Kuchin, V. N., Yurchenko, V. V., Kalinin, A. A., Nikonova, T. Yu., Kibeko, A. S. and Ivanov, S. S. (2019). Development of an installation for melting snow masses on the principle of dispersion. International Journal of Applied and Fundamental Research. Technical Sciences, No. 10, рр. 335–339.
7. Merkator (2014). TRECAN 135-PD snowmelter [online]. Available at: [Date accessed 19.05.2014].
8. Sakhapov, R. L., Malhmutov, M. M. and Makhmutov, M. M. (2016). Review of researches on interaction of snow cover by various working bodies of utility machines. Izvestia of Samara Scientific Center of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Vol. 18, No. 1 (2), pp. 432–434.
9. Selekh, Е. V. and Sudnikovich, V. G. (2015). Technical process of facility of snowmelting points on the basis of heat recovery of sewage waters during reconstruction of existing sewage networks. Proceedings of Universities. Technical Sciences. Construction, No. 2 (13), pp. 93–98.
10. Serikov, D. (2020). Snow removal is preferred to snow melting in the capital. [online] Available at: vyvoz/?fbclid=IwAR3Tp_1QzzQ2XT7Y7l2GdAXMZHSvqfVWQkwOiyYBTdFZyaHNMH9-A2TImE [Date accessed November 18, 2020].
11. Strokin, A. S., Chudaikin, A. D. and Poliakov, R. S. (2019). The environmental problem of disposing of snow in the city. High Technologies in Construction Complex, No. 2, pp. 56–60.
12. Frolova, O. (2018). Heated roads: an efficient solution for countries with cold climates [online]. Travel Ask. Available at: reshenie-dlya-stran-s-holodn [Date accessed 25.09.2018].
13. Khramenkov, S. V., Pakhomov, A. N., Bogomolov, M. V., Danilovich, D. A., Romashkin, O. V., Pupyrev, E. I. and Koretsky, V. Е. (2008). Snow removal systems with the use of city sewerage. Water Supply and Sanitary Technique, No. 10, pp. 19–30.
14. (2020). Astana Tazalyk: methods of snow melting in the capital. [online]. Available at: city/04022020/123030/735.html [Date accessed February 4, 2020].
15. Rcycle. net (2020). Snowmelters: types, design, and operation. [online]. Available at: snegoplavilnaya-tehnika/ustanovki-vidy-ustrojstvo-i-principraboty [Date accessed 17.06.2020].

DOI: 10.23968/2305-3488.2021.26.1.30-40

Introduction. The paper explores the long-term spatial and temporal variability of the chemical composition and water quality in the Kuban River. Methods. To study the variability of the chemical composition of river water, we analyzed data from systematic observations over the concentrations of major ions, biogenic and organic substances, petroleum products and heavy metals from 2010 to 2017. To describe the variability of water quality, we used such indicators as water quality class, water pollution level, and characteristic pollutants. Results. It is shown that the spatial change in the chemical composition is uneven — a number of components in the water have low concentrations in the upper reaches, increasing in the lower part of the river. Others are characterized by high concentrations in the middle reaches, followed by a decrease towards the mouth. Over time, the change in the concentrations of chlorides, sulfates, organic substances and petroleum products increases. As for the content of nitrates, a slight decrease was detected in its variability. For the remaining chemicals, there were no clear trends. We established that in most cases the water in the Kuban River can be classified as polluted and very polluted (water quality class 3). We also found that the nature of river water pollution regarding a number of components is stable. Conclusion. In modern conditions of sharp climate changes and anthropogenic impact, the identified features of the chemical composition and trends in water quality variability of the Kuban River are of great practical importance and can be used in the development of environmentally sound recommendations for improving water quality and the state of water ecosystems in the river basin.
Key words: Kuban River, anthropogenic impact, chemical composition, water quality, water pollution level, water quality trends
References: 1. Belyuchenko, I. S. (2005). Ecology of Kuban. Part 1. Krasnodar: Publishing House of Kuban State Agrarian University, 513 p.
2. Bryzgalo V. A., Nikanorov A. M., and Reshetnyak, O. S. (2013). Ecological state variability of mouth ecosystems of big rivers of Russia. Water: Chemistry and Ecology, No. 12 (65), pp. 15–21.
3. Galkin, G. A. (2017). Water and rice: agroecological aspects. Rice Growing, No. 1 (34), pp. 72–80.
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5. Department of Natural Resources and State Environmental Control in the Krasnodar Territory (2011). Report “On the state of nature management and environmental protection in the Krasnodar territory in 2010”. Krasnodar: Department of Natural Resources and State Environmental Control in the Krasnodar Territory, 344 p.
6. Zakrutkin, V. E., Koronkevich, N. I., Shishkina, D. Yu. and Dolgov, S. V. (2004). Regularities of anthropogenic transformation of small catchments of the steppe zone of Southern Russia (within the Rostov Region). Rostov-on-Don: Publishing House of Rostov University, 252 p.
7. Ivanova, V. V. (2012). Kuban River hydrography peculiarities and degree of its pollution. The North Caucasus Ecological Herald, Vol. 8, No. 1, pp. 80–84.
8. Kuban Basin Water Management Department (2014). Plan of multi-purpose utilization and protection of water bodies in the Kuban River basin. Book 2. Assessment of the ecological state and key issues of the river basin. Krasnodar: Kuban Basin Water Management Department, 133 p.
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13. Nikanorov, A. M., Bryzgalo, V. A., Kosmenko, L. S., Kondakova, M. Yu. and Reshetnyak O. S. (2010). Role of chemical substances inflow in anthropogenic transformation of river Volga mouth area. Water: Chemistry and Ecology, No. 7 (25), pp. 6–12.
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15. Nikanorov, A. M., Minina, L. I., Lobchenko, E. E., Emelyanova, V. P., Nichiporova, I. P., Lyampert, N. A., Pervysheva, O. A. and Lavrenko N. Yu. (2015). The dynamics of surface water quality of major river basins of the Russian Federation. Rostov-on-Don: Hydrochemical Institute, 295 p.
16. Nikanorov, A. M. and Khoruzhaya, T. A. (2012). Tendencies of long-term changes in water quality of water bodies in the South of Russia. Geography and Natural Resources, Vol. 33, No. 2, pp. 125–130.

DOI: 10.23968/2305-3488.2021.26.1.41-49

Introduction. Manzherok Lake is the only habitat of the Red Book endemic water chestnut (Trapa pectinata) in the Altai Republic. In the second half of the 20th century, its catchment area underwent significant anthropogenic transformations, increasing the degradation of the lake ecosystem. To stabilize the state of the reservoir, in 2017–2018, its central part was cleared of the bottom silt (sapropels). Methods. In 2019–2020, as part of monitoring the state of the lake’s water area, 11 rounds of water testing were conducted at six points on two profiles. In total, we collected 72 water samples and studied their chemical composition and, partially, microbiological parameters. The suspended matter content, turbidity and oxidability of water were determined on an ongoing basis. Results. We identified a trend for a consistent decrease in the content of suspended particles and other indicators of the ecological state of water. The forecast for 2020 to improve the quality of lake water was confirmed. We also revealed other positive changes in the ecological state of Manzherok Lake after its clearing. Conclusion. We determined features of lake ecosystem self-restoration after rehabilitation and made a forecast regarding the preservation of positive trends in the restoration of water quality for the next 1–2 years. It is shown that the lake clearing of the bottom silt did not solve the problem of its rehabilitation to the full.
Key words: Manzherok Lake, bottom silt, water, pollution, clearing, environmental consequences, rehabilitation
References: 1. Andreyeva, I. V. and Rotanova, I. N. (2008). Lake Manzherokskoye: past, present and future of a natural monument. In: Dolgovykh, S. V. (ed.) Biodiversity, environmental problems of Gorny Altai and neighboring regions: present, past and future. Gorno-Altaisk: Editorial and Publishing Department of Gorno- Altaisk State University, pp. 305–308.
2. Bezmaternykh, D. M., Kirillov, V. V., Balykin, S. N., Koveshnikov, M. I., Dyachenko, A. V. and Mednikova, G. M. (2020). Channel dredging effect on morphometric features, indicators of water and bottom sediments quality of the lake Manzherokskoye (Altai Republic). Water Sector of Russia: Problems, Technologies, Management, No. 1, pp. 6–18. DOI: 10.35567/1999-4508-2020-1-1.
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22. Shitov, A. V., Minayev, A. I., Fedotkina, N. V., Sukhova, M. G., Zhuravlyova, O. V., Modina, T. D., Sobchak, R. O., Papina, O. V., Kocheyeva, N. A., Dmitriyev, A. N., Bannikova, O. I., Klimova, O. V., Manankova, T. I., Robertus, Yu. V., Kats, V. Ye., Dostavalova, M. S., Malkov, Yu. P., Makov, P. Yu., Malkova, A. N., Malkov, N. P., Mashoshina, I. A., Ilyinykh, I. A., Divak, A. A., Severova, S. A., Veselovsky, Ye. D., Avanesyan, R. A., Karanin, A. V. and Drachyov, S. S (2006). Natural complexes of the Mayminsky district of the Altai Republic. Gorno-Altaisk: Editorial and Publishing Department of Gorno-Altaisk State University, 200 p.

DOI: 10.23968/2305-3488.2021.26.1.50-60

Introduction. This paper is the first to address the state of phytoplankton in eutrophic Svyatozero Lake (61о32´ N, 33о35´ E.), used for trout farming in the Republic of Karelia, in the North-Western Region of Russia, during the period of water bloom. For northern reservoirs, water bloom is not a typical phenomenon. However, due to climate warming and the large-scale development of trout breeding in the region, it becomes more urgent to study blooming reservoirs and related consequences for northern aquatic ecosystems and humans. Methods. We processed phytoplankton samples and measured photosynthesis using conventional methods. The concentration of chlorophyll a in water was determined spectrophotometrically, and the content of cyanotoxins was estimated by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Results. In September 2019, we studied the structural, quantitative and functional characteristics of phytoplankton in the bloom spot. The phytoplankton abundance was 198.712 mln cells/l, the biomass was 14.945 mg/l, and the concentration of chlorophyll а reached 215.3 μg/l, which corresponded to the β-eutrophic state of the ecosystem in the study area. It was revealed that cyanobacteria corresponded to 99.8% of the biomass and 96.7% of the abundance. The species of the genus Microcystis were dominant (42%). They are well-known potential producers of cyanobacterial hepatotoxins, in particular, microcystins. We established the presence of microcystins. Their intracellular and extracellular concentrations were equal and in total amounted to 12.56 μg/l. We also identified eight structural variants of microcystins; among those, [D-Asp3] MC-RR accounted for up to 90% of the total content. The most toxic MC-LR variant was present in trace amounts only in biomass. According to the WHO standards, the content of microcystins and the number of cyanobacterial cells in the Svyatozero Lake bloom spot corresponds to average danger in the case of recreational use and can pose a threat to human health. Conclusion. It is necessary to monitor the phytoplankton composition, the presence of potentially toxic cyanobacterial species and cyanotoxins, as well as the state of trout farmed in the waters of Svyatozero Lake, since cyanotoxins can accumulate in fish tissues.
Key words: eutrophication, phytoplankton, cyanobacteria, biogenic elements, cyanotoxins, microcystins, Karelia, Russia
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V., Martynova, N. N. and Basov, M. I. (1998). Reservoirs of the middle section of the Shuya River and Vedlozero Lake. Chemical composition of water. In: Current state of water bodies in the Republic of Karelia. Based on the results of monitoring in 1992–1997. Petrozavodsk: Karelian Research Center of the Russian Academy of Sciences, pp. 139–145. 16. Stepanova, N. Yu., Khaliullina, L. Yu., Nikitin, O. V. and Latypova, V. Z. (2012). The structure and toxicity of cyanobacteria in the recreational zones of water bodies in Kazan region. Water: Chemistry and Ecology, No. 11 (53), pp. 67–72. 17. Tekanova, Ye. V. (2013). Primary production. In: Filatov, N. N. and Kukharev, V. I. (eds.). Lakes of Karelia. Reference Book. Petrozavodsk: Karelian Research Center of the Russian Academy of Sciences, pp. 49–51. 18. Tekanova, E. V., Kalinkina, N. M. and Kravchenko, I. Yu. (2018). Geochemical peculiarities of biota functioning in water bodies of Karelia. Izvestiya RAN. 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Occurrence of microcystins and anatoxin-a in eutrophic lakes of Saint Petersburg, Northwestern Russia. Oceanological and Hydrobiological Studies, Vol. 45, Issue 4, pp. 466–484. DOI: 10.1515/ohs-2016-0040. 27. Chorus, I. (2012). Current approaches to cyanotoxin risk assessment, risk management and regulations in different countries. Dessau-Roßlau: Federal Environment Agency, 147 p. 28. Chorus, I. and Bartram, J. (eds.) (1999). Toxic cyanobacteria in water: a guide to their public health consequences, monitoring and management. London: Routledge, 432 p. 29. Davis, T. W., Berry D. L., Boyer G. L. and Gobler C. J. (2009). The effects of temperature and nutrients on the growth and dynamics of toxic and non-toxic strains of Microcystis during cyanobacteria blooms. Harmful Algae, Vol. 8, Issue 5, pp. 715–725. DOI: 10.1016/j.hal.2009.02.004. 30. Drobac, D., Tokodi, N., Lujić, J., Marinović, Z., Subakov- Simić, G., Dulić, T., Važić, T., Nybom, S., Meriluoto, J., Codd, G. A. and Svirčev, Z. 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DOI: 10.23968/2305-3488.2021.26.1.61-70

Introduction. Large urban agglomerations have to deal with issues related to the high-quality drinking water supply. These issues are mainly due to water quality deterioration, poor condition and severe wear of water supply infrastructure facilities. Materials and methods. In our study, we analyze the composition of drinking water in the water supply system of St. Petersburg for SiO2 and Al2O3 nanoparticles and organic substances, including soluble proteins, protein components, and salts. For this purpose, we estimated the concentration and distribution of nanoparticles and organic impurities in the sediment formed after water evaporation from a sample in the form of a droplet. During the process, the following methods were used: the method for dehydration of water droplets with the formation of a solid phase, the methods for optical analysis of the sediment structure based on image analysis and recognition (photo and video recording of microscopic images), mathematical modeling of sediment structures’ formation, and statistical analysis of the results. Results. The presence of impurities in water was determined by the formation of periodic annular ring structures in sediments of aqueous solutions. The analysis of the structures obtained made it possible to determine the composition of the mixture and percentage content of individual fractions by the type of structural elements and their periodicity. We also developed a mathematical model simulating the processes of particle settling out of a solution. The calculations were carried out using model liquids and made it possible to obtain dependencies for the distribution of various dissolved particles in the structure of the solid phase, as well as to describe the staged mechanism in settling during its formation.
Key words: protein-salt solutions, nanoparticles, droplet dehydration on a solid substrate, sediment structure, wavelet image transformation, determination of the image structure periodicity
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№2 (86)


DOI: 10.23968/2305-3488.2021.26.2.3-13

Introduction. This extended study is the first to analyze the chemical composition of the surface waters and bottom sediments of the lakes affected to various extents by Lovozersky Mining and Processing Plant (Revda urban settlement, Murmansk Region) performing mining and processing of rare metal ores. Methods. During the study, we used data obtained in the course of research in 1995–2005 and 2019–2020. Water and bottom sediment samples were analyzed using various methods. The total contents of elements in the bottom sediments were compared with the background values or, in their absence, with the clarke contents of elements in the Earth’s crust. To assess the level of pollution in the Sergevan River receiving wastewater from the plant, the maximum pollution index was calculated. Results. Over the past 35 years, the chemical composition of the surface waters of nearby water bodies underwent minor changes. No significant excess of maximum permissible concentrations for fishery water bodies was found. The comparison of the contents of heavy metals in the bottom sediments collected from Lakes Ilma and Krivoye with the background values revealed contamination of the Lake Ilma with strontium, zinc and manganese. Besides, a multiple excess of the content of rare earth elements (La, Ce, Pr, Nd), Nb and Ta was established in the bottom sediments of Lake Ilma in comparison with that in Lake Krivoye. The analysis of the river water samples taken at different distances upstream and downstream the site of wastewater discharge confirmed the assumption about the pollution of the Sergevan River by wastewater from the plant. Conclusion. The pollution of the water bodies is mainly caused by wastewater discharged from the plant, however, the increased content of rare earth elements in the bottom sediments of Lake Ilma may be due to air transport of particles of loparite ore concentration tailings, drainage from tailing dams, or degradation of underlying rocks.
Key words: surface waters, bottom sediments, pollutants, wastewater, rare earth elements
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DOI: 10.23968/2305-3488.2021.26.2.14-21

Introduction. Separation chambers are designed and built for separate and partially separate sewerage systems. Their main function is to separate the flow of relatively clean water during heavy rain. This allows the discharge of such water without treatment into water bodies or storage tanks. The approach reduces the load of wastewater treatment plants. To design separation chambers, we need to understand how their design features affect the process of flow separation. It is possible to study the hydraulic characteristics of separation chambers of any design with the help of computer simulation. Two designs of separation chambers were investigated: a circular spillway with a full-scale prototype and a spiral spillway proposed by the authors. Methods. The research was based on simulation in the ANSYS CFX finite element analysis software. For each design, a series of five experiments with different incoming flow rates was performed. Results. Models of two types of separation chambers were developed and qualitatively evaluated. The hydraulic characteristics were established and quantified: the uniformity of the flow discharged for treatment and the spillway discharge coefficient. Conclusion. As a result, a principled approach was formed and tested. Using this approach, it is possible to study the hydraulic characteristics of separation chambers of various designs for their further use in the sewerage system.
Key words: sewer network, wastewater, rainwater drainage, separation chamber, computer simulation, ANSYS CFX.
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DOI: 10.23968/2305-3488.2021.26.2.22-29

Introduction. The paper addresses the importance of extracting the labile form of phosphorus from wastewater with the possibility of its further use. The advantages of sorption methods and the prospects of using amorphous silica as an ameliorant with a prolonged fertilizing effect are considered. Methods. We performed experimental modeling of phosphates extraction from model solutions and a sludge mixture from regional sewage treatment plants. Amorphous silica obtained from local nepheline raw materials in acid treatment using a patented technology was used as sorbents. Results. A sorbent based on amorphous silica with a pore diameter of 8.41 nm was obtained. Its sorption capacity exceeds 29 mgP/g in the phosphate form, which corresponds to the average level of phosphorus removal, noted for a number of sorbents used in the international practice of wastewater dephosphorization when producing unconventional ameliorants. Conclusion. For effective phosphorus removal from municipal wastewater to obtain an unconventional ameliorant with a fertilizing effect in terms of Si and P, sorbent consumption of 1 g/l is sufficient.
Key words: amorphous silica, sorption, dephosphorization, municipal wastewater.
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DOI: 10.23968/2305-3488.2021.26.2.30-39

Introduction. The increasing shortage of water resources in the Republic of Crimea, due to water supplies from the external water source being shut off, emphasized the need to rationally use the existing water resource potential, which in turn requires a balance between the water users’ interests and maintaining a favorable environmental situation in the peninsula’s watercourses. Although in Russian and global practice there is a whole range of approaches to assessing the impact of natural and anthropogenic factors on the state of river geosystems, not all of them are applicable to solving the indicated problem. Methods: By testing integrated techniques, methods and models for assessing the impact of human activity on the stability of river natural and engineering systems (using the Zuya River as an example), we selected the most appropriate approach to develop viable solutions in water management. Results: By comparing the possibilities of using the scoring index method to assess the stability and vulnerability of watercourses to changes in physical and geographical as well as hydrological parameters and water quality, and methodology for the integrated assessment of the geoecological state of water resources of small rivers and the system model “Minor River Basin”, we revealed that only with the use of the latter it is possible not only to assess the real situation but also identify the reasons that impede the rational use of the peninsula’s watercourses. Conclusion: When developing decisions related to water management in the Republic of Crimea, the use of a suitable methodological approach to assessing the impact of natural and anthropogenic factors on the stability of river geosystems will make it possible to avoid mistakes when choosing measures and prioritizing actions aimed at the rational use of the existing water resource potential.
Key words: watercourse, anthropogenic load, ecological situation, integrated assessment, rational water use.
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Dzhamalov R. G., Vlasov K. G., Grigorev V. Y., Galagur K. G., Reshetnyak O. S, Safronova T. I.SCALE AND LONG-TERM DYNAMICS OF OKA RIVER BASIN POLLUTION
DOI: 10.23968/2305-3488.2021.26.2.40-53

Introduction. This article addresses the long-term dynamics of Oka River basin pollution. The basin serves as the main source of drinking water and a receiver of wastewater from a number of regions in European Russia. Methods. We assessed the water quality by 12 main hydrochemical indicators and constructed maps of their distribution with a breakdown into two periods (1990–1999 and 2000–2017). The anthropogenic load along the section in the city of Gorbatov was determined. Spearman’s rank correlation coefficients and their statistical significance were calculated. Results. For 18 gauging stations with 25 and more years of observations, the magnitude of the linear trend (%/year) was estimated using the Theil–Sen estimator, and the statistical significance of the linear trend (Mann–Kendall test) was assessed for individual stations and the entire basin, using a modified Walker test. The runoff of pollutants from the urban territory was estimated between the sections upstream and downstream the cities in the upper reaches of the Oka River basin. The volumes of pollutants in the Oka River from the cities of Orel, Belev and Kaluga were determined for the period of 1990–2017. The calculations of the pollutant runoff, performed between the sections upstream and downstream the cities, made it possible to determine the role of the cities in the formation of point pollution in the upper reaches of the Oka River. The anthropogenic load along the length of the river in terms of the influx of chemicals varies from “low” to “high”. The load is largely due to the intake of pollutants since water bodies and watercourses serve as receivers of both treated and insufficiently treated wastewater from various enterprises. Conclusion. Almost throughout the basin, the water quality is under stress. The statistical analysis showed the existing relationship between a certain type of land use and the concentration of substances in surface waters. It was revealed that the self-cleaning capacity of the river is sufficient to prevent pollutants from accumulating along it.
Key words: Oka River, river flow, water quality, anthropogenic load, influx of chemicals.
References: 1. Abramova, E. (2011). The estimation of the level of anthropogic loading on the Oka basin within Moscow region. Bulletin of the Moscow Region State University (electronic journal), No. 2, pp. 20–26.
2. Grigoryev, V. Y., Frolova, N. L. and Dzhamalov, R. G. (2018). The water balance change of large river basins of the European Russia. Water Sector of Russia: Problems, Technologies, Management, No. 4, pp. 36–47.
3. Dzhamalov, R. G., Myagkova, K. G., Nikanorov, A. M., Reshetnyak, O. S., Safronova, T. I. and Trofimchuk, M. M. (2017). Hydrochemical runoff of the Oka basin’s rivers. Water and Ecology, No. 4, pp. 26–39. DOI: 10.23968/2305– 3488.2017.22.4.26–39.
4. Dzhamalov, R. G., Nikanorov, A. M., Reshetnyak, O. S., Myagkova, K. G. and, Safronova, T. I. (2017). Water quality in the Oka River basin and the degree of its pollution. Selected Works of the Water Problems Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences: 1967–2017, Vol. 2, pp. 671–689.
5. Dzhamalov, R. G., Nikanorov, A. M., Reshetnyak, O. S. and Safronova, T. I. (2017). The water of the Oka River basin: chemical composition and sources of pollution. Water and Ecology, No. 3, pp. 114–132. DOI: 10.23968/2305– 3488.2017.21.3.114–132.
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11. Reshetnyak, O. S. (2018). The anthropogenic load and variability of ecosystems conditions in various sites of the Oka River. Water: Chemistry and Ecology, No. 7–9 (116), pp. 110–118.
12. Reshetnyak, O. S., Lyampert, N. A. and Grishanova, Yu. S. (2015). Spatial variability of the chemical composition and water quality of the Oka River. In: Proceedings of the Scientific Conference with International Participation “Modern problems of hydrochemistry and monitoring of surface water quality”, Vol. 2, Part 2. Rostov-on-Don: Hydrochemical Institute, pp. 278–282.
13. Reshetnyak, O. S., Nikanorov, A. M., Trofimchuk, M. M. and Grishanova, Yu. S. (2017). Estimation of hydroecological risk in the Oka river basin. Water and Ecology, No. 3, pp. 158–170. DOI: 10.23968/2305–3488.2017.21.3.159–171.
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16. Wilks, D. S. (2006). On “field significance” and the false discovery rate. Journal of Applied Meteorology and Climatology, Vol. 45, Issue 9, pp. 1181–1189. DOI: 10.1175/ JAM2404.1.

DOI: 10.23968/2305-3488.2021.26.2.54-64

Introduction. Medium rivers play an important role in the environment: draining the large catchment area, they determine the water content and quality as well as hydrological conditions in large watercourses. The joint effect of such factors as the small size of these rivers and human activity disturbs the balance of ecosystems, thus increasing the vulnerability of the rivers. Significant negative changes tend to occur faster and stronger in river valleys. Our aim was to study the ecological state of the Zimnyaya Zolotitsa River ecosystem in the area of the indirect impact of wastewater from the mining and processing plant in the Lomonosov diamond field. Methods. In the course of the study, we used the standard methods for determining the main biogenic elements and oil hydrocarbons. Results. The paper provides data on the content of biogenic elements in water, pH value, dissolved oxygen and mineralization, as well as the content of oil hydrocarbons in water and bottom sediments. Conclusion. As a result of the studies, it was found that in the summer observation period, the concentrations of phosphorus, nitrogen and silicon salts as well as oil hydrocarbons did not exceed the maximum allowable values for fishery reservoirs.
Key words: Zimnyaya Zolotitsa River, dissolved oxygen, pH value, biogenic elements, oil hydrocarbons, bottom sediments.
References: 1. Alekin, O. A. (1953). Fundamentals of hydrochemistry. Leningrad: Hydrometeorological Publishing House, 296 p.
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DOI: 10.23968/2305-3488.2021.26.2.65-74

Introduction. St. Petersburg is the cultural and sea capital of Russia. The city is characterized by environmental problems typical for the largest cities in the world. It has a technical system for instrumental online monitoring and computational forecasting of air quality. Methods. The system maintains the information process by means of computational monitoring of its current and future state. Results. The paper describes methodological approaches to the generation of instrumental information about the structure and intensity of traffic flows in the urban road network and its digital transformation into GIS maps of air pollution in terms of pollutants standard limit values excess. Conclusion. The original information technology for air quality control was introduced at the regional level in the form of an official methodology and is used in environmental management activities.
Key words: urban motor vehicles, traffic intensity, pollutants, air quality, information monitoring system, management.
References: 1. Lozhkin, V. N. and Lozhkina, O. V. (2011). Managing the environmental safety of urban transport. Analysis of the effectiveness of managing the environmental safety of urban transport (case study of Saint Petersburg). Saarbrücken: LAP Lambert Academic Publishing, 204 p.
2. Lozhkin, V. N., Lozhkina, O. V., Seliverstov, S. A. and Kripak, M. N. (2020). Forecasting of dangerous air pollution by cruise ships and motor vehicles in the areas of their joint influence in Sevastopol, Vladivostok and St. Petersburg. Water and Ecology, No. 1 (81), pp. 38–48. DOI: 10.23968/2305- 3488.2020.25.1.38-50.
3. Lozhkina, O. V. (2018). Methodology for forecast and monitoring of the emergency impact of transport on the urban environment and population. DSc Thesis in Engineering. Saint Petersburg: Saint Petersburg University of State Fire Service of EMERCOM of Russia.
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8. Lozhkina, O., Lozhkin, V., Vorontsov, I. and Druzhinin, P. (2020). Evaluation of extreme traffic noise as hazardous living environment factor in Saint Petersburg. Transportation Research Procedia, Vol. 50, pp. 389–396. DOI: 10.1016/j. trpro.2020.10.046.
9. Lozhkin, V., Gavkalyk, B., Lozhkina, O., Evtukov, S. and Ginzburg, G. (2020). Monitoring of extreme air pollution on ring roads with PM2.5 soot particles considering their chemical composition (case study of Saint Petersburg). Transportation Research Procedia, Vol. 50. pp. 381–388. DOI: 10.1016/j. trpro.2020.10.045.

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DOI: 10.23968/2305-3488.2021.26.3.3-15

Introduction. In this paper, we consider the operation principle, features, advantages, and disadvantages of compact domestic wastewater treatment plants designed by domestic manufacturers. The compact plants used until 2000 were designed to reduce such two indicators in the waste liquid as BOD and suspended solids. Since 2000, modern compact plants capable of reducing four indicators (BOD, suspended solids, nitrogen, and phosphorus) have been developed and installed in Russia. Methods. Biological methods of removing organic substances and nitrogen from the waste liquid are used at modern compact plants. Phosphorus is removed by using both biological and physical-and-chemical methods. The main issue in the operation of compact domestic wastewater treatment plants is the extremely nonuniform flow of wastewater; the coefficient of hourly nonuniformity can be 3.5 or higher. Another serious issue is the reduction in the waste liquid temperature in the cold period to critical values that hinder the biochemical oxidation of organic substances in aeration tanks. In permafrost areas (Yakutia), the influence of this factor can be observed even in the warm period. Results. Based on theoretical research and many years of experience in commissioning, we identified the consequences of design flaws and violations during operation for the stability and performance efficiency of compact plants of various modifications. Conclusion. The performed study made it possible to develop and recommend the optimal option for wastewater treatment, which allowed us to ensure that the indicators were brought to the maximum permissible concentrations of pollutants (suspended solids — 2–3 mg/l, BODult — 3–5 mg/l, ammonium nitrogen — 0.4 mg/l, nitrate nitrogen — 9 mg/l, phosphorus — 0.2 mg/l), established for discharge into fishing reservoirs.
Key words: compact plants, wastewater treatment, nitrogen and phosphorus removal, waste liquid temperature, modern technology.
References: 1. Ambrosova, G. and Kruglikova, A. (2016). Affect of climatic conditions on the efficiency of work of open wastewater treatment plant. In: 8th International Conference on Contemporary Problems of Architecture and Construction, October 26–28, 2016. Yerevan: National University of Architecture and Construction of Armenia, pp. 3–6.
2. Ambrosova, G. T., Kruglikova, A. V., Mansurov, R. Sh., Rafal’skaia, T. A. and Timofeev, S. L. (2019). Impact of natural and climatic factors on the efficiency of open wastewater treatment facilities operation. Water Supply and Sanitary Technique, No. 4, pp. 48–59.
3. Ambrosova, G. T., Semenova, A. P. and Kolodeznikova, A. P. (2018). Compact plants for cleaning household drains. Construction and Industrial Safety, No. 12 (64), pp. 109–115.
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DOI: 10.23968/2305-3488.2021.26.3.16-32

Introduction. The paper is timed to coincide with the mournful date of the 35th anniversary of the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant. In Russia, Bryansk Region is the most affected area in this regard. Our goal was to assess the diverse integral technogenic load in Bryansk Region, which is characterized by a developed industry and agriculture despite the negative consequences of the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant. We assessed the technogenic load on various components of the environment within the framework of a previously developed methodology aimed to identify the most environmentally unfriendly territories. Methods. Based on the annual data of Typhoon Research and Production Association on radiation monitoring, state and regional reports on the state of the environment, a radiation analysis was carried out in Bryansk Region. A number of territories in the south-west of the region are characterized by a high level of soil contamination with a technogenic radionuclide 137Cs, which is more than 40 Ci/km2. To assess the impact of the technogenic load on the environment, a new methodological approach was developed to account for components of different dimensions in the areas of the studied region. This approach makes it possible to combine all characteristics of different dimensions in calculations and bring them to dimensionless values. It should be noted that the assessments and comparisons were carried out exclusively within Bryansk Region and they can be used only with regard to the corresponding objects. If there is a need to compare it with other regions of the Russian Federation or have a countrywide comparison, then it is necessary to introduce average comparative values.Results. In the course of the study, we assessed the impact of the total technogenic load on the environment in Bryansk Region, which includes the studies of the following: technogenic load on the environment, socio-environmental situation, radiation situation, and integral load (technogenic, socio-environmental, and radiation). Conclusion. The integral assessment of the impact of the diverse load on the environmental state in Bryansk Region showed that the western part of the region is characterized by a high and very high integral load only. This is due to the technogenic load and radioactive contamination. In this regard, the western part of Bryansk Region is of interest for further research.
Key words: socio-environmental situation, radiation situation, monitoring, radionuclides, groundwater contamination, sources of pollution, integral technogenic load.
References: 1. Belousova, A. P. (2001). Quality of underground waters. Modern approaches to assessment. Moscow: Nauka, 339 p.
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8. Belousova, A. P. and Rudenko, E. E. (2020). Analysis of the environmental state of the Volga River basin. Water and Ecology, No. 2 (82), pp. 12–26. DOI: 10.23968/2305- 3488.2020.25.2.12-26.
9. Belousova, A. P., Rudenko, E. E. and Minyaeva, Yu. V. (2019). Methodology for assessment of the total technogenic load on the environment in the area of Chernobyl trace. Water and Ecology, No. 2 (78), pp. 59–67. DOI: 10.23968/2305- 3488.2019.24.2.59-67.
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Dzhamalov R. G., Reshetnyak O. S., Vlasov K. G., Galagur K. G., Oboturov A. S., Safronova T. I.SPECIFIC FEATURES OF WATER CHEMISTRY AND QUALITY IN THE LENA RIVER BASIN
DOI: 10.23968/2305-3488.2021.26.3.33-43

Introduction. The Lena River is one of the largest rivers in Russia and the main transport artery of Yakutia. Methods. In the course of the study, we considered the water regime of the Lena River in 1981–2019 in relation to the monthly average water discharge. The hydrochemical runoff was quantitatively assessed based on the widely used landscape-hydrological method. The analysis made it possible to estimate the relationship between the natural water quality and the environmental state of catchments. Results. An increase in the winter temperature reduced the depth of soil freezing and increased the drainage properties of soil as well as the number and duration of winter thaws. The most pronounced annual water discharge was observed in the Aldan River basin in the eastern part of the Lena River basin. The current state of the surface water quality was assessed by the main hydrochemical characteristics: water salinity, principal ions (sulfates (SO4 2–)), nutrients (nitrite nitrogen (NO2–)), organic matter (BOD5 and COD), oil products, phenols, and iron (Fe) and copper (Cu) compounds. The water has quality class 3 and is characterized as “polluted” or “very polluted” in different zones of the river basin, with the situation being most acute in the Olekma River. Conclusions. We present the results of an analysis of the spatial and temporal variations in the content of the most informative hydrochemical components for two periods (2001–2009 and 2010–2019) in the Lena River basin in accordance with the most stringent commercial fishing standards in force. We also plotted and mapped the temporal variations in the main pollutants. Graphs and maps of the time dynamics of the main pollutants are constructed.
Key words: river water, hydrochemical runoff, anthropogenic impact, water quality, chemicals, pollutants.
References: 1. Georgiadi, A. G., Tananaev, N. I. and Dukhova, L. A. (2019). Hydrochemical regime of the Lena River in August 2018. Okeanologiya, Vol. 59, No. 5, pp. 881–884. DOI: 10.31857/S00301574595881884.
2. Dzhamalov, R. G., Reshetnyak, O. S., Galagur, K. G., Vlasov, K. G., Safronova, T. I. and Oboturov, A. S. (2020). Hydrochemical flow of rivers of the European part of Russia. Nedropolzovaniye XXI Vek, No. 5 (88), pp. 114–121.
3. Dzhamalov, R. G., Reshetnyak, O. S. and Trofimchuk, M. M. (eds.) (2020). Hydrochemical runoff of rivers in European Russia. Atlas. Moscow: Water Problems Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 155 p.
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9. Ivanova, R. N. and Sannikov, I. I. (2018). Ecological condition of the natural systems of the Lena River middle and lower reaches. Vestnik of North-Eastern Federal University. Series “Earth Sciences”, No. 3 (11), pp. 34–41. DOI: 10.25587/ SVFU.2018.11.17745.
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12. Shpakova, R. N. (1999). Water quality formation in the Lena River in the modern period. Author’s Abstract of PhD Thesis in Geography. Moscow.
13. Dzhamalov, R. G., Krichevets, G. N. and Safronova T. I. (2012). Current changes in water resources in Lena River basin. Water Resources, Vol. 39, Issue 2, pp. 147–160. DOI: 10.1134/ S0097807812020042.
14. Dzhamalov, R. G. and Safronova, T. I. (2018). Effect of permafrost rocks on water resources formation in Eastern Siberia: case study of some rivers in Eastern Siberia. Water Resources, Vol. 45, Issue 4, pp. 455–465. DOI: 10.1134/ S0097807818040097.

DOI: 10.23968/2305-3488.2021.26.3.44-55

Introduction. This paper discusses the effectiveness of using clarified municipal wastewater (CMW) and wastewater sludge (WS) to form stable phytocenoses at the waste storage facilities of the rare metal industry in Murmansk Region. The restoration of the vegetation cover at tailing dumps is limited by the low content of organic matter and associated nitrogen, and the low bioavailability of plant nutrients (K, Ca, Mg, P). The use of WS and other ameliorants of organic nature is a type of chemical amelioration aimed primarily at improving the edaphic properties of man-made soils. Methods. We examined the loparite ore dressing tailings sampled in the operating field of the tailing dump of a rare metal industry enterprise in the center of the Kola Peninsula. In the course of the study, we determined the suitability of the man-made soil for reclamation. To form seeded phytocenosis in a laboratory experiment, seeds of meadow fescue (Festuca pratensis Huds.) were used. The laboratory experiment involved the introduction of CMW, WS, a mixture of WS with silica clay into the soil, and a check. Analysis of the soil and plants was performed using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The quality of seeded cenosis was assessed according to the following parameters: green biomass, plant height, and projective cover. Results. The preliminary assessment of the man-made soil suitability for reclamation showed the following: the loparite ore dressing tailings have unfavorable characteristics both for the natural regeneration of the vegetation cover and biological reclamation. The introduction of ameliorants had a stimulating effect on the growth of terrestrial biomass during the formation of phytocenosis under laboratory conditions. The results of leaf analysis confirmed the effectiveness of the surface application of organic additives with regard to the loparite ore dressing tailings. Conclusion. In the laboratory experiment with the simulation of surface application, the stimulating effect of unconventional ameliorants (clarified municipal wastewater, wastewater sludge, and its mixture with silica clay) on the supply of nutrients to the reclaimed loparite ore dressing tailings was confirmed. The investigated ameliorants can be recognized as suitable for the biological reclamation of the dressing tailings of the rare metal industry, which does not require costly earthing and the application of protective polymer coatings.
Key words: chemical amelioration, clarified municipal wastewater, wastewater sludge, reclamation of tailing dumps.
References: 1. Gorbacheva, T. T., Ivanova, L. A., Rumyantseva, A. V. and Maksimova, V. V. (2020). Increasing the biogenicity of technical soils when creating vegetation cover as a method of conservation tailing dumps from mining waste. Vestnik of SSUGT, Vol. 25, No. 4, pp. 159–171. DOI: 10.33764/2411- 1759-2020-25-4-159-171.
2. Koptsik, G. N., Smirnova, I. E., Koptsik, S. V., Zakharenko, A. I. and Turbaevskaya, V. V. (2015). Efficiency of remediation of technogenic barrens around the “Severonikel” works in the Kola Peninsula. MSU Vestnik. Series 17. Soil Science, No. 2, pp. 42–48.
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DOI: 10.23968/2305-3488.2021.26.3.56-65

Introduction. Bioaugmentation is an in situ bioremediation approach, which implies the introduction of a population of microorganisms with certain biodegrading abilities. Acrylamide is a biodegradable toxic substance. Our goal was to assess the survival of allochthonous bacterial cultures Alcaligenes faecalis 2 and Acinetobacter guillouiae 11h when introduced into river sludge and the efficiency of acrylamide decomposition by sludge with introduced amidase-containing bacteria. Methods. The microbiota of sludge from small rivers of Perm Territory was inoculated with the biomass of strains A. faecalis 2 and A. guillouiae 11h, which have amidase activity. In a laboratory experiment, we studied the survival of these bacteria as well as the biodegrading ability of the microbiota in relation to acrylamide after 3 and 6 months of incubation at 5 and 25°C. The transformation of acrylamide was assessed by HPLC, the biodiversity of river sludge was assessed by the method of metagenomic sequencing of 16S rRNA genes. Results. Incubation of sludge at 25°C for 3–6 months deteriorates the biodegrading abilities of the microbiota in relation to acrylamide, and the transformation of this pollutant occurs only during the augmentation of the biomass of amidase-containing bacteria, with acinetobacteria having an advantage over bacteria of Alcaligenes sp. Upon incubation of sludge at 25°C, the phylogenetic diversity increases, and the proportion of representatives of the phyla Actinobacteria, Chloroflexi, Ignavibacteriae, Candidatus Saccharibacteria, Acidobacteria increases as well, while the phylum Proteobacteria accounts for most of the bacterial biota in all samples, and the phylum Firmicutes accounts for 10–30%. The presence of representatives of Alcaligenes sp. and Acinetobacter sp. was confirmed in the microbiota of bioaugmented sludge after 6 months of incubation at 25°C. When incubated at 5°C, the microbiota of native sludge is capable of degrading acrylamide, but at a rate several times lower than during bioaugmentation. After incubation of Danilikha River sludge with the introduced biomass of strains A. guillouiae 11h and A. faecalis 2 at 5°C for 6 months, the complete transformation of acrylamide was observed in 4 and 20 days, respectively, with native sludge — in 35 days.
Key words: river sludge, microbiota, bioaugmentation, acrylamide, amidase, biodegradation, metagenomics.
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DOI: 10.23968/2305-3488.2021.26.3.66-74

Introduction. The Shchuchiy Bay is located in the western part of the skerry area of Lake Ladoga near the town of Priozersk. For almost 20 years, the bay has experienced an anthropogenic impact from the ingress of untreated wastewater from the Priozersk Pulp and Paper Mill (PPM). Systematic microbiological studies of the Shchuchiy Bay ecosystem were started in the middle of the 1970s by the Institute of Limnology of the Russian Academy of Sciences and continued after the PPM closure in 1986. Materials and methods. The ecosystem of the bay was studied in detail during the growing season of 2013–2014; periodic studies were carried out in 2015–2018. Retrospective data were also used for the analysis. Water samples were taken at four stations from the surface horizon. The following microbiological indicators were determined: the abundance of bacterioplankton and the percentages of various morphological types of bacterial cells. Results and discussion. A comparison of the quantitative level of development of the bacterial community in the bay in different periods showed a gradual decrease in the abundance of bacterioplankton as the anthropogenic impact weakened after the closure of the Priozersky PPM from 12.40 million cells ml–1 in 1987 to an average value of 2.62±1.03 million cells ml–1 in 2013–2018. A positive correlation was found between the concentration of bacteria and water temperature. The percentage of rod-shaped microorganisms in the water of the bay also decreased as the anthropogenic impact weakened from 73.4 % in 1987 to 53.1±7.6 % in 2013–2018, which indicated an improvement in water quality. Conclusion. A stable decrease in the abundance of bacteria from the level characteristic of highly polluted and eutrophic water bodies to the level characteristic of mesotrophic and mesotrophic-eutrophic water bodies is a reliable criterion for the restoration of the ecosystem of the Shchuchiy Bay to the state characteristic of similar bays of Lake Ladoga.
Key words: Lake Ladoga, Shchuchiy Bay, bacterioplankton abundance, morphotypes of bacteria, trophic status.
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DOI: 10.23968/2305-3488.2021.26.3.75-84

Introduction. The Lososinka River is an urban tributary of Lake Onego, the lower reaches of which flow through the territory of Petrozavodsk city, receiving untreated drains of the city’s storm sewers. The river enters the Petrozavodsk Bay of Lake Onego, which is used as a source of public drinking water supply in the city. Methods. During the 2015 open water period, the oxygen concentration, total iron, color, pH, total suspended matter, biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5), content of oil products, and dichromate chemical oxygen demand were measured by standard methods in the water of the background and urban areas of the Lososinka River. Results. In the river water, high values of water color (132 mg/l Cr-Co), total iron (1.5 mg/l), dichromate chemical oxygen demand (23 mgO/l) were revealed, which is associated with the geochemical peculiarities of the surface waters in Karelia, enriched in the humic matter. Seasonal increases in the concentrations of these indicators were associated with floods. The oxygen saturation of the water reached 90% due to the fast current and riffles. The indicators of water pollution include total phosphorous (60 μg/l), mineral phosphorous (40 μg/l), BOD5 (1.5 mgO2/l), suspended matter (25.5 mg/l), and content of oil products (0.02 mg/l). Seasonal changes in these indicators were not associated with the hydrological regime of the river. In the storm sewers of the city, the maximum permissible concentrations for BOD5 are exceeded by 4 times, and for oil products — by 15 times. The Kruskal–Wallis test showed that all the studied chemical indicators in the urban and background areas of the river do not have significant differences. Conclusion. Water quality in the Lososinka River is considered satisfactory in terms of most of the studied parameters. According to the total iron content, the water is characterized as polluted, and according to water color, the river water is classified as dirty. The maximum permissible concentrations for total iron in the background and urban areas of the river were exceeded by 10 times. The standards for water quality adopted in the Russian Federation and the maximum permissible concentrations for total iron and water color are inapplicable for the water bodies in Karelia with high background values of these indicators. The trophic status of the river corresponds to the eutrophic state. Good saturation of the river water with oxygen hinders water pollution in the city territory due to self-purification processes.
Key words: Lososinka River, hydrochemical indicators, seasonal dynamics, water pollution, storm sewage, water quality, maximum permissible concentrations.
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